The entrepreneurial process: The link between intentions and behavior
فرایند کارآفرینی: پیوند بین قصد و رفتار-2020
Entrepreneurship has been widely studied in recent decades, and it has been linked to other research areas such as social psychology. Remarkable contributions have combined these ﬁelds to explore how to predict en- trepreneurial intentions. Building on previous research on the factors that predict students intentions to start a business, this study explores the link between intentions and behavior. The aim is to ascertain whether university students have genuine intentions to start a business and see themselves as capable of doing so. This study draws upon Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior to examine the role of students and/or prospective entrepreneurs skills and capabilities. Structural equation modeling is used to empirically test the hypotheses. This study makes a unique contribution, extending the model described by the theory of planned behavior by adding en- trepreneurial skills and addressing a gap in the literature on the link between entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial behavior.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial behavior | Entrepreneurial process | Entrepreneurial skills
On the origins of entrepreneurship: Evidence from sibling correlations
در مورد ریشه های کارآفرینی: شواهدی از همبستگی خواهر و برادر-2020
Despite the consensus that entrepreneurship runs in the family, we lack evidence regarding the total importance of family and community background, as well as the relative importance of different background influences that affect entrepreneurship. We draw on human capital formation theories to argue that families and communities provide a salient context for the development of individual entrepreneurial skills and preferences, beyond the existing focus on parental entrepreneurship. We posit that early influences are more important than later influences and propose a hierarchy of family influences, whereby genes have the largest explanatory power, followed by parental entrepreneurship, neighborhoods, and parental resources, and finally by parental immigration, family structure, and sibling peers. Finally, we argue that the higher human and financial capital intensity of incorporated relative to unincorporated entrepreneurship predictably alters the hierarchy of family influences, as does gender. Sibling correlations estimated on Swedish register data confirm our hypotheses.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Self-employment | Family background | Sibling correlations
Bringing an entrepreneurial focus to sustainability education: A teaching framework based on content analysis
ایجاد تمرکز کارآفرینی بر آموزش پایداری: چارچوبی برای آموزش مبتنی بر تحلیل محتوا-2020
Research on sustainability education has neglected to integrate entrepreneurial skills into other relevant competences such as foresight, complex problem-solving, and interdisciplinarity. Previous research highlights possible convergences between sustainability education and entrepreneurship education; however, it does not address how to achieve this integration in practice. To address the gap between the literature and practice, this paper tackles the question: How can entrepreneurial competences be taught in sustainability education programs in higher education? We introduce a teaching framework based on a bibliometric method that combines topic-modeling with a content-analysis of selected articles. The focus of the analysis is the commonalities of both educational ﬁelds. Our results introduce a program for entrepreneurial-oriented sustainability education, providing a description of the educational focus, teaching-learning approaches, main themes, and external collaboration. The framework proposes educational for sustainable development across educational programs while implicitly addressing complex community problems through the development of solutions that can change the ways business and consumers relate with sustainability issues. These results contribute to the sustainability education literature by integrating the development of entrepreneurship competences into interdisciplinary pro- grams. The framework could also be used as a practical guide for designing courses, at both the undergraduate and graduate level, that integrate both sustainability and entrepreneurship.© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bibliometric | Sustainability education | Entrepreneurship education | Sustainable development goals | Teaching framework | Higher education
Entrepreneurial thinking: A signature pedagogy for an uncertain 21st century
تفکر کارآفرینی: آموزش امضا برای قرن بیست و یکم نامطمئن-2020
This paper outlines a pedagogical approach for entrepreneurship education, with a specific focus on students who do not necessarily identify as entrepreneurial. We advance seven essential and teachable entrepreneurial thinking skills (ET-7) to form future leaders: (1) problem solving, (2) tolerance for ambiguity, (3) failing forward, (4) empathy, (5) creativity with limited resources,(6) responding to critical feedback, and (7) teamwork approach. ET-7 offers an integrative framework that unites previously distinct perspectives of entrepreneurial competencies, and outlines how to teach and develop these skills in a 12-week mandatory entrepreneurship course through an innovative pedagogical approach. This approach to entrepreneurial education was built on the concept of a signature pedagogy (Shulman, 2005) and encompasses three components (i.e., the flipped classroom, learning through failure, and access to open educational resources). This pedagogical approach to entrepreneurial education supports entrepreneurial learning through experiential activities that simulate the environment entrepreneurs face. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by outlining the entrepreneurial thinking skillset (ET-7) required to be successful in today’s modern careers, along with considering the methods, tools, and pedagogy that is most likely to support ET-7 skill development.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial skills | Entrepreneurial thinking | Entrepreneurship education | Signature pedagogy
Development and Validation of Scale using Rasch Analysis to Measure Students’ Entrepreneurship Readiness to Learn Embedded System Design Course
توسعه و اعتبارسنجی مقیاس با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل Rasch برای اندازه گیری آمادگی کارآفرینی دانشجویان برای یادگیری دوره طراحی سیستم تعبیه شده-2020
Embedded systems are growing rapidly as the technology paves the way for the rise of future of smart manufacturing through a wide range of industries. The intensity demands of innovation required a steady supply of innovative and entrepreneurship engineers to ensures the industry players have a sustainable supply of talent to fuel their growth and investments. The university acknowledge the current and future demand of the labour market by offering embedded system course that are developed to equipped the next generation engineers with innovation and entrepreneurship skills to enable them to turn their ideas into reality. This paper developed and validated a scale to measure the student entrepreneurship skills readiness for embedded systems design course using the Rasch analysis. The content validity results show that CVR is 0.92 and CVI is 0.96 indicating an excellent content validity. The pilot test result show that the scale Cronbach alpha is 0.80 indicating excellent scale reliability. The construct validity of the scale was evaluated using WINSTEPS version 3.92.1, with results indicated that all the items of the scale fit the Rasch model with satisfactoryfit index and showedexcellent consistency, with reliability alpha of 0.99 foe items and 0.75 for persons. The findings depicted that most of the students have poor business and entrepreneurship skills, such as marketing and negotiation abilities. Therefore, higher learning institutions need to embed acquirable entrepreneurial skills in the prerequisites courses to provide adequate training to the students, increasing their creativity and maximizing their potential to be successful entrepreneurs.© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 9th World Engineering Education Forum 2019.
Keywords: Embedded-System Design | entrepreneurship | Rasch | Readiness | Reliability
A programmatic intervention to promote entrepreneurial selfefficacy, critical behavior, and technology readiness among underrepresented college students
یک مداخله برنامه ای برای ارتقا کارآیی کارآفرینی ، رفتار انتقادی و آمادگی فناوری در میان دانشجویان کم دانشگاه-2020
Underrepresented students face challenges in accessing entrepreneurial education and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. In attempts to address this deficit, a five-week social entrepreneurship program (named Poder) with a focus on technology was implemented at one of the largest community college systems in the U.S. Conceptually, the program curriculum was grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory and Critical Consciousness, two approaches noted for helping underserved students. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the program, students from diverse backgrounds (n=106) completed pre- and post-test measures, which included instruments assessing entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial skills, civic participation, critical behavior, technology optimism, and technology innovation. Results from paired samples t-tests and a series of repeated measures mixed-design ANOVAS suggest that students experienced significant increases in all outcome measures, except for civic participation, and effects were not moderated by race/ethnicity, gender, or immigration status. These results suggest that the program, designed with a culturally responsive curriculum, was effective in promoting the career development of culturally diverse and underrepresented students. We discuss conceptual and practical contributions for addressing educational attainment gaps and systemic issues in entrepreneurship and STEM education.
Keywords: Critical entrepreneurship | Underrepresented students | STEM education | Social cognitive career theory | Community college
Reinventing science and technology entrepreneurship education : The role of human and social capitals
بازآفرینی آموزش کارآفرینی علم و فناوری: نقش سرمایه های انسانی و اجتماعی-2020
With globalization, rapid technological change, and advanced telecommunications, people have become increasingly connected, and the economy is increasingly knowledge- and intellectual-based. This leads to more opportunities for innovation but also more uncertainty, which calls for increased entrepreneurial skills and the ability to adapt to meet these challenges (Heinonen and Poikkijoki, 2006). As commonly outlined by the literature in this millennium, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial venture are the key to innovation, productivity, and effective competition (Bruyat and Julien, 2000).
Whats new in the research on agricultural entrepreneurship?
در تحقیقات مربوط به کارآفرینی کشاورزی چه چیز جدیدی وجود دارد؟-2019
Despite the mainstream entrepreneurship research had neglected the agricultural sector, this scenario seems to have changed in the last years with the study of new and diverse phenomena in several countries around the world. This study aims to analyse the state-of-the-art on agricultural entrepreneurship through a systematic literature review and applying the co-words bibliometric technique. The articles reviewed were obtained from the Scopus database, covering journals from all subject areas. The results allowed to identify three main approaches: i) Entrepreneurial Skills and Behaviour, ii) Entrepreneurial Strategies, and iii) Community and Entrepreneurial Activity. Based on this classification, the study shows that the Entrepreneurial Skills and Behaviour are examined essentially in developing countries, focusing on the assessment of entrepreneurship programmes, oriented not only to agricultural students in higher education institutes but also to women and young farmers. Entrepreneurial Strategies of farmers are analysed mainly in developed countries, although it can be based in the diversification of agricultural and non-agricultural businesses, innovation or market channels, depending considerably on factors such as country, type of product and size. Finally, the Community and Entrepreneurial Activity focuses essentially on the impacts of food production in communities of developed countries, highlighting the social entrepreneurship initiatives at urban agriculture.
Keywords: Agricultural entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurship | Agriculture | Systematic literature review | Bibliometrics
Agricultural entrepreneurship: Going back to the basics
کارآفرینی کشاورزی: بازگشت به اصول اولیه-2019
Through a Systematic Literature Review, this study aims to analyse how the research in agricultural entrepreneurship is approached in the period until 2012 and compare it with the period 2013–2017, which was found by Dias et al. (2019). This comparison allows identifying which research topics are underlined in each period as well as examine different perspectives on the same topic in both periods. Based on articles from the Scopus database, this review identifies two main thematic areas in the period until 2012: “Entrepreneurial Skills and Income Sources”; and “Market and Resources”. Researchers state that farmers can be considered as entrepreneurs and as decision-makers who aim to maximize profits, developing various typologies of agricultural diversification, although conclude that entrepreneurial skills required for diversified farming are different from the ones required in conventional farming. Attending to the increasingly liberalisation of agricultural markets, the literature also focuses on the ways how farmers had recombined existing farm resources into new uses namely land, human, financial and natural resources. In both periods, we conclude that entrepreneurial skills are underlined but, in the period 2013–2017, new research topics were introduced.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Agriculture | Systematic literature review | Bibliometrics
Tourism Education: What about entrepreneurial skills?
آموزش گردشگری: چه چیزی در مورد مهارت های کارآفرینی می دانید؟-2017
Tourism is generally acknowledged as one of the economic sectors with higher growth prospects worldwide. As a consequence, the number of tourism education courses has grown significantly in the last decades in order to meet the demands of the qualified workforce. Nevertheless, students who enter this sector will need different skills to face the challenges of this highly competitive and demanding industry. In this case, entrepreneurial skills are of paramount importance. The aim of this paper was to understand the perspective of tourism students on the relevance of entrepreneurship education within their courses. This study aims at describing an innovative teaching program called ‘Learning to be’, focused on fostering entrepreneurial attitudes and skills, through a project based learning methodology inspired in the Design Thinking process (Daniel et al., 2016). In this program, tourism students are challenged to develop viable solutions to real-case problems proposed by private and public organizations. A feedback questionnaire was developed to verify the impact of the entrepreneurship education program on students. It allowed to conclude that from the tourism students perspective the embedd edness of entrepreneurship education within their courses was considered very relevant to assess future employment prospects, being the students both employees or self-employed. Students had also acquired and enhanced non-cognitive skills which are most valued by the tourism industry. This case study was also pertinent to identify best practices and propose guidelines for creating curricular spaces for the development of entrepreneurial skills.
Keywords: Tourism education | Entrepreneurship education | Entrepreneurial skills | Soft skills