Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance Stakeholder mapping Veterinary drugs Policy regulation Supply chain Public and private sector collaboration National action plan
درک زنجیره تأمین آنتی بیوتیک های دامپزشکی برای رفع مقاومت ضد میکروبی در PDR لائوس: نقش ها و تعاملات سهامداران درگیر-2021
In response to the global call to mitigate risks associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), new regulations on the access and use of veterinary antibiotics are currently being developed by the Lao government. This study aims to explore how the implementation of these new regulations might effectively reduce and adapt the sale, distribution and use of veterinary antibiotics in Lao PDR. To this end, we used the theory of change, framing the AMR issue within the context of the stakeholders involved in the veterinary antibiotics supply chain. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data, based on questionnaires (n=36 antibiotic suppliers, n=96 chicken farmers, n=96 pig farmers), and participatory tools such as a workshop (n=10 participants), semi-structured interviews (n=20), and focus group discussions (n=7 participants). The stakeholders understanding of the AMR issue and potential challenges related to the implementation of new regulations regarding access and use of antibiotics, were also investigated. We mapped the veterinary antibiotic supply chain in Lao PDR, and analysed the roles and interactions of its stakeholders. Twenty-three stakeholders representing the private and the public sectors were identified. Many informal and formal links connected these stakeholder within this supply chain. The lack of veterinarian-farmer interaction and the evolving nature of the veterinary antibiotics supply chain accentuated the challenges of achieving behaviour change through regulations. Most of the antibiotics found on farms were categorized by the World Health Organizations as critically important antibiotics used in human medicine. We argue that AMR risk mitigation strategy requires dialogue and engagement between private and publicsectors stakeholders, involved in the importation, distribution, sale and use of veterinary antibiotics. This study further highlighted that AMR is a complex adaptive challenge requiring multi-sectoral approach. We believed that a sustainable approach to reduce and adapt veterinary antibiotics use should be prepared in collaboration with stakeholders from private and public sectors identified in this study, in addition to the new regulations. This collaboration should start with the co-construction of a common understanding of AMR issue and of the objectives of new regulations.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance | Stakeholder mapping | Veterinary drugs | Policy regulation | Supply chain | Public and private sector collaboration | National action plan
Improving students’ satisfaction and learning performance using flipped classroom
بهبود رضایت و عملکرد یادگیری دانش آموزان با استفاده از کلاس واگردی-2020
Flipped learning have emerged in the last decade to make students’ learning more active and to enhance learning performance and students’ motivation and engagement. These new approaches have been applied to different subjects at different educational levels. Specifically, in higher education most studies have focused on STEM subjects (see Lundin et al., 2018). In this paper, we present an experience about flipped classroom in two courses related to business management in a Spanish university. Results show that students are very satisfied with the experience and with the summative-formative assessment that has been used. In addition, students consider that their learning process has been better with this new methodology. Certainly, academic results have been improved with flipping courses, compared with traditional lectures. However, this type of methodology implies several challenges for both professors and students (some of them demonstrate resistance) and some limitations must also be considered.
Keywords: Flipped classroom | Student satisfaction | Learning performance | Formative assessment | Higher education
The effect of outing Team Building training on soft skills among MBA students
تأثیر آموزش تیم سازی خارج از منزل بر مهارت های نرم در دانشجویان MBA-2020
This research aims to evaluate the effect of Outing Team-Building Training (OTBT) on developing soft skills (teamwork, communication, leadership, and ethics) among MBA students (N = 104) in the School of Business and Management (SBM) at the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). The OTBT comprises seven training activities. After three months, the OTBT was followed up by group counseling led by mentors involved in the training. We evaluated the effect of OTBT by measuring the first three levels of Kirkpatrick’s model (reaction, knowledge, and behavior). The results indicate that the three aspects of reaction level (i.e., engagement, involvement, and contribution) in the training program were mostly good. More than half of the participants (65%) understood the training material, which reflected knowledge level of training evaluation. The soft skills behaviors that significantly changed through the training were communication and leadership (p <.05). The qualitative data, which was gathered through discussions, indicated that the participants became more aware of and responsible for assimilating MBA-ITB values and ethics. Overall, the OTBT is a useful program for developing soft skills among MBA students. To further enhance the impact of OTBT, outing activities should be aligned with or preferably tailored to the needs of the participants.
Keywords: Teamwork | Leadership | Communication | Ethics | MBA students
Board of director attributes and CSR engagement in emerging economy firms: Evidence from across Asia
ویژگی های هیئت مدیره و مشارکت CSR در بنگاه های اقتصادی در حال ظهور: شواهدی از سراسر آسیا-2020
This study investigates the relationship between the board of director attributes and corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement across a sample of Asian emerging economy firms. We find a statistically positive relationship between CSR engagement and several directors’ attributes including their political influence, international experience, business expertise, other director- ships held and independence from management. These empirical results indicate that while corporate governance recommendations designed for developed economy firms are relevant for emerging economy firms, additional director attributes are also important in encouraging CSR engagement in emerging economy firms given the divergent institutional and resource de- pendency issues they face.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility | Board of director attributes | Corporate governance | Emerging economy firms
Organizing external stakeholder engagement in inter-organizational projects: Opening the black box
سازماندهی مشارکت ذینفعان خارجی در پروژه های بین سازمانی: باز کردن جعبه سیاه-2020
External stakeholder engagement is crucial for delivering value to diverse stakeholders in inter-organizational projects, however, it is not straightforward to organize this in a way that adds value. The intra-organizational focus of previous research offers limited insights into the relevant roles, responsibilities, arrangements and activities in inter-organizational contexts. Moreover, comprehensive empirical studies of the phenomenon are rare. This study explicates how internal stakeholders organize external stakeholder engagement in inter-organizational projects. Our multiple-case study of two infrastructure projects in Northern Europe identified three organizing solutions based on governance, values and dynamism. While governance-based solutions provide an overall structure for organizing external stakeholder engagement, value-based solutions ensure genuine cooperation and dynamism-based solutions facilitate timely organizing. The study develops propositions that constitute a model of how external stakeholder engagement can be organized in inter-organizational projects. The findings have implications for project stakeholder management and mainstream stakeholder research.
Keywords: External stakeholders | Organizing | Stakeholder engagement | Management for stakeholders | Inter-organizational projects
Gender-specific participation and outcomes among jail diversion clients with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders
مشارکت و نتایج خاص جنسیت در میان انحراف مراجعه کنندگان به زندان با مصرف همزمان مواد و اختلالات سلامت روان-2020
Men and women with co-occurring substance use disorders and mental illness are at relatively high risk for becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Programs, such as post-booking jail diversion, aim to connect these individuals to community-based treatment services in lieu of pursuing criminal prosecution. Gender ap- pears to have an important influence on risk factors and pathways through the criminal justice system, which in turn may influence how interventions like jail diversion work to engage men and women in treatment services and reduce recidivism. Different circumstances, levels of engagement, and outcomes by gender may be related to both person-level characteristics and external factors such as availability of gender-specific services and re- sources. This mixed-methods study identified specific ways in which men and women use services and reoffend after being diverted, and complemented those findings with in-depth insights from program clinicians about how program experiences and resources differ in important ways by gender. We matched and merged administrative records from 2007 to 2009 for 16,233 adults from several state agencies in Connecticut, and included data on demographic characteristics, clinical diagnoses, outpatient and inpatient behavioral health treatment utilization, arrest, and incarceration. Using propensity analysis, the 1693 men and women who participated in the statewide jail diversion program were matched to respective comparison groups of nondiverted men and women. We used longitudinal multivariable regression analyses to estimate the effects of jail diversion participation on treatment utilization, arrest, and incarceration, separately for men and women. We conducted three focus groups with jail diversion clinicians from around the state (n = 21) to gain in-depth insight from them about how circumstances, program experiences, and resources differ by gender in important ways; these subjective clinician insightscomplement the quantitative analyses of diversion outcomes for men and women. For both men and women, diversion was associated with reductions in risk for incarceration and increases in utilization of outpatient treatment services. For men only, diversion was associated with higher utilization of inpatient mental health care. No differences in treatment or criminal justice outcomes were observed in models that compared men and women directly. Major themes from the focus groups included: the existence of too few inpatient and residential resources for women with co-occurring disorders; different challenges to treatment engagement that men and women face; and a need for more effective, gender-specific services for all program participants. Results from this mixed-methods study offer information on gender-specific program outcomes and surrounding circum- stances that can help programs to better understand and address unique risks and needs for men and women with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders who are involved in the criminal justice system.
Keywords: Substance use disorders | Mental illness | Co-occurring disorders | Jail diversion | Gender
شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه در بیماران بستری: بررسی دانش و نگرش کارکنان
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 21
زمينه و هدف: سوء تغذيه موجب كاهش عملكرد و پيامدهاي باليني ناچیز در بيماران بستري می شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی دانش کارکنان بالینی در مورد شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه، ارزیابی نگرش و دانش سوء تغذیه به صورت مسئولیت مشترک بین رشته¬ای انجام شده است.
مواد و روشها: اين مطالعه به منظور توزیع کارکنان باليني (پزشكي ، پرستاري ، رژيم غذايي و بهداشت) در سه دانشگاه بيمارستاني از جمله مكان هاي حاد، کمی حاد و توانبخشي انجام شد.
نتایج: نتایج حاصل از نظرسنجي 14٪ كاركنان باليني واجد شرايط (116 پرستار ، 68 پزشك ، 20 متخصص تغذيه و 98 نفر از كاركنان بهداشت) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به استثنای متخصصین رژیم غذایی ، پاسخ به سؤالات مربوط به مهارت و دانش در زمینه های شناسایی سوء تغذیه ، تشخیص ، درمان و مدیریت ، کمتر از حد مطلوب بود. تنها پاسخ 60٪ از كاركنان پزشكي / جراحي و 42٪ از كاركنان پرستاري توانایی خود را در تشخيص سوء تغذيه گزارش كرده اند. پاسخ به سوالات مربوط به مسئولیت سوء تغذیه بسیار متغیر بود و هیچ کسی "مالکیت مشترک" سوء تغذیه را در مسئولیت بالینی پیشنهاد نکرد.
نتيجه گيري: به غير از متخصصان رژيم غذايي ، مهارت هاي مديريت سوء تغذيه متوسط بود و شکاف دانش در کارمندان باليني دیده شد. در مورد مسئولیت مراقبت از سوء تغذیه بیماران بستری نوعی سردرگمی نیز وجود داشت. برای بهبود تغذیه بیماران بستری ممکن است نیاز به درگیر شدن بیش از حد چند رشته و آموزش بهبود یافته باشد.
واژههای کلیدی: سوء تغذیه | تیم بین رشته ای | دانش | نگرش ریسک | بیماران بستری (بستری)
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Role of big data and social media analytics for business to business sustainability_ A participatory web context
Role of big data and social media analytics for business to business sustainability_ A participatory web context-2020
The digital transformation is an accumulation of various digital advancements, such as the transformation of the web phenomenon. The participatory web that allows for active user engagement and gather intelligence has been widely recognised as a value add tool by organisations of all shapes and sizes to improve business productivity and efficiency. However, its ability to facilitate sustainable business-to-business (B2B) activities has lacked focus in the business and management literature to date. This qualitative research is exploratory in nature and fills this gap through findings arising from interviews of managers and by developing taxonomies that highlight the capability of participatory web over passive web to enable different firms to engage in business operations. For this purpose, two important interrelated functions of business i.e. operations and marketing have been mapped against three dimensions of sustainability. Consequently, this research demonstrates the ability of big data and social media analytics within a participatory web environment to enable B2B organisations to become profitable and remain sustainable through strategic operations and marketing related business activities. The research findings will be useful for both academics and managers who are interested in understanding and further developing the business use of participatory web tools to achieve business sustainability. Hence, this may be considered as a distinct way of attaining sustainability.
Keywords: Participatory web | Marketing and operations | Big data | Social media analytics | Business sustainability | Business-to-business (B2B)
The transnational Sowa Rigpa industry in Asia: New perspectives on an emerging economy
صنعت فراملی Sowa Rigpa در آسیا: چشم اندازهای جدید در مورد اقتصاد نوظهور-2020
This article advances the hypothesis that “traditional” Asian pharmaceutical industries are rapidly growing in size and prominence in contemporary Asia, and identifies a lack of empirical data on the phenomenon. Addressing this gap, the article provides a quantitative outline and analysis of the Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan medicine) pharmaceutical industry in China, India, Mongolia and Bhutan. Using original data gathered through multi-sited ethnographic and textual research between 2014 and 2019, involving 232 industry representatives, policy makers, researchers, pharmacists and physicians, it assembles a bigger picture on this industrys structure, size and dynamics. Revealing a tenfold growth of the Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry in Asia between 2000 and 2017, the study supports its initial hypothesis. In 2017, the industry had a total sales value of 677.5 million USD, and constituted an important economic and public health resource in Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan regions of Asia. China generates almost 98 percent of the total sales value, which is explained by significant state intervention on the one hand, and historical and sociocultural reasons on the other. India has the second largest Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry with an annual sales value of about 11 million USD, while sales values in Mongolia and Bhutan are very low, despite Sowa Rigpas domestic importance for the two nations. The article concludes with a number of broader observations emerging from the presented data, arguing that the Sowa Rigpa pharmaceutical industry has become big enough to exert complex transformative effects on Tibetan, Mongolian and Himalayan medicine more generally. The quantitative and qualitative data presented here provide crucial foundations for further scholarly, regulatory, and professional engagement with contemporary Sowa Rigpa.
Keywords: Sowa Rigpa | Tibetan medicine | Pharmaceutical industry | Government policy | China | India | Mongolia | Bhutan
From data to action: How marketers can leverage AI
از داده به عمل: بازاریاب ها چگونه می توانند از هوش مصنوعی استفاده کنند-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is at the forefront of a revolution in business and society. AI affords companies a host of ways to better understand, predict, and engage customers. Within marketing, AI’s adoption is increasing year-on-year and in varied contexts, from providing service assistance during customer interactions to assisting in the identification of optimal promotions. But just as questions about AI remain with regard to job automation, ethics, and corporate responsibility, the marketing domain faces its own concerns about AI. With this article, we seek to consolidate the growing body of knowledge about AI in marketing. We explain how AI can enhance the marketing function across nine stages of the marketing planning process. We also provide examples of current applications of AI in marketing.
KEYWORDS : Artificial intelligence | Machine learning | Marketing function | Marketing mix | Consumer engagement | Customer experience | Customer journey