Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
Innovative start-ups and policy initiatives
ابتکارات نوآورانه و ابتکارات سیاسی-2020
Innovative start-ups can create and shape new industries and generate considerable economic and societal impacts. Accordingly, a variety of policy initiatives are aimed at promoting the establishment, growth and impact of innovative start-ups. Designing such policies is a challenging task, because most start-ups fail. In addition, only a small share of those start-ups will ultimately prove to be innovative, and very few of those will eventually become high impact firms. Hence, effective policies require a better understanding of the processes by which innovative start-ups are formed, developed and create impact, as well as of the heterogeneous nature inherent to innovative start-ups along with their development trajectory. This article reviews 39 policy in- itiatives from around the world and classifies their approaches to the phenomenon of innovative start-ups. By relying on insights from the papers mentioned in this special issue, we develop a process framework by ela- borating on (i) the antecedents of the creation of innovative start-ups, (ii) their founding characteristics, (iii) their behavior, and finally (iv) the outputs and impacts generated by them. Our framework highlights how policy initiatives, managerial issues and research approaches are conceptually different, depending on the specific stage of firm development. We conclude with implications for policy initiatives and further research.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship policy | Entrepreneurial process | Innovative start-up
The entrepreneurial process: The link between intentions and behavior
فرایند کارآفرینی: پیوند بین قصد و رفتار-2020
Entrepreneurship has been widely studied in recent decades, and it has been linked to other research areas such as social psychology. Remarkable contributions have combined these ﬁelds to explore how to predict en- trepreneurial intentions. Building on previous research on the factors that predict students intentions to start a business, this study explores the link between intentions and behavior. The aim is to ascertain whether university students have genuine intentions to start a business and see themselves as capable of doing so. This study draws upon Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior to examine the role of students and/or prospective entrepreneurs skills and capabilities. Structural equation modeling is used to empirically test the hypotheses. This study makes a unique contribution, extending the model described by the theory of planned behavior by adding en- trepreneurial skills and addressing a gap in the literature on the link between entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial behavior.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial behavior | Entrepreneurial process | Entrepreneurial skills
Entrepreneurship, fear of failure, and economic policy
کارآفرینی ، ترس از شکست و سیاست اقتصادی-2020
The previous literature ﬁnds that self-reported ‘fear of failure’ has a signiﬁcant negative effect on individuals’ choice to become entrepreneurs. We hypothesize this effect is lessened in economies with a larger number of additional, alternative, entrepreneurial opportunities to pursue if a failure occurs. Prior literature also concludes the number of entrepreneurial opportunities is enhanced signiﬁcantly by having policies and institutions consistent with higher levels of economic freedom. We therefore test and conﬁrm that fear of failure hurts the entrepreneurial process less when levels of economic freedom are higher as there are more additional chances for failed entrepreneurs to pursue.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Fear of failure | Economic policy | Economic freedom | Business climate
The commons: A model for understanding collective action and entrepreneurship in communities
عوام: الگویی برای درک کنش جمعی و کارآفرینی در جوامع-2020
The creation of commons—resources that are shared, accessible, and collectively owned and managed by communities—is increasingly being adopted by social entrepreneurs as a way of contributing to community development and putting value into economic activities. Yet, little research is evident related to the entrepreneurial processes involved in the creation and commercialization of these shared resources. Drawing on the Institutional Analysis and Development framework developed by Ostrom (2005), I explain how commons are entrepreneurially created. Based on a comparative study of five community banks in Brazil, I derive two ideological principles of collective entrepreneurship that help sustain commercialization of commons without commodification, namely ‘self-organization’ and ‘right to access’. I elucidate how these principles are enacted across venture levels through downward and upward mechanisms of social control facilitated by entrepreneurs who enhance collective action. This article contributes to the entrepreneurship theory of commons by explaining how commons are entrepreneurially created and by adding the collective entrepreneurship principles and mechanisms that commons of different types need in order to achieve and sustain wealth-creation options without incurring the downsides of commodification.
Keywords: Commons | Decommodification | Community enterprise | Institutional Analysis and Development | framework | Microfinance | Brazil
Having your cake and eating it too? A two-stage model of the impact of employment and parallel job search on hybrid nascent entrepreneurship
کیک خود را دارید و می خورید؟ یک مدل دو مرحله ای از تأثیر اشتغال و جستجوی شغلی موازی بر کارآفرینی ترکیبی نوپا-2020
Hybrid entrepreneurship, simultaneous employment and entrepreneurship, is increasingly prevalent. We theorize entrepreneurial entry as one possible outcome of a two-stage new employment search process 1) decision to search for a job, attempt a start-up, or both and 2) outcome of start-up attempts. Stage 2 is critically different for hybrid (employed) nascent entrepreneurs who have greater access to resources and experience lower risk but also more salient alternative employment options. Using a novel longitudinal panel of new employment opportunity seekers, we find that employment status matters and that “parallel search” for a new job is detrimental to successful entrepreneurial entry.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial process | Hybrid entrepreneurship | Parallel search | Start-up decision | Experience
Transforming water into wine: Environmental bricolage for entrepreneurs
تبدیل آب به شراب: محرومیت از محیط زیست برای کارآفرینان-2020
The theory of bricolage in the entrepreneurial realm requires further reﬁnement and development in unexplored entrepreneurial contexts. The analysis strives to elaborate on this theory, putting bricolage into the hands of environmental entrepreneurs which deal with distinctive natural resource constraints. This paper is aimed at understanding how entrepreneurs acquire and combine resources in a natural resource-scarce and exploited environment. Through a qualitative inductive study of 20 entrepreneurs belonging to the Italian wine industry, the authors shed light not only on basic constructs of bricolage literature, but also on three further unique processes associated with environmental entrepreneurship e environmental gain, sensibilisation and network establishment e, thus arguing the existence of a speciﬁc bricolage framework: environmental bricolage. The ﬁndings highlight that bricolage not only relates to young ventures but also occurs in later phases of the entrepreneurial process. The research conductedalso offers practical implication for helping environmental entrepreneurs understand the importance of bricolage as a mean to create new resources, achieving greater environmental and social impacts.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Environmental entrepreneurship | Bricolage | Environmental bricolage
Women’s Entrepreneurial Attitudes when Facing Restructuring Processes - study results
نگرشهای کارآفرینی زنان هنگام مواجهه با فرایندهای بازسازی - نتایج مطالعه-2020
The paper is theoretical and empirical in nature and presents an analysis of entrepreneurial attitudes among the employees of restructured companies. The first part, based on the literature on the subject, describes the interdependencies between the restructuring and entrepreneurial processes and the womens attitudes. These considerations were the basis of empirical research in which the above mentioned relationships were analysed. The quantitative research with the use of the CAPI method was conducted in 2019 and included female employees of restructured enterprises in the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the KES International.
Neuroentrepreneurship a new paradigm in the management science
کارآفرینی عصبی یک پارادایم جدید در علم مدیریت-2020
The primary objective of the paper is to present the essence of the new paradigm in the management science, which is neuroentrepreneurship. This objective determined the papers layout. In the first part, the theories of entrepreneurship are presented, including the context of research on entrepreneurship. In the second part, the techniques of cognitive neuroscience are described, which are used to determine the impact of thought processes on the recognition and use of a business opportunity by an entrepreneur. This part also analyses the new paradigm of management sciences, i.e. neuroentrepreneurship. In this respect, the most important achievements of science in diagnosing the impact of neuronal impulses on the entrepreneurial process are presented.© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the KES International.
Keywords: entrepreneurship | entrepreneur | neuroscience | neuroentrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship through the platform strategy in the digital era: Insights and research opportunities
کارآفرینی از طریق استراتژی پلتفرم در عصر دیجیتال: بینش و فرصت های تحقیقاتی-2019
Entrepreneurship has gained increasing research attention in recent years. Although researchers largely agree the importance of innovation in the process of entrepreneurship, little research explores how the emerging innovation approaches can facilitate the above process. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on entrepreneurship adopting the open platform strategy in light of the digital evolution. To address this research gap, this study investigates how entrepreneurs can take advantage of the platform-based innovation ecosystem in the entrepreneurial process. First, the study discusses various platform-based innovations for entrepreneurs and elaborates on the implementation with examples and practices. Accordingly, the study demonstrates a framework which categorizes these innovation platforms to fulfill the needs at two pivotal stages of the innovation process (i.e. invention and commercialization) for entrepreneurs. The study also discusses the concerns and issues an innovation platform ecosystem may bring forth for entrepreneurs. Finally, the study proposes a number of topics that merit further research. This study represents the first effort to categorize online platforms and develop an innovation processbased framework of platforms for entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Innovation | Platform strategy | Entrepreneurship | Internet | Platform