Digital Academic Entrepreneurship: A structured literature review and avenue for a research agenda
کارآفرینی آکادمیک دیجیتال: یک بررسی ادبیات ساختار یافته و راهی برای یک دستور کار تحقیقاتی-2020
This paper reviews the Academic Entrepreneurship literature according to the emergence of powerful Digital technologies, providing an overview of the state of research and outlining a future research agenda about Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. One hundred and sixty-five journal papers were initially extracted from Scopus and their content was analysed for the paper selection process by two researchers in parallel, plus a third one in case of uncertainty. Finally, fifty-nine papers dealing with digital academic entrepreneurship and published in a variety of academic journals have been analyzed through a content and a bibliometric analysis. Findings show that literature on Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is really scant and dominated by unrelated research. Content analysis provides the emergence of four major research streams: 1) Digital Technologies for Entrepreneurship Education; 2) The “maker space movement” for Academic Entrepreneurship; 3) Digital tech- nologies for discovering entrepreneurial opportunities; 4) Creating entrepreneurial competences in the Digital “University-based” Entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper presents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive structured literature review of the disruptive role of digital transformation for the Academic Entrepreneurship. Despite the growing literature on Digital Entrepreneurship, this research area is still fragmented and under- theorized. More systematic and holistic studies, considering both the technological, economic and the social aspects of Academic Entrepreneurship are required.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Digital technologies | Digital academic entrepreneurship | Digital transformation | Literature review | Software R | VOSviewer
Scale quickly or fail fast: An inductive study of acceleration
مقیاس سریع یا سریع شکست: مطالعه استقرایی شتاب-2020
Accelerators are a fast-growing form of entrepreneurship support. Literature about them remains descriptive and disjointed. While some consider them new, others believe them to be a next-generation incubator model. Based on a qualitative inductive study in India, with inputs from both accelerator executives and founders of accelerated ventures, we shift the analysis from the form (accelerator) to its underlying mechanism (acceleration). We identify at least three characteristics that make acceleration unique: a focus on product-market fit ventures; a focus on time-compressed scaling; and a focus on aggressive scalability testing. Our findings call for a shift in entrepreneurship support research (including accelerators) from “form” to “mechanism.” Entrepreneurs will find our three characteristics useful in assessing which programs truly accelerate, and therefore increase their chances of achieving scale. Accelerator executives can now distinguish their offerings from other support forms (e.g. incubators) by searching for ventures with product-market fit, offering time-compressed scaling services and testing the ventures’ ability to scale rapidly. University administrators and policymakers can use the findings to add acceleration (to support scaling) as a component of their entrepreneurial ecosystems. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Acceleration | Accelerator | Incubator | Entrepreneurship support | Entrepreneurial ecosystem
Enhancing measures of ESE to incorporate aspects of place: Personal reputation and place-based social legitimacy
اقدامات پیشرفته ESE برای ترکیب جنبه های مکان: شهرت شخصی و مشروعیت اجتماعی مبتنی بر مکان-2020
We argue that existing measures of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) are underspecified in the context of tight-knit communities, where personal reputation plays a major role. We propose a new place-based ESE dimension that measures assessment by individuals of their ability to elicit respect from their community. This integral ESE component points to the very meaning of entrepreneurship in highly relational contexts. Although our enhanced ESE measure incorporates some influences of place, other aspects, such as geographical context, continue to moderate the relationship between ESE and entrepreneurial aptitude. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and utility of this enhanced measure. Executive summary: Scholars have invested considerable energy in understanding the motivations and practices of high-growth entrepreneurs and urban ecosystems, where business interactions tend to be impersonal and transactional. Most entrepreneurial measures assess either individual characteristics or place-based characteristics. Rural areas or developing regions, where entrepreneurs may be the best hope for revitalization (Sarasvathy, 2008), operate according to cultural principles that are different from those of “high-performance” entrepreneurial ecosystems, and they remain understudied. We argue that in such resource-constrained, tight-knit communities, some important factors in the creation of a venture will jointly depend on place and individual—measuring the fitness of individuals in their community. In such environments, the belief of individuals in their ability to gain a positive reputation within their local community to advance their new enterprise is among the decisive factors for the venture creation process. We develop a measure of such beliefs.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy | Place-based entrepreneurship | Urban/rural divide | Relational context | Community respect
Addressing resource and waste management challenges imposed by COVID-19: An entrepreneurship perspective
پرداختن به چالش های مدیریت منابع و پسماند که توسط COVID-19 تحمیل شده است: چشم انداز کارآفرینی-2020
This perspective calls for building greater understanding of the role that entrepreneurship plays in addressing the challenges to resource and waste management imposed by COVID-19. We contend that researchers and practitioners need to recognize that entrepreneurs are important change agents who can help in the transition to a more sustainable and circular economy. We present challenges as well as opportunities to address this gap with the goal to foster future research.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystems | Circular economy | Sustainability | Diversity and inclusion | COVID-19
The lighthouse effect: How successful entrepreneurs influence the sustainability-orientation of entrepreneurial ecosystems
اثر فانوس دریایی: چگونه کارآفرینان موفق بر پایداری جهت گیری اکوسیستم های کارآفرینی تأثیر می گذارند-2020
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed by the United Nations are a call to action for policy- makers around the globe to tackle grand societal challenges. Sustainability start-ups can help meet some of the most pressing challenges. Regions of start-up activity are commonly referred to as entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs), although the share of sustainability start-ups varies markedly from one EE to another. While literature on EEs is abundant, scholarly work on sustainability-oriented EEs, i.e. those with a high share of sustainability start-ups, is still relatively scarce. In particular, there is limited understanding of the reasons why some EEs have a higher share of sustainability start-ups than others. The present paper considers this gap in the literature by contrasting the EEs of Berlin and Lagos, which have very different shares of sustainability start-ups. Forty interviews conducted with founders, investors, hubs and government representatives in both EEs showed that particularly successful start-ups in an EE, so-called lighthouses, play an important role in shaping the cultural, social and material attributes of an EE. This means that the sustainability orientation of these lighthouses is instrumental in creating environments in which sustainability start-ups can ﬂourish. Moreover, lighthouses can attract new talent and resources to a region, which further underlines their role as accelerators of an EE towards sustainability. Overall, the lighthouses are a critical factor in explaining the share of sustainability start-ups. Policy- makers can strengthen this effect by giving access to extra resources and opportunities to promising start-ups and by showcasing their success.© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Sustainability startups | Social entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystems
Entrepreneurship and the sustainable bioeconomy transformation
کارآفرینی و تحول پایدار اقتصاد زیستی-2020
Governments worldwide have formulated visions of a transition toward a bio-based economy (bioeconomy). These visions to move beyond the exploitation of fossil resources complement the United Nation’s sustainability goals such as climate change mitigation. Different factors will shape and foster the successful transition to a knowledge-based bioeconomy; among those factors, entrepreneurial activity is especially promising. Therefore, this study examines the enabling and transformational role of entrepreneurship by conducting a structured literature review and thematic analysis to elicit the implicit views on entrepreneurs and their ventures found in the bio- economy literature. The review identifies three major entrepreneurial themes addressed in the literature that are included in a holistic framework comprising entrepreneurial activity on the micro level, entrepreneurial ecosystems (or clusters and innovation systems) on the meso level, and governmental vision and support on the macro level. Suggestions for further research on the interface of entrepreneurship and the bioeconomy are also provided.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Bioeconomy | Sustainability | Entrepreneurial ecosystem | Policy | Transformation
Entrepreneurship policy and systemic conditions: Evidence-based implications and recommendations for emerging countries
سیاست کارآفرینی و شرایط سیستمی: پیامدها و توصیه های مبتنی بر شواهد برای کشورهای در حال ظهور-2020
Entrepreneurship policies are now widely spread among the general policy agenda in most of the countries. In particular, emerging countries started to focus on startups and young firms as potential engines of economic growth and structural transformation. Therefore, several governments from these countries are devoting significant efforts to develop their entrepreneurial ecosystems and promote the emergence of new dynamic firms. However, data on entrepreneurship in these countries is scarce leaving policymakers without a clear evidencebased platform for designing their policies and programs. This paper tries to contribute to this task in two manners. First, it presents a systemic conceptual approach to guide the design of entrepreneurship policies that explicitly includes the structural factors acting act as barriers in less developed contexts. Secondly, Based on the information from the IDE (Index of Dynamic Entrepreneurship) this study advances into the characterization of six different configurations of systemic conditions – three of which include emerging countries – analyzing their main strengths and weaknesses. Hence, this article provides a new evidence-based platform to identify and discuss the heterogeneity among ecosystems in emerging countries and suggests several policy recommendations for those governments that want to implement new entrepreneurship policies. At the same time, they introduce to the literature new concepts such as ‘systemic balance’ and ‘dual ecosystems’, which serve to characterize most of the observed configurations of systemic conditions for entrepreneurship in less developed regions. All in all, the results of this study would serve to guide policymakers to formulate their policies in a more contextualized framework.
Keywords: Emerging countries | Public policy | Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystems | Systemic approach
Entrepreneurial dynamics and government policies to boost entrepreneurship performance
پویایی کارآفرینی و سیاست های دولت برای تقویت عملکرد کارآفرینی-2020
This paper aims to illustrate the entrepreneurial performance of economies taking into account the variables present in the entrepreneurial framework conditions. The methodology used in the research is exploratory, descriptive and quantitative. We used a process that combines Factorial Analysis with Cluster Analysis. Considering the entrepreneurial framework variables conditions, our results indicate that there are four groups in economies: 1) Moderate Entrepreneurial Performance; 2) Emerging Entrepreneurial Performance; 3) High- Income Economies; and 4) Advanced Entrepreneurial Economies. Our research also denotes where economies need to develop new policies to improve their entrepreneurial performance and competitiveness. This research brings new contributions to science and existing literature as it helps to understand and clarify the entrepreneurial performance of economies relative to entrepreneurial framework conditions.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystems | Governmental support and policies | GEM