Supporting entrepreneurs : A systematic review of literature and an agenda for research
حمایت از کارآفرینان: مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات و دستور کار تحقیقی-2020
Entrepreneurship has become a cornerstone of economic development. The public awareness of this phenomenon spurred great interest from the academic community and policy makers alongside the creation of a vast range of entrepreneurship support initiatives. We conduct a systematic review of 122 academic articles published during a thirty year period between 1985–2015 that help to identify a series of theoretical, empirical, and practical gaps that form the basis of a research agenda. For instance, there is a shortage of conceptual articles and few empirical studies generating theoretical contributions; samples are small and idiosyncratic; context is rarely considered; and that mechanisms of ES are largely unknown. We propose that ES should develop along four main themes that ameliorate these exposed gaps: acknowledge and understand the heterogeneity of entrepreneurs and new ventures; apply existing theories to ES; improve methods and research design; and integrate ES into the ecosystem of support.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Support | Technology entrepreneurship | Systematic Literature Review | Entrepreneurship
Developing entrepreneurial competences in biotechnology early career researchers to support long-term entrepreneurial career outcomes
توسعه صلاحیت های کارآفرینی در محققان حرفه ای اولیه بیوتکنولوژی برای حمایت از نتایج شغلی کارآفرینانه طولانی مدت-2020
This paper explores how early career biotechnology researchers develop entrepreneurial competences through participation in a bespoke entrepreneurship education competition and whether this affects their longer-term entrepreneurial actions. Specifically, we discuss the pedagogy and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of a long-running entrepreneurship competition, where biotechnology doctoral and postdoctoral researchers address societal and environmental challenges through hypothetical new venture creation. We present evidence regarding the efficacy of this experiential education, where online mentoring is blended with a team-based residential competition utilising inspirational speakers, practitioner support and peer learning in encouraging ECRs to consider commercialising their research. We conclude that long-term entrepreneurial career outcomes can be fostered through tailored short-term interventions.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | SET | STEM | Entrepreneurship education | Evaluation | Commercialisation | Biotechnology | careers
Women entrepreneurs as agents of change : A comparative analysis of social entrepreneurship processes in emerging markets
زنان کارآفرین به عنوان عوامل تغییر: تحلیل مقایسه ای فرایندهای کارآفرینی اجتماعی در بازارهای نوظهور-2020
In recent years, social and women entrepreneurship have become two growing fields of entrepreneurship research. In the context of social entrepreneurship, earlier research indicates that women are a better fit for leading social enterprises. However, the relevance of gender in the field of social entrepreneurship is underexplored and calls for further research, framing the mainstay of this study. Through a multiple case study approach employing four firms from two emerging markets – India and Colombia – we analyze how women entrepreneurs engage in social entrepreneurship processes in uncertain Base of the Pyramid environments. We use the effectuation lens to investigate the entrepreneurial journey and decision-making logics employed at various stages of the venture development. Findings show that women social entrepreneurs are highly motivated concerning social issues. Also, women entrepreneurs show a subtle transition between the two approaches of causation and effectuation during the venture creation processes. This study highlights the specific challenges that women entrepreneurs face in the emerging market context and the inclusive strategies they employ to enhance socio-economic development.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Women entrepreneurship | Inclusive business | BoP | Emerging economies
Financing paths, firms’ governance and corporate entrepreneurship : Accessing and applying operant and operand resources in biotechnology firms
مسیرهای تأمین مالی ، حاکمیت شرکت ها و کارآفرینی شرکتی : دسترسی و استفاده از منابع عملیاتی و عملگرایی در شرکتهای بیوتکنولوژی-2020
This study investigates the systemic relationship between financing paths used by early-stage biotechnology firms, the accessed resources, the subsequent reconfiguration of management and governance structures, and their effect on the level of corporate entrepreneurship. Adopting a qualitative methodology based on an inductive approach, in 2018 and 2019 we observed 12 UK biotechnology ventures that accessed private, corporate or crowdfunding equity investments. We collected primary data through open-ended and semi-structured interviews with CEOs and board members of these firms. Findings were interpreted applying a resource-based perspective, which unveiled the role and importance of operant and operand resources for organizational coordination and functioning. The way in which the controlled operant resources are used to improve the management and governance structures, and their functional interdependence, ultimately determines an optimal level of corporate entrepreneurship for effectively exploiting the accessed operand resources. The results provide useful insights regarding the systemic interdependence between financing paths, organizational resources, management team, governance bodies, and corporate entrepreneurship, that can enhance the understanding and performance of managers, shareholders and policy-makers involved in biotechnology business.
Keywords: Equity financing paths | Operand and operant resources | Governance and management structures | Corporate entrepreneurship | Systemic perspective
Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
Diaspora entrepreneurs’ push and pull institutional factors for investing in Africa : Insights from African returnees from the United Kingdom
فشار و جذب عوامل نهادی کارآفرینان دیاسپورا برای سرمایه گذاری در آفریقا: بینش بازگشت کنندگان آفریقایی از انگلستان-2020
Applying the institution-based views, this article conceptualises how diaspora entrepreneurs take stimuli from the push and pull institutional factors to develop business enterprises in their countries of origin. Using cases of African diaspora entrepreneurs in the UK and the grounded theory methodological approach, our conceptualised model demonstrates that the diasporas use the new knowledge, skills and wealth they have gained in the UK in tandem with support from trusted family, kinship and business ties at home to develop enterprises. It further demonstrates that diaspora entrepreneurs foster resilience to withstand weak formal institutions in their countries of origin and the discriminatory obstacles in the UK. We also found that institutional barriers which served as push factors that encouraged or forced migrants to leave their home countries to seek greener pastures abroad may later become pull factors that enable them to engage in diaspora entrepreneurship which is often characterised by paradoxes. Particularly, the informal institutions that constrain foreign investors can become assets for African diaspora entrepreneurs and help them set up new businesses and exploit market opportunities in Africa. The implications of the study for diaspora entrepreneurship literature are outlined.
Keywords: Africa | Institutional challenges | Policy | Diaspora entrepreneurs | Entrepreneurship | Institutions
Strengthening science, technology, and innovation-based incubators to help achieve Sustainable Development Goals : Lessons from India
تقویت علم، فن آوری، و رشد مبتنی بر نوآوری برای کمک به دستیابی اهداف توسعه پایدار: درس هایی از هند-2020
Policymakers in developing countries increasingly see science, technology, and innovation (STI) as an avenue for meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs), with STI-based startups as a key part of these efforts. Market failures call for government interventions in supporting STI for SDGs and publicly-funded incubators can potentially fulfil this role. Using the specific case of India, we examine how publicly-funded incubators could contribute to strengthening STI-based entrepreneurship. Indias STI policy and its links to societal goals span multiple decades—but since 2015 these goals became formally organized around the SDGs. We examine why STI-based incubators were created under different policy priorities before 2015, the role of public agencies in implementing these policies, and how some incubators were particularly effective in addressing the societal challenges that can now be mapped to SDGs. We find that effective incubation for supporting STI-based entrepreneurship to meet societal goals extended beyond traditional incubation activities. For STI-based incubators to be effective, policymakers must strengthen the ‘incubation system’. This involves incorporating targeted SDGs in specific incubator goals, promoting coordination between existing incubator programs, developing a performance monitoring system, and finally, extending extensive capacity building at multiple levels including for incubator managers and for broader STI in the country.
Keywords: Science technology and innovation | developing countries | entrepreneurship | incubators | public policy | sustainable development goals | science policy
Micro-foundations of organizational ambidexterity in the context of cross-border mergers and acquisitions
مبانی خرد دوسویه سازمانی در زمینه ادغام و ادغام مرزی-2020
Micro-foundational approaches can enable firms to develop organizational ambidexterity, which is critical to long-term prosperity. However, to date, few studies have examined how mergers and acquisitions (M& A)—processes reliant on knowledge transfer—provide a useful organizational context through which to understand the achievement of organizational ambidexterity. Considering organizational ambidexterity from the viewpoint of exploitative and explorative innovation, we examine how behavioral contexts (corporate entrepreneurship) and structure (integration) regulate knowledge transfer activities at the micro-foundational and firm levels within a cross-border M&A context. Analysis of 143 cross-border M&As completed by United Kingdom (UK) acquiring firms revealed that: (1) knowledge sharing between the acquirer and the acquired leads to organizational ambidexterity; (2) increased use of the acquired targets capabilities has a negative effect on organizational ambidexterity; (3) overall, capability sharing is positively related to organizational ambidexterity; (4) corporate entrepreneurship has both negative and positive moderating effects (on use of the acquired targets capabilities and capability sharing, respectively), while integration positively moderates the effects of knowledge sharing on organizational ambidexterity.
Keywords: Micro-foundations | Organizational ambidexterity | Corporate entrepreneurship | Merger and acquisitions | Capabilities Knowledge sharing
Digital Academic Entrepreneurship: A structured literature review and avenue for a research agenda
کارآفرینی آکادمیک دیجیتال: یک بررسی ادبیات ساختار یافته و راهی برای یک دستور کار تحقیقاتی-2020
This paper reviews the Academic Entrepreneurship literature according to the emergence of powerful Digital technologies, providing an overview of the state of research and outlining a future research agenda about Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. One hundred and sixty-five journal papers were initially extracted from Scopus and their content was analysed for the paper selection process by two researchers in parallel, plus a third one in case of uncertainty. Finally, fifty-nine papers dealing with digital academic entrepreneurship and published in a variety of academic journals have been analyzed through a content and a bibliometric analysis. Findings show that literature on Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is really scant and dominated by unrelated research. Content analysis provides the emergence of four major research streams: 1) Digital Technologies for Entrepreneurship Education; 2) The “maker space movement” for Academic Entrepreneurship; 3) Digital tech- nologies for discovering entrepreneurial opportunities; 4) Creating entrepreneurial competences in the Digital “University-based” Entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper presents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive structured literature review of the disruptive role of digital transformation for the Academic Entrepreneurship. Despite the growing literature on Digital Entrepreneurship, this research area is still fragmented and under- theorized. More systematic and holistic studies, considering both the technological, economic and the social aspects of Academic Entrepreneurship are required.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Digital technologies | Digital academic entrepreneurship | Digital transformation | Literature review | Software R | VOSviewer
Are social incubators different from other incubators? Evidence from Italy
آیا دستگاه های جوجه کشی اجتماعی با سایر دستگاه های جوجه کشی فرق دارند؟ مدارکی از ایتالیا-2020
This paper defines and analyses incubators that mainly support start-ups with a significant social impact. In 2016, a survey was conducted on the 162 incubators active in Italy, and a total of 88 responses were received. An analysis of the literature and of this dataset led to the identification of three types of incubators: Business, Mixed, and Social. Thirty of the respondents sent information on their tenants. Thanks to the data regarding 247 tenants, it was possible to analyze the impact of the three different types of incubators (Business, Mixed, and Social) on the tenants’ growth through OLS regression analyses. A Social Incubator is here defined as an incubator that supports more than 50% of start-ups that aim to introduce a positive social impact. The study shows that Social Incubators perceive social impact measurement and training/consulting on business ethics and CSR as being more important services than other incubator types. The regression analyses explain that Social Incubators are as efficient as other incubators, in terms of tenants’ economic growth, notwithstanding the focus of Social Incubators on start-ups that do not pursue only economic objectives. Finally, this study indicates that policy- makers can foster Social Incubators to support social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Incubators | Accelerators | Social start-up | Social entrepreneurship | Social innovation | Entrepreneurship