Supporting entrepreneurs : A systematic review of literature and an agenda for research
حمایت از کارآفرینان: مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات و دستور کار تحقیقی-2020
Entrepreneurship has become a cornerstone of economic development. The public awareness of this phenomenon spurred great interest from the academic community and policy makers alongside the creation of a vast range of entrepreneurship support initiatives. We conduct a systematic review of 122 academic articles published during a thirty year period between 1985–2015 that help to identify a series of theoretical, empirical, and practical gaps that form the basis of a research agenda. For instance, there is a shortage of conceptual articles and few empirical studies generating theoretical contributions; samples are small and idiosyncratic; context is rarely considered; and that mechanisms of ES are largely unknown. We propose that ES should develop along four main themes that ameliorate these exposed gaps: acknowledge and understand the heterogeneity of entrepreneurs and new ventures; apply existing theories to ES; improve methods and research design; and integrate ES into the ecosystem of support.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Support | Technology entrepreneurship | Systematic Literature Review | Entrepreneurship
Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
Digital Academic Entrepreneurship: A structured literature review and avenue for a research agenda
کارآفرینی آکادمیک دیجیتال: یک بررسی ادبیات ساختار یافته و راهی برای یک دستور کار تحقیقاتی-2020
This paper reviews the Academic Entrepreneurship literature according to the emergence of powerful Digital technologies, providing an overview of the state of research and outlining a future research agenda about Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. One hundred and sixty-five journal papers were initially extracted from Scopus and their content was analysed for the paper selection process by two researchers in parallel, plus a third one in case of uncertainty. Finally, fifty-nine papers dealing with digital academic entrepreneurship and published in a variety of academic journals have been analyzed through a content and a bibliometric analysis. Findings show that literature on Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is really scant and dominated by unrelated research. Content analysis provides the emergence of four major research streams: 1) Digital Technologies for Entrepreneurship Education; 2) The “maker space movement” for Academic Entrepreneurship; 3) Digital tech- nologies for discovering entrepreneurial opportunities; 4) Creating entrepreneurial competences in the Digital “University-based” Entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper presents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive structured literature review of the disruptive role of digital transformation for the Academic Entrepreneurship. Despite the growing literature on Digital Entrepreneurship, this research area is still fragmented and under- theorized. More systematic and holistic studies, considering both the technological, economic and the social aspects of Academic Entrepreneurship are required.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Digital technologies | Digital academic entrepreneurship | Digital transformation | Literature review | Software R | VOSviewer
Effect of REDDþ projects on local livelihood assets in Keo Seima and Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia
تأثیر پروژه های REDDþ بر دارایی های معیشت محلی در Keo Seima و Oddar Meanchey ، کامبوج-2020
Climate-change mitigation projects are expected to improve local livelihoods in targeted areas. Several REDDþ projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests have been implemented in Cambodia but few studies have examined the effects on local livelihoods before and during project implementation. Our study applies a sustainable livelihood framework to assess the livelihood assets of local communities in the Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima REDDþ project sites in Cambodia before and during project implementation. Five capital assets, namely natural, physical, human, financial, and social capital, are assessed and scored on a 1-to-5 Likert scale. Data analysis collected through 252 interviews in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima reveals a slight increase in livelihood assets in both sites from project validation to implementation. Generally, the mean scores for local livelihood assets increased from 2.81 0.07 (is followed by the standard error) and 2.66 0.06 to 3.07 0.09 and 3.06 0.08 in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima, respectively. Nevertheless, natural capital assets sharply declined from 3.50 and 3.32 to 2.09 and 2.25, respectively. Respondents mainly blamed illegal logging for the decline, suggesting that strict patrolling and enforcement must be implemented. Furthermore, the scarcity of carbon-credit buyers and the projects’ inability to generate carbon-based revenues has led to dissatisfaction among local communities, inducing avoidable illegal activities in pursuit of short-term benefits. A financial mechanism to ensure sufficient and sustained financial support regardless of carbon-market volatility is urgently needed.
Keywords: Business | Economics | Livelihood improvement | REDDþ | Natural capital | Physical capital | Human capital | Financial capital | Carbon credit | Agricultural policy | Agroforestry | Ecological restoration | Forestry | Human geography | Natural resource management | Sustainable development | Ecosystem services | Biodiversity
Harnessing AI to Transform Agriculture and Inform Agricultural Research
استفاده از هوش مصنوعی برای تبدیل کشاورزی و اطلاع از تحقیقات کشاورزی-2020
We provide an overview of the Special Issue on current advances, challenges, and opportunities for AI technologies in agriculture. We illustrate the potential of AI using four major components of the food system: production, distribution, consumption, and uncertainty. We recognize that the transformation of agriculture will require new tools to more precisely manage fields to increase production while minimizing the environmental risk to water and air quality. Combining AI with other technologies will be needed to provide effective production management strategies for a given combination of soil, climate, pest complexes, and vegetation. New methods will be needed to determine production limitations, and effective management options. The agricultural enterprise is prime for the use of AI and other technologies if they can be adapted for the unique characteristics of agroecosystems, including variability and directional changes in climate and other global change drivers as well as novel management and policy decisions, and economic market volatility.
Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change
ارزش اقتصادی داده های شبکه تلفن همراه در سراسر جهان از گردشگری ساحلی در اثر تغییر آب و هوا-2020
The technology-driven application of big data is expected to assist policymaking towards sustainable development; however, the relevant literature has not addressed human welfare under climate change, which limits the understanding of climate change impacts on human societies. We present the first application of unique mobile phone network data to evaluate the current nation-wide human welfare of coastal tourism at Japanese beaches and project the value change using the four climate change scenarios. The results show that the projected national economic value loss rates are more significant than the projected national physical beach loss rates. Our findings demonstrate regional differences in recreational values: most southern beaches with larger current values would disappear, while the current small values of the northern beaches would remain. These changes imply that the ranks of the beaches, based on economic values, would enable policymakers to discuss management priorities under climate change.
Keywords: Adaptation | Beach recreation | Big data | Climate change | Coastal tourism | Ecosystem services | Travel cost method | Sea level rise
Identifying the terrestrial carbon benefits from ecosystem restoration in ecologically fragile regions
شناسایی فواید کربن زمینی از ترمیم اکوسیستم در مناطق شکننده محیط زیست-2020
Ecosystem restoration is an urgent and vital measure to restore degraded land in ecologically fragile regions. The terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity is important to indicate the effectiveness of ecosystem restoration, which has attracted the interest of many researchers. Ecologically fragile regions cover a large area in China, but few studies have focused on the carbon benefit of ecological restoration in these regions. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in the carbon benefit, indicated by net primary productivity (NPP), in ecologically fragile regions in China. We evaluated the contributions of ecological restoration and climate change to terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink changes. The results showed that the ecological restoration projects significantly improved the carbon sequestration capacity in most of the ecologically fragile regions. From 2001–2017, the annual NPP of the entire study region was 460.1±5.4 Tg C yr−1, and more than 70 % of the ecologically fragile region experiencing a significant (p<0.05) increase. The effect of ecological restoration projects significantly intensified and was the main driver of the NPP growth in 87 % of the study region. The land use and land cover (LULC) change pattern indicates that the restoration project-induced conversion of agricultural land contributed to nearly 10 % of the total carbon sequestration after 2010. However, some extreme climatic conditions weakened the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects, highlighting the need for stricter management. Finally, this study identified the key area for effective ecological restoration in ecologically fragile regions in China.
Keywords: Carbon sequestration | Ecological restoration project | Ecologically fragile region
From elite-driven to community-based governance mechanisms for the delivery of public goods from land management
از مکانیسم های حاکم بر نخبگان گرفته تا مکانیسم های حاکم بر جامعه برای تحویل کالاهای عمومی از مدیریت زمین-2020
Several non-governmental initiatives have emerged in the Czech Republic in recent years with the aim to organise the provision of public goods or ecosystem services from agriculture and forestry. These initiatives are usually started by activists (elites) and take forms such as foundations or trust funds, but often present themselves as collective actions of communal interests. This paper sets out to present four cases of such efforts and to show their common and contrasting features in light of their relevance to local needs and possible integration in the future CAP framework. A particular focus is on the community-based character of these initiatives for the provision of public goods. This is done by examining the necessary conditions for the success of collectively managed common pool resources. The research shows that elite-driven non-governmental organisations often emerge because of a lack of interest on the part of public bodies and because local communities do not have the capacity to set up a collective action for the provision of environmentally and socially “beneficial outcomes” (ESBO). The investigated NGOs, however, soon came into conflict with non-involved actors. To improve the governance mechanism, an extension towards a community-based collective action is proposed. However, each step of such a transition is a challenge for the initiatives of the presented case studies. The first critical issue is to find a common interest among actors. Similarly, “sharing power” represents a struggle which consequently delays progress in creating effective internal governance. The difficulty in progressing towards community-based collective action is amplified by the uncertainty concerning property rights induced by the activities of the NGOs and unfavourable socioeconomic and institutional conditions. Finding that the private initiatives are far from being able to transform into community-based collective action, we propose to launch a measure of institutional funding for the coordination and management of their projects – similar to LEADER but more concentrated in scope.
Keywords: Public goods | Ecosystem services | Common pool resources | Non-governmental initiatives | Governance mechanism | Community-based collective action
Modeling country entrepreneurial activity to inform entrepreneurial-marketing research
مدل سازی فعالیت های کارآفرینی کشور برای آگاهی از تحقیقات بازاریابی کارآفرینی-2020
In 2002, Morris, Schindehutte and LaForge published a seminal work on entrepreneurial marketing (EM) that prominently featured external environmental conditions as a primary inﬂuence on the ﬁrm. Since then, EM researchers have devoted scant attention to these external environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, important explanations for EM have remained underdeveloped, such as EM as a strategic response to environmental change and turbulence. This study applies two approaches in structural equation modeling (component-based PLS-SEM and covariancebased CB-SEM) to the analysis of the 2016 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for the purpose of better understanding the external environment for ﬁrms entrepreneurial marketing. The model in the study based on data from 65 countries aggregated at the country level, suggested potential entrepreneurs perceptions of entrepreneurship inﬂuence entrepreneurship activity in societies positively, but are not inﬂuenced by con- structs of the entrepreneurial ecosystem representing institutions of society, such as government programs and policies.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial marketing | Global entrepreneurship | monitor | Structural equation modeling | Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystem | Partial least squares
Blockchain, AI and Smart Grids: The Three Musketeers to a Decentralized EV Charging Infrastructure
بلاکچین ،هوش مصنوعی و شبکه های هوشمند: سه تفنگدار به زیرساخت شارژ EV غیرمتمرکز-2020
The proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) has brought an array of different services, from smart health-care, to smart transportation, all the way to smart cities. For a truly connected environment, different sectors need to collaborate. One use case of such overlap is between smart grids and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) giving rise to Electric Vehicles and their charging infrastructure. Being such a lucrative opportunity for investors and the research community, many efforts have been made toward providing the end-user with an extraordinary Quality of Service (QoS). However, given the current protocols and deployment of the Electric Vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure, some key challenges still need to be addressed. In particular, we identify two main EV challenges: (1) vulnerable charging stations and EVs, and (2) non-optimal charging schedules. With these issues in mind, we evaluate the integration of Blockchain and AI with the EV charging infrastructure. Specifically, we discuss the current AI and Blockchain charging solutions available in the market. In addition, we propose a couple of use cases where both technologies complement each other for a secure, efficient and decentralized charging ecosystem. This article serves as starting point for stakeholders and policymakers to help identify potential directions and implementations of better charging systems for EVs.