Developing entrepreneurial competences in biotechnology early career researchers to support long-term entrepreneurial career outcomes
توسعه صلاحیت های کارآفرینی در محققان حرفه ای اولیه بیوتکنولوژی برای حمایت از نتایج شغلی کارآفرینانه طولانی مدت-2020
This paper explores how early career biotechnology researchers develop entrepreneurial competences through participation in a bespoke entrepreneurship education competition and whether this affects their longer-term entrepreneurial actions. Specifically, we discuss the pedagogy and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of a long-running entrepreneurship competition, where biotechnology doctoral and postdoctoral researchers address societal and environmental challenges through hypothetical new venture creation. We present evidence regarding the efficacy of this experiential education, where online mentoring is blended with a team-based residential competition utilising inspirational speakers, practitioner support and peer learning in encouraging ECRs to consider commercialising their research. We conclude that long-term entrepreneurial career outcomes can be fostered through tailored short-term interventions.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | SET | STEM | Entrepreneurship education | Evaluation | Commercialisation | Biotechnology | careers
Digital Academic Entrepreneurship: A structured literature review and avenue for a research agenda
کارآفرینی آکادمیک دیجیتال: یک بررسی ادبیات ساختار یافته و راهی برای یک دستور کار تحقیقاتی-2020
This paper reviews the Academic Entrepreneurship literature according to the emergence of powerful Digital technologies, providing an overview of the state of research and outlining a future research agenda about Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. One hundred and sixty-five journal papers were initially extracted from Scopus and their content was analysed for the paper selection process by two researchers in parallel, plus a third one in case of uncertainty. Finally, fifty-nine papers dealing with digital academic entrepreneurship and published in a variety of academic journals have been analyzed through a content and a bibliometric analysis. Findings show that literature on Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is really scant and dominated by unrelated research. Content analysis provides the emergence of four major research streams: 1) Digital Technologies for Entrepreneurship Education; 2) The “maker space movement” for Academic Entrepreneurship; 3) Digital tech- nologies for discovering entrepreneurial opportunities; 4) Creating entrepreneurial competences in the Digital “University-based” Entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper presents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive structured literature review of the disruptive role of digital transformation for the Academic Entrepreneurship. Despite the growing literature on Digital Entrepreneurship, this research area is still fragmented and under- theorized. More systematic and holistic studies, considering both the technological, economic and the social aspects of Academic Entrepreneurship are required.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Digital technologies | Digital academic entrepreneurship | Digital transformation | Literature review | Software R | VOSviewer
Diverse cognitive skills and team performance: A field experiment based on an entrepreneurship education program
Diverse cognitive skills and team performance: A field experiment based on an entrepreneurship education program-2020
Verbal and mathematical reasoning are key cognitive skills which individuals use throughout their lives to create economic value. We argue that individuals undertaking entrepreneurial tasks also draw on these skills, and we study how best these skills should be combined in entrepreneurial teams. To that purpose we conduct a randomized field experiment using data from the BizWorld entrepreneurship education program. Four different types of teams are created which differ in terms of their cognitive skill composition. Our results show that balanced skills are beneficial for a team’s venture performance only if it comes from within-person skill balance, and that combining team members with different skills in mixed teams does not compensate for a lack of members who individually possess balanced cognitive skills.
Keywords: Skill balance | Entrepreneurship | Team performance | Team diversity | Field experiment
Behavioral and Mental Health outcomes from an RCT of a Youth Entrepreneurship Intervention among Native American Adolescents
نتایج رفتاری و بهداشت روان از RCT مداخله کارآفرینی جوانان در میان نوجوانان بومی آمریکا-2020
Purpose: This study reports the impact of an entrepreneurship education intervention designed and evaluated specifically for its impact on substance use, suicide and violence-related outcomes among Native American adolescents.Methods: This randomized controlled trial included N = 394 Native Americans ages 13–16. Participants were randomly assigned 2:1 (n = 267:127) to the Arrowhead Business Group intervention versus a control condition. Logistic mixed effects regression models examined within group and between group differences in trajectory from baseline to 24 months follow-up.Results: Fewer intervention vs. control participants used marijuana at 6-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention (19.6% vs. 28.0%, p = 0.032; 20.4% vs. 31.8%, p = 0.01; and 24.1% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.047). All violence-related measures (suicide attempts, carrying a weapon, missing school because felt unsafe, fighting, and fighting at school) statistically significantly declined between baseline and 24 months for both groups. Positive between group differences favoring intervention participants were observed at 6-months for missing school because felt unsafe, and at 24-months for fighting at school. While alcohol use increased for both groups over time, control participants experienced a two-fold higher increase in binge alcohol use than intervention participants (control: 7.1–16.7% vs. intervention: 8.1–13.0%).Conclusions: This is the first report in the US literature of a youth entrepreneurship intervention designed and evaluated to promote behavioral and mental health outcomes. It shows promise for reducing substance abuse and violence toward self and others, the largest health disparities for Native American youth.
Keywords: Substance use | Adolescent | Entrepreneurship education | Native American | Randomized controlled trial | Violence
Stakeholders’ role in entrepreneurship education and training programmes with impacts on regional development
نقش سهامداران در برنامه های آموزش و آموزش کارآفرینی با تأثیر بر توسعه منطقه ای-2020
This studys main objective was to understand major stakeholders role in entrepreneurship education and training programmers and these entities perceptions of the programmers impacts on regional development. This research involved semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders participating in an entrepreneurship education and training programmers in a low-density region. The results show, first, that stakeholders active participation in entrepreneurship programmers is important to ensure their sustainability. Second, the creation of a network among these stakeholders is fundamental to ensuring more interaction and closer proximity with participating entrepreneurs. Last, entrepreneurship education and training programmers can have a number of impacts on low-density regions, including, among others, local investment and the creation of new businesses, jobs and specialized services. This studys results contribute to a deeper understanding of the importance of entrepreneurship education and training programmers to regional development, as well as advancing the evolution of stakeholder and network theories. Regarding practical implications, the findings are expected to serve as an incentive for governments to develop public policies promoting entrepreneurship and related education programmers. The results further highlight the need to involve different regional stakeholders in entrepreneurship programmers that generate new businesses with positive impacts on local and regional development.
Keywords: Stakeholders | Network | Entrepreneurship programmers | Regional development
Rural communities as a context for entrepreneurship: Exploring perceptions of youth and business owners
جوامع روستایی به عنوان زمینه ای برای کارآفرینی: کاوش درك جوانان و صاحبان مشاغل-2020
In light of declining rural economies and dissipating rural populations, scholars, policy makers and program developers have increasingly looked to local business development and entrepreneurship as a means of revitalizing small communities across the United States. This study explores the perceptions of youth and business owners regarding the unique challenges and benefits or rural contexts for entrepreneurship, as well as perceptions regarding the potential role of youth in contributing to rural economies. Drawing from in-depth interviews and focus groups among local business owners and young rural residents, findings support earlier research regarding structural challenges that hamper rural business development (e.g., weak infrastructure) but also shed light on social challenges brought about by small and tightly bonded communities (e.g., openness to unfamiliar businesses). Notwithstanding these challenges, findings also suggest several perceived benefits of small communities such as local support for residents’ enterprises and ease of communication with one’s customer base. Finally, business owners expressed placing a high value on rural youth and their potential to make unique contributions to business development, nonetheless, found challenges around providing meaningful hands-on experiences for youth to learn about business operations.
Keywords: Rural communities | Youth | Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurship education
The medium-term impact of entrepreneurship education on labor market outcomes: Experimental evidence from university graduates in Tunisia
تأثیر میان مدت آموزش کارآفرینی بر نتایج بازار کار: شواهد تجربی دانش آموختگان دانشگاه در تونس-2020
Despite the widespread popularity of entrepreneurship education, there is thin evidence on its eﬀectiveness in improving employment outcomes over the medium to long-term. A potential time lag between entrepreneurial intentions and actions is sometimes presented as a reason why employment impacts are rarely observed. Based on a randomized control trial among university students in Tunisia, this paper studies the medium-term impacts of entrepreneurship education four years after students’ graduation. The paper complements earlier evidence that documented small short-term impacts on entry into self-employment and aspirations toward the future one year after graduation. The medium-term results show that the impacts of entrepreneurship education were short-lived. The intervention led to a temporary increase in business ideas and in nascent entrepreneurship. However, there is no sustained impact on self-employment or employment outcomes four years after graduation. The intervention induced some lasting impacts on business knowledge, but not on business networks. A large share of graduates reports ﬁnancial constraints as the most prevailing barrier to entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship education | Training | Self-employment | Skills | Field experiment | Randomized control trial
Bringing an entrepreneurial focus to sustainability education: A teaching framework based on content analysis
ایجاد تمرکز کارآفرینی بر آموزش پایداری: چارچوبی برای آموزش مبتنی بر تحلیل محتوا-2020
Research on sustainability education has neglected to integrate entrepreneurial skills into other relevant competences such as foresight, complex problem-solving, and interdisciplinarity. Previous research highlights possible convergences between sustainability education and entrepreneurship education; however, it does not address how to achieve this integration in practice. To address the gap between the literature and practice, this paper tackles the question: How can entrepreneurial competences be taught in sustainability education programs in higher education? We introduce a teaching framework based on a bibliometric method that combines topic-modeling with a content-analysis of selected articles. The focus of the analysis is the commonalities of both educational ﬁelds. Our results introduce a program for entrepreneurial-oriented sustainability education, providing a description of the educational focus, teaching-learning approaches, main themes, and external collaboration. The framework proposes educational for sustainable development across educational programs while implicitly addressing complex community problems through the development of solutions that can change the ways business and consumers relate with sustainability issues. These results contribute to the sustainability education literature by integrating the development of entrepreneurship competences into interdisciplinary pro- grams. The framework could also be used as a practical guide for designing courses, at both the undergraduate and graduate level, that integrate both sustainability and entrepreneurship.© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bibliometric | Sustainability education | Entrepreneurship education | Sustainable development goals | Teaching framework | Higher education
Entrepreneurship education programmes: How learning, inspiration and resources affect intentions for new venture creation in a developing economy
برنامه های آموزش کارآفرینی: چگونه یادگیری ، الهام و منابع بر اهداف ایجاد سرمایه گذاری جدید در اقتصاد در حال توسعه تأثیر می گذارند-2020
This paper develops and tests a model of pathways between participation in entrepreneurship education programmes (EEPs) and entrepreneurial intention. EEPs are degree programmes de- signed to provide mastery and experience over several years of academic study. Structural equation modelling on survey data gathered from 348 graduating students from eight universities in Pakistan showed how three EEP components (learning, inspiration and resources) inﬂuence intention: learning and inspiration activities both increase perceived norms for being an entrepreneur and students perceptions that they can be entrepreneurs (perceived control). Access to incubation resources had the strongest eﬀect on intention by increasing perceived norms which in turn increases positive attitudes and perceived control. These ﬁndings provide insight into the conclusions drawn from previous studies by showing how positive student experience across diﬀerent components of entrepreneurship programme have a positive impact on students’ intentions to start their own business.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship development | Entrepreneurial education | Entrepreneurial intention
Entrepreneurship development and pedagogical gaps in entrepreneurial marketing education
توسعه کارآفرینی و شکافهای آموزشی در آموزش بازاریابی کارآفرینی-2020
In the age of automation and artificial intelligence, the need for sustainable entrepreneurship for job creation has significantly raised. For the development of sustainable entrepreneurship in recent years, business schools worldwide have recognised their roles, and started providing en- trepreneurship education (EE). Due to being in emerging phase, the EE at business schools is following pedagogic approaches that are not exclusively developed for entrepreneurship, and hence, not suitable with the practical entrepreneurial needs. This leaves graduates lacking in many types of entrepreneurial skill-sets. One of those key skill-sets is entrepreneurial marketing (EM), which is one of the most dominating problems for SME entrepreneurs for the survival and growth of their businesses. Furthermore, the literature highlights that lack of EM skill-set is also one of the leading causes of entrepreneurial failure. The failure of SME entrepreneurs not only discourages them, but also damages the initiatives taken by the governments and private in- stitutions for entrepreneurship development in the economies. Thus, considering the critical importance of EM education for the development of entrepreneurship, this paper has highlighted the pedagogical gaps in EM education, proposed future research avenues, and made practical implications for business schools’ academic authorities to upgrade their pedagogical models.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship development | Entrepreneurship education | Entrepreneurial marketing | SME entrepreneur | Entrepreneurial failure | Pedagogy | Theory-practice gap | Business school