The transnational Sowa Rigpa industry in Asia: New perspectives on an emerging economy
صنعت فراملی Sowa Rigpa در آسیا: چشم اندازهای جدید در مورد اقتصاد نوظهور-2020
This article advances the hypothesis that “traditional” Asian pharmaceutical industries are rapidly growing in size and prominence in contemporary Asia, and identifies a lack of empirical data on the phenomenon. Addressing this gap, the article provides a quantitative outline and analysis of the Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan medicine) pharmaceutical industry in China, India, Mongolia and Bhutan. Using original data gathered through multi-sited ethnographic and textual research between 2014 and 2019, involving 232 industry representatives, policy makers, researchers, pharmacists and physicians, it assembles a bigger picture on this industrys structure, size and dynamics. Revealing a tenfold growth of the Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry in Asia between 2000 and 2017, the study supports its initial hypothesis. In 2017, the industry had a total sales value of 677.5 million USD, and constituted an important economic and public health resource in Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan regions of Asia. China generates almost 98 percent of the total sales value, which is explained by significant state intervention on the one hand, and historical and sociocultural reasons on the other. India has the second largest Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry with an annual sales value of about 11 million USD, while sales values in Mongolia and Bhutan are very low, despite Sowa Rigpas domestic importance for the two nations. The article concludes with a number of broader observations emerging from the presented data, arguing that the Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry has become big enough to exert complex transformative effects on Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan medicine more generally. The quantitative and qualitative data presented here provide crucial foundations for further scholarly, regulatory, and professional engagement with contemporary Sowa Rigpa.
Keywords: Sowa Rigpa | Tibetan medicine | Pharmaceutical industry | Government policy | China | India | Mongolia | Bhutan
Innovation and the entrepreneurial performance in women-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan
نوآوری و عملکرد کارآفرینی در شرکت های کوچک و متوسط متعلق به زنان در پاکستان-2020
Purpose: This study is an attempt to examine the impact of entrepreneurship and innovation on the entrepreneurial performance of women-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan. The study also investigates the mediating role of innovation in the relationship between entrepreneurship and performance in women-owned businesses from emerging economy of Pakistan. Methodology/Approach: Data was collected from the 261 registered women entrepreneurs from all the ﬁfteen Pakistani womens chambers of commerce and industries by employing self-administered questionnaires for complementing a comprehensive literature review on innovation and womens entrepreneurship and performance. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and factor analysis. Findings: The results show a signiﬁcant direct relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation and the entrepreneurial performance. The two entrepreneurial traits, namely risk taking tendency and the need for achievement have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on innovation and the entrepreneurial performance. Moreover, innovation has a direct relationship with performance and also it mediates the entrepreneurship- performance link of women- owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan. Research limitations: The present study is limited to only women entrepreneurs who are registered with the chambers of commerce and industries in Pakistan. Women entrepreneurs associated with federations and several women business development centers have not been considered in the population. Practical implications: This study emphasizes the signiﬁcance of entrepreneurship to innovation and the entrepreneurial performance in women-owned SMEs. It is a major contribution to understanding the existing practices and theories of entrepreneurship and innovation in enterprises. In order to improve performance and innovation, management should focus and promote risk taking and the need for achievement. The government should initiate support programs for womens entrepreneurial activities; promote fair competition between men and women and give special grants to women entrepreneurs in order to improve their performance.
Keywords: Innovation | Womens entrepreneurship | Small and medium-sized enterprises | Entrepreneurial performance | Mediator
Big data analytics as an operational excellence approach to enhance sustainable supply chain performance
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ به عنوان یک رویکرد برتری عملیاتی برای افزایش عملکرد پایدار زنجیره تأمین-2020
Operations management is a core organizational function involved in the management of activities to produce and deliver products and services. Appropriate operations decisions rely on assessing and using information; a task made more challenging in the Big Data era. Effective management of data (big data analytics; BDA), along with staff capabilities (the talent capability in the use of big data) support firms to leverage big data analytics and organizational learning in support of sustainable supply chain management outcomes. The current study uses dynamic capability theory as a foundation for evaluating the role of BDA capability as an operational excellence approach in improving sustainable supply chain performance. We surveyed mining executives in the emerging economy of South Africa and received 520 valid responses (47% response rate). We used Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyze the data. The findings show that big data analytics management capabilities have a strong and significant effect on innovative green product development and sustainable supply chain outcomes. Big data analytics talent capabilities have a weaker but still significant effect on employee development and sustainable supply chain outcomes. Innovation and learning performance affect sustainable supply chain performance, and supply chain innovativeness has an important moderating role. A contribution of the study is identifying two pathways that managers can use to improve sustainable supply chain outcomes in the mining industry, based on big data analytics capabilities.
Keywords: Big data analytics | Operational excellence | Dynamic capability view | Supply chain sustainability | Learning performance
Incentivizing green entrepreneurship: A proposed policy prescription (a study of entrepreneurial insights from an emerging economy perspective)
تحریک کارآفرینی سبز: نسخه پیشنهادی سیاست (مطالعه بینش کارآفرینی از منظر اقتصاد نوظهور)-2020
This study undertakes an in-depth analysis of green and traditional entrepreneurs’ experiences using a multiple case study research methodology along with triangulation and coding techniques, identifying the speciﬁc drivers of ecopreneurship given the constraints and challenges faced by them. This study maps this analysis to Resource Based View’s (RBV) theoretical construct and argues that ecopreneurs navigate and negotiate their enterprise development constraints through combinations of personal at- tributes and innovative mechanisms rendering tangible and intangible economic, environmental and social gains. It further proposes a policy framework to incentivise, assist and accelerate ecopreneurs’ efforts in achieving scalability in an uncertain external ecosystem. This proposed framework would also address the conﬂict between monetisation of innovations and environmental concerns.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Green | Entrepreneurship | Ecopreneurship | Environment | Resource based view theory
The social - market convergence in a renewable energy social enterprise
همگرایی بازار اجتماعی در یک شرکت اجتماعی با انرژی های تجدید پذیر-2020
The paper examines how the market and social logics which are supposedly counter to each other, converge into one rather than being two distinctive sets of actions, in the actions of a renewable energy social enterprise in an emerging economy context. To provide a foundation, the research draws upon literature on renewable energy, social entrepreneurship, market orientation, and social value creation. A qualitative in-depth case study research design with inductive theory-building approach for grounded theory development was conducted with two socially and environmentally inclusive renewable energy social enterprises in rural India. This resulted in a novel framework on a converging process comprising of: (a) Involved Searching, (b) Dialogic Localizing, and (c) Engaged Implementing. First, there is ‘involved searching’, where insights are generated through involved interactions for searching problematized contextual realities. Then, there is ‘dialogic localizing’, where insights are shared and acted upon through dialogically inclusive and localized solving. Finally, there is ‘engaged implementing’, where solutions are implemented through honest convincing and engaging mutuality. The ﬁndings make a novel contribu- tion towards: (a) Going beyond the duality perspective and revealing social entrepreneurship as a phenomenon where the social and the market converge as an articulated whole, (b) Advancing hybrid organizing as a converging action with trappings of social value creation and market orientation, and (c) Revealing the potential of renewable energy social enterprises in blending the social and the market while working towards a sustainable environment.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Renewable energy | Social entrepreneurship | Social enterprise | Market orientation | Social value creation
The interplay between social media communication, brand equity and brand engagement in tourist destinations: An analysis in an emerging economy
تعامل بین ارتباطات رسانه های اجتماعی ، ارزش ویژه برند و تعامل برند در مقصد گردشگری: تحلیلی در یک اقتصاد نوظهور-2020
The consolidation of Web 2.0 has modified the way people communicate and interact with tourists. User-generated social media communication continues to increase: to the detriment of traditional media channels, where the message is controlled by destination marketing organizations. Moreover, uncontrolled user-generated communication is increasingly considered more reliable than traditional, controlled communication. All this has considerably modified tourist perceptions regarding destination image and brand equity. From a business perspective, a line of thought addressing the study of these interrelationships has emerged in the literature, going so far as to consider their impact on brand engagement. Despite the current prevalence and relevance of social media communication as a loyalty-building factor in a context as competitive as the tourism sector, relatively little literature has addressed it in emerging tourist destination scenarios. Hence, the present paper presents an analysis of how – and to what extent – social media communication, both controlled and uncontrolled by the destination organization, has an impact on destination brand equity and destination brand engagement. More specifically, this study applies it to an emerging economy scenario: Metropolitan Lima, Peru. The implications of our research, presented at the end of the paper, are of interest – both as a contribution to the literature and from the perspective of tourist destination management – and can serve to aid the economic and social development of emerging economies.
Keywords: Customer-based destination brand equity | Social media communication | Brand engagement | Tourist destination | Emerging economy
A step to clean energy - Sustainability in energy system management in an emerging economy context
گامی برای پاکسازی انرژی - پایداری در مدیریت سیستم انرژی در یک زمینه اقتصادی در حال ظهور-2020
Due to high consumption of energy, its associated concerns such as energy security and demand, wastage of resources, and material-energy recovery are leading to the importance of sustainable energy system development. This is a high time to assess the sustainability in energy systems for meeting the requirements of energy with an enhanced economic, ecological, and social performance from a nation context. The energy system plays a significant role in deciding the economic progress of emerging economies such as India, China, Brazil, and Africa. In this paper, an original attempt has been made to list and evaluate important indicators for sustainability assessment of energy systems development and management in an emerging economy especially India. Firstly, based on the analysis of the extant literature and then followed by expert opinion, potential key sustainability assessment indicators for energy systems development and management were identified. Further, grey based Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique to understand the causal interactions amongst indicators and segregate them into cause and effect groups, is used. This work can provide useful aids to decision making bodies, sustainability practitioners and business organisations in selective implementation, monitoring and control of sustainable strategies in energy systems development and management and meeting sustainable development goals of clean energy in a nation context.
Keywords: Energy system development and | management | Sustainability assessment indicators | Grey DEMATEL | Clean energy | Sensitivity analysis | Emerging economy
Mobile banking use: A comparative study with Brazilian and U:S: participants
استفاده از بانکداری همراه: یک مطالعه مقایسه ای با شرکت کنندگان برزیل و ایالات متحده-2019
As we can see in recent studies on mobile banking, there is an increasing number of papers addressing this new technology. Mobile banking contributes to the quality of life of people living in both developed countries, and also in emerging economies. In this context, we develop this paper in order to compare the determinants of mobile banking use between respondents from two countries with different levels of development: Brazil and the United States. Our theoretical model includes six variables as determinant factors of mobile banking use. In order to analyze path coefficients and test the six hypotheses, we employed a structural equation model. We also employed a quantitative test (multi-group analysis) to analyze the difference of path coefficients between the models of the two countries. The main results indicate similarities among the perceptions of the respondents that participated in the survey, but differences in coefficient magnitude
Keywords: Mobile banking | Emerging economy | Trust | Social influence | Structural equation model
Four forces of supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies
چهار نیروی پذیرش ماندگاری اجتماعی زنجیره تامین در اقتصادهای نوظهور-2018
Despite the growing stakeholder awareness on social sustainability issues, little is known about what influences firms to adopt social sustainability in their supply chain management practices and the benefits gained from such efforts. This is especially true for emerging economies in Asia and Southwestern Europe, where the social norms differ significantly. Building on stakeholders and institutional perspectives, we address the issue by exploring how pressures from customers, sustainability culture, government, and external stakeholders act as primary constituents of the firm in determining the extent to which firm consider supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies. Further, we explore how such social sustainability adoption relates to the firm suppliers social performance, the buyers operational performance and the buying firms social reputation. We test the hypothesized model empirically using data from 244 Indian and 126 Portuguese firms. Our results are consistent with the hypothesized model; all factors show significant influence and positive links with the firms benefits.
keywords: Social sustainability |Emerging economy |Sustainability |Institutional mechanisms |Structural equation modeling
Understanding the determinants of mobile banking adoption: A longitudinal study in Brazil
درک عوامل تعیین کننده پذیرش بانکداری سیار: یک تحلیل طولی در برزیل-2018
Studies about new technologies are needed in order to better understand their adoption and the potential challenges related with their diffusion. This research was developed to analyze mobile banking use and its determinants considering a longitudinal approach. We collected data in a country where mobile banking is still in its early adoption stages: Brazil. Our sample is comprised of observations from three different periods: the first sample with data from December 2014 to January 2015; the second sample with data from May to June 2016; and the third sample with data from November to December 2017. Using a quantitative approach, we observed that mobile banking use has increased during the period. This effect was also significant in the bivariate analysis even with a control for the level of personal innovativeness in information technology (IT) among the respondents who participated in the survey. Moreover, the perception of trust, ease of use, social influence, and task characteristics related to mobile banking also have registered an increase. The main contribution of this study is related with the quantitative analysis of the effect of time in the use of mobile banking (and in some determinants of its use) in an emerging economy.
keywords: Emerging technologies |Innovation |Longitudinal analysis |Mobile banking |Social influence |Trust