The motivational factors of business venturing: Opportunity versus necessity? A gendered perspective on European countries
عوامل انگیزشی سرمایه گذاری در کسب و کار: فرصت در مقابل ضرورت؟ چشم انداز جنسیتی در مورد کشورهای اروپایی-2020
The motives behind self-employment and the differences between women and men are a hot topic in entrepreneurship debate. This paper empirically explores the interaction of three types of motivation on the entrepreneurial activities of women and men in 24 European countries: opportunity-driven motivation, necessitydriven motivation and mixed motivation. Employing a dynamic method, a panel data analysis in the timeframe from 2009 to 2012 is conducted. In this regard, the paper explores entrepreneurship at the two levels of established businesses (EBs) and total early-stage entrepreneurial activities (TEAs). The findings suggest that all three motivational dimensions positively influence females’ self-employment at both levels. Also, the findings reveal that, at the established business level, there is a significant and positive relationship between entrepreneurship by men and opportunity-seeking motivation.
Keywords: Women entrepreneurship | Motivation | Opportunity | Necessity | Panel data analysis
Can entrepreneurship bring happiness? Evidence from China
آیا کارآفرینی می تواند خوشبختی به همراه داشته باشد؟ مدارکی از چین-2020
This paper investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the happiness of entrepreneurs. We estimate the effects of entrepreneurial decision-making, business experience and other factors on happiness by using China Household Finance Survey data. Our results derived from maximum likelihood estimation methods indicate that entrepreneurial decision-making and entrepreneurial experience affect household happiness signiﬁcantly. The family well-being is signiﬁcantly increased if the family is entrepreneurial, and it will be higher if actively entrepreneurial. Both entrepreneurial experience and entrepreneurial investment of time have signif- icantly positive effect on the probability of family well-being. In addition, we ﬁnd that the mechanism by which entrepreneurship brings happiness to households is through raising household income and wealth, that is, income effects and wealth effects.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial activities | Happiness | Income effect | Wealth effect
Innovation and the entrepreneurial performance in women-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan
نوآوری و عملکرد کارآفرینی در شرکت های کوچک و متوسط متعلق به زنان در پاکستان-2020
Purpose: This study is an attempt to examine the impact of entrepreneurship and innovation on the entrepreneurial performance of women-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan. The study also investigates the mediating role of innovation in the relationship between entrepreneurship and performance in women-owned businesses from emerging economy of Pakistan. Methodology/Approach: Data was collected from the 261 registered women entrepreneurs from all the ﬁfteen Pakistani womens chambers of commerce and industries by employing self-administered questionnaires for complementing a comprehensive literature review on innovation and womens entrepreneurship and performance. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and factor analysis. Findings: The results show a signiﬁcant direct relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation and the entrepreneurial performance. The two entrepreneurial traits, namely risk taking tendency and the need for achievement have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on innovation and the entrepreneurial performance. Moreover, innovation has a direct relationship with performance and also it mediates the entrepreneurship- performance link of women- owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan. Research limitations: The present study is limited to only women entrepreneurs who are registered with the chambers of commerce and industries in Pakistan. Women entrepreneurs associated with federations and several women business development centers have not been considered in the population. Practical implications: This study emphasizes the signiﬁcance of entrepreneurship to innovation and the entrepreneurial performance in women-owned SMEs. It is a major contribution to understanding the existing practices and theories of entrepreneurship and innovation in enterprises. In order to improve performance and innovation, management should focus and promote risk taking and the need for achievement. The government should initiate support programs for womens entrepreneurial activities; promote fair competition between men and women and give special grants to women entrepreneurs in order to improve their performance.
Keywords: Innovation | Womens entrepreneurship | Small and medium-sized enterprises | Entrepreneurial performance | Mediator
Exploring entrepreneurship related to the sustainable development goals - mapping new venture activities with semi-automated content analysis
کاوش در مورد کارآفرینی مرتبط با اهداف توسعه پایدار - نقشه برداری از فعالیت های جدید با تجزیه و تحلیل محتوای نیمه خودکار-2020
It is widely agreed that humanity faces major sustainability challenges that require immediate action. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are the most recent political call for action in this direction. In this study, we examine what role entrepreneurship in Germany plays in achieving the German SDGs. Thus, we pick up the discussion on sustainable entrepreneurship as a lever for change and search for empirical evidence that entrepreneurs in Germany identify and develop opportunities along the entire SDG spectrum. For our study, we examined a total of 193 venture competitions in Germany, collected data on a total of 588 rewarded ventures and used a semi-automated content analysis process to allocate those ventures to the main 17 SDGs based on their business activities. With our work offer a scalable and repeatable approach to map SDG related activity of new ventures, and we provide a detailed analysis of Germanys entrepreneurship landscape along the 17 SDGs. We found a very heterogeneous distribution of entrepreneurial activities along the goals, but also signiﬁcant correlations between multiple goals that are frequently addressed jointly. Contrasting entrepreneurial activity along the SDGs with the national overall SDG performance of Germany we identiﬁed multiple SDGs that are rarely addressed by entrepreneurs despite strong needs for improvements. The identiﬁed patterns constitute a starting point for additional research on the potential of SDG related entrepreneurship and they direct policy makers and entrepreneurs where they can make the largest contribution to the SDGs.© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Sustainable development goals | Startups | Content analysis
How do cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior of nations? A behavioral reasoning approach
ارزشهای فرهنگی چگونه بر رفتار کارآفرینی ملتها تأثیر می گذارد؟ یک رویکرد استدلال رفتاری-2020
Despite an abundance of research, still there is a gap in understanding the underlying cultural mechanisms behind entrepreneurial behavior of nations in the literature. This study contributes to the debate through a new perspective of analysis based on behavioral reasoning theory (BRT). Specifically, this research analyses the role cultural values play in formation of the reasoning behind entrepreneurial behavior. The data and variables are taken from the GLOBE project and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for a multiple regression analysis spanning from 2007 to 2017 for 50 countries. The results show that, with the exception of Institutional Collectivism, all of GLOBE’s cultural dimensions affect the reasoning justifications behind entrepreneurial intentions in various countries. Thus, the novel contribution of the present research is the application of BRT in explaining entrepreneurial intentions. This contribution is substantial to the international entrepreneurship field through clarification of the role of cultural values in the reasoning processes behind entrepreneurial activities of nations. Some findings are surprising with regard to the conventional understandings. These findings are fully discussed in the concluding sections.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial intention | Culture | Behavioral reasoning theory
Foreign venture presence and domestic entrepreneurship: A macro level study
حضور سرمایه گذاری خارجی و کارآفرینی داخلی: مطالعه ای در سطح کلان-2020
Building upon the literature of necessity- and opportunity-driven entrepreneurship, this study explores how the presence of foreign ventures affect domestic entrepreneurship. We hypothesize that foreign ventures reduce necessity-driven entrepreneurship by diminishing unemployment in domestic economies, and stimulate opportunity-driven entrepreneurship by increasing knowledge stocks in domestic economies. Empirical results based on country-level longitudinal data of 30 countries from 1980 through 2008 support our hypotheses. We conclude that over time, domestic economies with more foreign ventures might have more opportunity- driven entrepreneurial activities and less necessity- driven entrepreneurial activities. Thus, foreign ventures can change the structure of domestic entrepreneurship in host countries.© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Foreign venture | FDI | Unemployment | Knowledge Spillover | Entrepreneurship | Macro
International entrepreneurship in the post Covid world
کارآفرینی بین المللی در جهان Covid-2020
How will the world look post Covid-19? What is the role of international entrepreneurship (IE) in this new world? This article attempts to answer these two questions. It highlights the changes caused by Covid and how they might affect the scope and types of international entrepreneurial activities in years to come. It also discusses how international entrepreneurs are likely to operate and shape the emerging world order. The article concludes by outlining the implications of these changes for IE scholarship, offering an agenda for future research.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | International new ventures (INVs) | Covid-19 | Institutional change | Digitalization | Innovation | Research agenda
Touching the invisible: Exploring the nexus of energy access, entrepreneurship, and solar homes systems in India
لمس موارد نامرئی: بررسی رابطه دسترسی به انرژی ، کارآفرینی و سیستم های خانه های خورشیدی در هند-2020
Off-grid electrification, using Solar Home Systems (SHSs), has become a viable alternative to conventional grid extensions in geographically dispersed rural Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) markets, which are characterised as high-risk business environments. Using two SHS companies, Boond and Selco, as case studies, this article uses narrative interviews with key employees to identify the often overlooked, or invisible, micro-activities that social enterprises need to sustain themselves in rural BoP markets. This study examines the relationship between social entrepreneurship, rural BoP market characteristics, and challenges related to energy access, by combining the business model frameworks of social entrepreneurship and off-grid solar. Using narrative theory, it identifies three key activities and associated risks: community engagement, stakeholder management, and organizational capacity building. Social enterprises ought to engage in these three activities in order to manage the high-risk environment in the rural BoP markets. Community engagement bolsters social trust and results in customized solutions for the end-user; stakeholder management creates a favourable business environment and is a de- terminantal risk proposition; and finally, organizational capacity-building enables businesses to deliver reliable services, by increasing overall human resource management efficiency, while building social trust. Through a risk assessment of social entrepreneurial activities, practitioners and stakeholders can navigate the risk-based nature of rural SHS markets.
Keywords: Solar Home Systems (SHS) | Rural Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) | Social entrepreneurship | Narrative analysis
What have Vietnamese scholars learned from researching entrepreneurship? A Systematic review
دانشمندان ویتنامی از تحقیق درباره کارآفرینی چه آموخته اند؟ یک مرور سیستماتیک-2020
This study reviews the research landscape of entrepreneurship studies done by Vietnamese researchers from 2008 to 2018. A sample size of 111 articles from 108 academic outlets (journals, conferences proceedings, and book chapters) indexed in Web-of-Science and Scopus were extracted on the SSHPA database, then read and systematically classiﬁed into 15 topics. A systematic review reveals (i) a high frequency of research on various aspects of management, (ii) a lackluster focus on innovation and creativity in entrepreneurial activities, (iii) and worrisome cultural inﬂuences on the level of creativity. Overall, there was evidence of a detachment between the academic community and the entrepreneurial community. The research landscape shows there have not been enough studies done on the following aspects of entrepreneurship: technology application, poverty reduction, network development, internationalization, inter-generational transfer, and sex/gender.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurship research output | Creativity | Innovation | Economics | Economic development | Business | Management
Political climate and academic entrepreneurship: The case of strange bedfellows?
جو سیاسی و کارآفرینی دانشگاهی: پرونده ملاقات های عجیب و غریب خواب؟-2019
Universities have fully embraced academic entrepreneurship, transforming their structures, systems, and processes to generate licensing revenues and create new ventures. While prior research has mainly focused on the relationship between public policy and entrepreneurial activities, this study examines a major gap – the performance implications of regional politics on academic entrepreneurship. We use a unique data set of U.S. universities and their regional governments to test how the influence of two elements of a regions political climate – consensus and stability – affects entrepreneurial and commercial performance. Our results suggest that political consensus and stability are positively associated with higher licensing revenues, while political stability is negatively associated with new venture creation. Our results reveal how regional politics influence university commercial outcomes, which suggests that entrepreneurship-enhancing public policy is intimately linked to the regional political process. We discuss the implications for theory and practice, and suggest possible future research directions.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial university | Political climate | Regional economic development | State elections