دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Ecosystem services::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Ecosystem services

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 48
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Using social media photos and computer vision to assess cultural ecosystem services and landscape features in urban parks
استفاده از عکس های رسانه های اجتماعی و بینایی کامپیوتری برای ارزیابی خدمات اکوسیستم فرهنگی و ویژگی های چشم انداز در پارک های شهری-2022
Urban parks are important public places that provide an opportunity for city dwellers to interact with nature. In recent years, social media data have become a promising data source for the assessment of cultural ecosystem services (CES) and landscape features in urban parks. However, it is a challenging task to identify and classify the CES and landscape features from social media photos by manual content analysis. In addition, relatively few studies focused on the differences in landscape preferences between tourists and locals in urban parks. In this study, we used geotagged social media photos from Flickr and computer vision methods (scene recognition, image clustering and image labeling) based on the convolutional neural networks (CNN) and the Google Cloud Vision platform to assess the spatial preferences and landscape preferences (cultural ecosystem services and landscape features) of tourists and locals in the urban parks of Brussels. The spatial analysis results showed that the tourists’ photos were spatially concentrated on well-known parks located in the city center while the locals’ photos were rather spatially dispersed across all parks of the city. We identified 10 main landscape themes (corresponding to 4 CES categories and 10 landscape feature categories) from 20 image clusters by automated image analysis on social media photos. We also noticed that tourists paid more attention to the place identity featured by symbolic sculptures and buildings, while locals showed more interest in local species of plants, flowers, insects, birds, and animals. This research contributes to social media-based user preferences analysis and CES assessment, which could provide insights for urban park planning and tourism management.
keywords: داده های رسانه های اجتماعی | خدمات اکوسیستم فرهنگی | ویژگی های چشم انداز | پارک های شهری | بینایی کامپیوتر | Social media data | Cultural ecosystem services | Landscape features | Urban parks | Computer vision
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Linking standard Economic Account for Forestry and ecosystem accounting: Total forest incomes and environmental assets in publicly-owned conifer farms in Andalusia-Spain
پیوند حساب استاندارد اقتصادی برای حسابداری جنگلداری و اکوسیستم: کل درآمد جنگل ها و دارایی های محیطی در مزارع عمومی متعلق به مالکیت در اندلس اسپانیا-2021
A major problem faced by government as trustee of society charged with conserving the nation’s forest envi- ronmental asset is that the standard Economic Account for Forestry (EAF) fails to measure the contribution of nature to total forest incomes and environmental assets. In the context of this government mission, the debate arises with regard to how to uncover the contribution of nature to the total forest incomes enjoyed by people through a refined accounting framework which extends the EAF. The latter is applied by the statistics office to estimate the values added of timber, firewood, cork, resin, industrial nut and other non-woody final products of the forest at national/sub-national scale. Bearing in mind this narrow scope of the EAF, this research proposes the application of the experimental Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS), which extends the forest incomes and environmental asset estimates by applying simulated exchange values stated/revealed by consumers for non- market public goods and services. We apply the EAF and AAS frameworks to 12 large publicly-owned pro- tected conifer forest farms which are not available for sale on the competitive land market and which cover an area of 47,262 ha in Andalusia-Spain. In this conifer farm case study, the EAF considers the economic activities of timber, firewood, aromatic plants and residential service. The AAS adds to the EAF activities those of grazing, conservation forestry, hunting, livestock, agricultural crops, livestock-keeper private amenity, fire services, free access recreation, mushrooms, carbon, landscape conservation, threatened wild biodiversity and water supply runoff stored lower down the watershed in public reservoirs. The objectives of this conifer farm case study are, first, to compare the final products and incomes estimated by applying the EAF and AAS frameworks and, second, to measure the sensitivity of conifer farm environmental assets to changes in land ownership rights and dis- counting rates in accordance with the AAS results. The conifer farm results show total income measured by the AAS is 38 times higher than the EAF net value added (NVA) for the 2010 period. The AAS economic activities of forestry conservation, fire services and landscape conservation activities generate 71% of the conifer farm labour compensation. The AAS opening environmental asset measured at the assumed competitive real baseline dis- counting rate of 3% is 6371.6 €/ha, which is 3.7 times lower than it would be if the conifer farm was available for sale on the competitive land market. The change in the baseline discounting rate chosen, from 3% to 1.5%, would lead to an increase of 116% in the value of the opening environmental asset. The above results reveal the inconsistent EAF measurement of total conifer farm incomes. The sensitivity analysis underlines the important effects on the environmental asset arising from changes in land ownership rights and discounting rates.
keywords: حساب اقتصادی برای جنگلداری | سیستم حساب های ملی | سیستم حسابداری جنگلداری | خدمات محیط زیستی | درآمد زیست محیطی | Economic account for forestry | System of national accounts | Agroforestry accounting system | Ecosystem services | Environmental income
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Prediction of forest parameters and carbon accounting under different fire regimes in Miombo woodlands, Niassa Special Reserve, Northern Mozambique
پیش بینی پارامترهای جنگلی و حسابداری کربن تحت رژیم های مختلف آتش سوزی در جنگل های میومبو، رزرو ویژه NIASSA، شمال موزامبیک-2021
Miombo woodlands are the most extensive dry forest type in southern Africa, covering ca. 1.9 million km2 across seven countries. Fire is a key ecosystem process that has structured miombo for the last 200,000 years. However, how fires affect the ecosystems functioning is not well understood. In this study, we used the individual-based forest model called FORMIND to analyze the carbon balance in the miombo woodlands of Niassa Special Reserve (NSR), northern Mozambique. The 42.000 km2 NSR represents the most important conservation area in Mozambique (~31% of the total conservation area in the country) and of miombo woodlands worldwide. Longterm inventory data from 2004 to 2019 for NSR were used to calibrate FORMIND. The primary ecosystem processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration, and competition. Fire is set as one of the main factors that affect these processes, after the woodland reaches an equilibrium at 200 years of age. We also calculated the Net Present Value (NPV) of carbon credits resulting from altering the fire regime (e.g., reducing or eliminating fires). The FORMIND model successfully reproduced important characteristics of the woodlands (aboveground biomass, stem size distribution and basal area). NPV estimates of above-ground woody biomass carbon stocks were highly dependent on the woodland age. The maximum NPV estimates were generated for a 30-year project starting with 200 year old woodlands (the current forest age) at 192–1339 USD based on a realistic range of carbon values (i.e., 3–20 USD MgCO2e− 1). While fire plays an important role in miombo woodlands by reducing stock and changing species composition, its effects on the capacity of the woodland to mitigate the effects of climate change varies depending on the age of stands. Our results show that FORMIND model reliably reproduce the field inventory data, thus can be used to improve carbon accounting standards. We recommend the development of a fire management system to sustain the miombo woodlands of NSR for multiple reasons. NSR is a globally significant protected area, but perhaps more importantly it could become a regional example for how to improve miombo woodland management. Given that miombo woodlands provide a myriad of ecosystem services to rural Africans, investing in improving fire management could increase the benefits to local communities. Altering fire regimes could improve habitat quality and promote greater resilience to climate change while sequestering carbon. In addition, local employment opportunities in fire management could be created via carbon financing from a carbon project. However, much more outreach and education will be needed to local and national stakeholders for fire management to be perceived more positively and realize the potential to generate multiple benefits for nature and people.
keywords: مدل GAP Formind | دینامیک اکوسیستم | حسابداری کربن | مدیریت آتش نشانی | خط مشی آتش | FORMIND gap model | Ecosystem dynamics | Carbon accounting | Fire management | Fire policy
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Linking biodiversity into national economic accounting
پیوند تنوع زیستی به حسابداری اقتصادی ملی-2021
Biodiversity underpins the supply of ecosystem services essential for well-being and economic development, yet biodiversity loss continues at a substantial rate. Linking biodiversity indicators with national economic accounts provides a means of mainstreaming biodiversity into economic planning and monitoring processes. Here we examine the various strategies for biodiversity indicators to be linked into national economic accounts, specif- ically the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) framework. We present what has been achieved in practice, using various case studies from across the world. These case studies demonstrate the potential of economic accounting as an integrating, mainstreaming frame- work that explicitly considers biodiversity. With the right indicators for the different components of biodiversity and scales of biological organisation, this can directly support more holistic economic planning approaches. This will be a significant step forward from relying on the traditional indicators of national economic accounts to guide national planning. It is also essential if society’s objectives for biodiversity and sustainable development are to be met.
keywords: سیستم حسابداری اقتصادی محیط زیست | رادیو | تنوع زیستی | خدمات محیط زیستی | توسعه پایدار | System of environmental economic accounting | SEEA-EEA | Biodiversity | Ecosystem services | Sustainable development
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Accounting for spatial autocorrelation is needed to avoid misidentifying trade-offs and bundles among ecosystem services
حسابداری برای خودهمبستگی فضایی مورد نیاز برای جلوگیری از شناسایی نادرست مبادلات و بسته‌ها در میان خدمات اکوسیستم-2021
The identification of relationships between multiple ecosystem services (ES) (i.e. trade-offs, synergies and bundles) is essential for ES management. However, the identification of ES relationships may be susceptible to spatial autocorrelation — a statistical bias due to ES observations being related to each other across space. Spatial autocorrelation remains largely overlooked in the literature on ES relationships and its implications are not clear. Here we assess the implication of not accounting for spatial autocorrelation when determining ES relationships using four ES found in the city-state of Singapore. We quantify the ES relationships using some of the most common methods of determining relationships between ES: correlation, regression and principal component analysis. We then compare each method with the corresponding method that accounts for spatial autocorrela- tion. We found that accounting for spatial autocorrelation resulted in less statistically significant ES relationships, especially at finer resolutions, in correlations (33.3% less significant relationships) and regressions (50% less relationships). Depending on the spatial resolution, different ES were bundled when accounting for spatial autocorrelation when using principal component analysis. Our results suggest that not accounting for spatial autocorrelation in ES relationship studies is likely to result in the misidentification of ES trade-off, synergies and bundles. We thus recommend that future ES relationship studies consider the effects of spatial autocorrelation in their analyses.
keywords: نرم افزار خدمات اکوسیستم | تجزیه فضایی | تجارت | همکاری | مشارکت طبیعت به مردم | مزایای طبیعت | Ecosystem services bundles | Spatial analysis | Trade-offs | Synergies | Nature’s contributions to people | Nature’s benefits
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Utilizing LiDAR data to map tree canopy for urban ecosystem extent and condition accounts in Oslo
با استفاده از داده های LIDAR به نقشه سایبان درخت برای اکوسیستم های شهری و حساب های وضعیت در اسلو-2021
LiDAR-based segmentation of urban tree canopies and their physical properties (canopy height, canopy diameter, 3D surface and volume) is a replicable, complementary and useful information source for urban ecosystem condition accounts, and an important basis for ecosystem service modeling and valuation. However, using available LiDAR data collected for municipal purposes other than vegetation mapping (such as for example engineering) entails a level of accuracy which may limit the usefulness of the data for change detection in ecosystem accounts. To account for changes in the urban tree canopy of Oslo (capital city of Norway) between 2011 and 2017, a segmentation model was developed based on available airborne LiDAR data scanned for general purposes. The results from the entire built-up area of Oslo indicate a general increase in the number of tall trees (>15 m) and a moderate increase in the number of small trees (<15 m), with the exception of trees between 6 and 10 m which seem to have a relatively constant development over the given period. The total tree canopy area within the built-up area increased by 17.15%, with a corresponding 21.35% increase in the tree canopy volume. The results for the Small House plan area, a policy focus area subject to urban densification and special regulations for felling of large trees, indicate a large increase in small trees (<10 m) and a moderate decrease in tall trees (>10 m). The total tree canopy area within the Small House plan area decreased by 1.04%, with a corresponding 2.13% decrease in the tree canopy volume. With respect to the segmentation accuracy, the changes in aggregate tree canopy cover are too small to determine canopy change with confidence. This study demonstrates the potential for identifying ecosystem condition indicators as well as the limitations of using general purpose LiDAR data to improve the precision of urban ecosystem accounting. For future ecosystem service accounting in urban environments, we recommend that municipalities implement data acquisition programs that combine concurrent field data sampling and LiDAR campaigns designed for urban tree canopy detection, as part of general urban structural inventorying. We recommend using LiDAR and satellite remote sensing data depending on canopy densities. We also recommend that future tree canopy segmentation is done within a cloud-computing environment to ensure sufficient geoprocessing capacity.
keywords: تشخیص نور و محدوده (LIDAR) | سیستم های اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) | سنجش از راه دور | حسابداری اکوسیستم | خدمات محیط زیستی | تقسیم بندی سایبان درخت | Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) | Geographical Information Systems (GIS) | Remote sensing | Ecosystem accounting | Ecosystem services | Tree canopy segmentation
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Ecosystem accounting to support the Common Agricultural Policy
حسابداری اکوسیستم برای حمایت از سیاست های کشاورزی مشترک-2021
The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA) provides an integrated statistical framework which organizes spatially explicit data on environmental quality, natural capital and ecosystem services and links this information to economic activities such as agriculture. In this paper we assess how the SEEA EA can support the monitoring and evaluation of environmental objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We focus on the Netherlands, for which an elaborate set of SEEA EA accounts has been published, and the themes of nitrogen pollution and farmland biodiversity. We studied the completeness of in- dicators included in the accounts, their quality and analysed how the accounts could support agri-environmental reporting, agri-environmental measures effectiveness assessments, and results-based payments to farmers. As a reference we used the Driving forces – Pressures – State – Impacts - Responses (DPSIR) framework. The Dutch SEEA EA accounts only include half of the indicators which we considered essential to assess the effects of farming on natural capital and ecosystem services for the two studied environmental themes. However, most gaps in the accounts could be filled with other publicly available environmental monitoring data. Regarding N pollution, the availability and reliability of indicators at landscape and farm scales are not sufficient to support the assessment of agri-environmental measures effectiveness and results-based payments to decrease N pollution. The accounts have a higher potential to support the assessment of measures to conserve farmland biodiversity, in particular due to high resolution maps of ecosystem extent and ecosystem services flows. The potential of the SEEA EA accounts may be more limited in other countries where ecosystem accounting has only recently started. However, the SEEA EA is also implemented at the European Union scale, so that SEEA EA indicators will gradually become available for all European countries. To enhance the relevance of the SEEA EA in the agri- environmental policy area, we recommend to integrate information on farming emissions (externalities) recor- ded in the SEEA Central Framework with SEEA EA accounts and evaluate the applicability of SEEA EA accounts for case studies at landscape and farm scales. Our research shows that the Dutch SEEA EA accounts, com- plemented with other data sources, have potential to strongly enhance the CAP monitoring and evaluation framework but further steps need to be taken to fill data gaps.
keywords: اقدامات زیست محیطی | کلاه لبه دار | رادیو | پایتخت طبیعی | خدمات محیط زیستی | زمینه های کشاورزی | Agri-environment measures | CAP | SEEA EA | Natural capital | Ecosystem services | Farming externalities
مقاله انگلیسی
8 The framework design and empirical study of Chinas marine ecological-economic accounting
طرح چارچوب و مطالعه تجربی از حسابداری اقتصادی زیست محیطی دریایی چین-2021
In recent years, the Chinese government has attached greater importance to marine ecological protection. To contribute to scientific understanding of the importance of marine ecosystems to human well-being, this paper analyzes marine ecosystem service and its accounting, and introduces the concept of “quaternary industry” on the basis of current marine economic accounting framework. Marine ecosystem accounting, marine economic accounting and marine ecological-economic accounting of coastal areas in China during the time series of 2005–2017 are calculated. The results show that compared with Gross Ocean Product (GOP), the average annual growth rate of Gross Marine Ecological-Economic Product (GMEEP) stays stable. The proportion of the added value of quaternary industry in marine ecological economy is relatively large, which is between 46% and 51%. And the ratio of GMEEP and GOP is around 1.9, suggesting a quite close association between GMEEP and GOP.
keywords: حسابداری زیست محیطی زیست محیطی دریایی | خدمات اکوسیستم دریایی | محصول ناخالص اقیانوس | Marine ecological-economic accounting | Marine ecosystem services | Gross ocean product
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Not just an engineering problem: The role of knowledge and understanding of ecosystem services for adaptive management of coastal erosion
فقط یک مشکل مهندسی نیست: نقش دانش و درک خدمات اکوسیستم برای مدیریت انطباق فرسایش ساحلی-2021
Coastal ecosystems are recognized as important providers of ecosystem services such as carbon storage, increased fish productivity, and wave energy reduction. In a context of climate change, coastal ecosystems are exposed to erosion and subject to coastal squeeze, even as they provide natural coastal protection against extreme weather. While civil engineering solutions often take centre stage in mitigating coastal erosion and protecting infra- structure from storms and sea level rise, we seek to explore the social dimension of adaptive management of socio-ecological systems and more specifically the role of knowledge and learning. Using an ecosystem services (ES) framework, we provide a first evaluation of local stakeholders’ perceptions of coastal habitats in maritime Quebec. The findings demonstrate the importance of a social approach for coastal ES valuation, in particular in addressing the complex question of cultural ES. A better understanding of the links between coastal stakeholders and their natural environment can help decision-makers and practitioners design conservation management and coastal adaptation measures mainstreaming the role of coastal habitats. Nevertheless, a change towards a socio- ecological perspective will require long-lasting processes that build on social capacities, such as flexible in- stitutions and multilevel governance systems.
keywords: حکومت انطباقی | ابعاد اجتماعی | فرسایش ساحلی | خدمات محیط زیستی | زیستگاه های ساحلی | ادراک ذینفعان | Adaptive governance | Social dimension | Coastal erosion | Ecosystem services | Coastal habitats | Stakeholders’ perception
مقاله انگلیسی
10 The value of forest ecosystem services: A meta-analysis at the European scale and application to national ecosystem accounting
ارزش خدمات اکوسیستم جنگل: یک متاآنالیز در مقیاس اروپایی و کاربرد آن به حسابداری اکوسیستم ملی-2021
A great share of ecosystem services (ES) at the global scale is provided by forest biomes, and acknowledging the value of forest ES is critically important towards sustainable decision making. The literature inventory of forest valuation studies is extensive and thus a significant mass of knowledge is already available concerning the value of forest ES. To this end, meta-analysis is a prominent benefit transfer approach that has been employed in the past to provide value transfers of forest ES taking advantage of contemporary knowledge. For the purposes of conducting a meta-analysis, we collected 158 primary studies, originated in Europe and dated from 2000 to 2017, of which 30 provided relevant information for a statistical meta-analysis, yielding 71 value observations. The results reveal that GDP per capita and the type of ecosystem service are significant determinants in explaining the variation in forest value. We also apply the meta-analysis model results so as to estimate the ES provided by forests in the Czech Republic. We find that the total value of forest is approximately 2842 US $ ha(cid:0) 1 year(cid:0) 1, with regulation and maintenance ES being the most valuable services. We finally attempt to show the prospects of using this method for accounting purposes and illustrate the supply and use forest accounting tables based on the meta-analysis outcomes. Meta-analysis can potentially form a promising decision support tool for start-up accounts considered as a second best valuation approach. Nonetheless, the method still remains questionable due to the great variation in how primary valuation studies are reported and the lack of guidelines with reference to its application in ecosystem accounting as such.
keywords: انتقال سود | جنگل | متا رگرسیون | عرضه و استفاده از جداول | Benefit transfer | Forest | Meta-regression | Supply and use tables
مقاله انگلیسی
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