دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Environmental law::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Environmental law

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 9
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Estimating the effectiveness of different environmental law enforcement policies on illegal C&D waste dumping in Israel
برآورد اثربخشی سیاست های مختلف اجرای قانون محیط زیست در ریختن ضایعات غیرقانونی C&D در اسرائیل-2020
Illegal dumping of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a major concern for environmental policymakers. Three different environmental law enforcement policies, aimed at the reduction of illegal C&D waste dumping, are enforced in Israel. These policies include fines (F), vehicle impoundment (V), and criminal indictment (I) by the court. Although, the scope of illegal C&D waste dumping in Israel appears to decline, little is known which of the above policies has been effective in combating the phenomenon. In an attempt to answer this question, we use data on F-V-I instances, recorded between July 2007 and December 2016, and compare them with monthly changes in the ratio between the amount of waste brought to authorized waste dumping sites and the estimated amount of C&D waste generated in the country each month. As the study shows, only the V-sanction was found to be significantly affecting the ratio (t = 3.083; p < 0.01), while the effect of other policy was found insignificant. We explain low efficiency of other law enforcement policies by relatively small fines imposed on the offenders, long court proceedings, combined with a relatively low chance of being caught. By contrast, the V-sanction may be more effective because it results in immediate and severe economic losses to the offenders, causing C&D waste transporters to haul their load to authorized sites. As we argue, for an environmental enforcement policy to be effective, it should be adequate to the severity of the offense and applied swiftly.
Keywords: Construction & demolition (C&D) waste | Illegal dumping | Law enforcement policies
مقاله انگلیسی
2 How does new environmental law affect public environmental protection activities in China? Evidence from structural equation model analysis on legal cognition
چگونه قانون جدید محیط زیست بر فعالیتهای عمومی در زمینه حفاظت از محیط زیست در چین تأثیر می گذارد؟ شواهدی از تحلیل مدل معادلات ساختاری بر شناخت حقوقی-2020
To investigate the validity of Chinese law enforcement from the publics perspective, this research applies the theory of planned behavior, and introduces law as a moderator variable to explore the determinants of publics environmental behaviors. Results from an empirical study of China indicate that perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, inward attitude, and outward attitude all have positive impacts on environmental intentions and indirectly affect the citizens environmental behavior and activists environmental behavior. Meanwhile, legal cognition positively moderates the relationship between environmental intentions and behaviors. As the level of the publics legal awareness increases, the direct effect of these two types of environmental intentions on environmental behaviors respectively continues to increase. Based on the findings, some constructive implications are provided to the governments and legislators to strengthen public participation in environmental protection.
Keywords: Environmental law | Public environmental protection activities | Structural equation model (SEM) | Legal cognition | China
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Is itmore effective for national regulators to go directly to the city level to enforce environmental laws?
آیا تنظیم مقررات ملی برای اجرای قوانین محیط زیست مستقیماً به سطح شهر مؤثر است؟-2020
We examine the effectiveness of a new approach of using a direct inspection program on all environmental laws on the firm-level environmental investment in China. The direct inspection programis a response to the continued pollution issues despite the increased effort in the actions of regulatory agencies and their agents. Our findings suggest that firms located in direct inspection cities perform better than those located in non-direct inspection cities in terms of environmental investments. The findings are robust to a battery of robustness checks. Using dynamic analysis, we find that the effect of the direct inspection programlasts at least two years. Our further analysis shows that firms in direct inspection cities respond better to environmental enforcement and nonstated owned firms receive more subsidies than firms in non-direct inspection program cities. The major take away from our analysis is that, in emerging economies, it is more effective to go directly to the city level to enhance the actions of regulatory agencies and their agents. Cutting layers of agencies can enhance firm-level environmental investment.
Keywords: Direct inspection | Environmental actions of regulatory agencies | Layer of regulatory agencies | Environmental investment
مقاله انگلیسی
4 The pioneer market for forest law compliance in Paragominas, Eastern Brazilian Amazon
بازار پیشگام برای پیروی از قانون جنگل ها در پاراگومیناس ، آمازون شرقی برزیل-2020
This paper explores farmers’ motivations to participate in a market mechanism to come into compliance with the forest laws in Brazil. As of July 2008, farmers with deforestation beyond what is legally permitted can choose between compensating for illegal deforestation at another property or restoring this environmental debt in situ. The study analyzes the first real case of such a compensation market in the Amazonia, started in 2014 in the municipality of Paragominas, Pará. I explore the main features of the Paragominas compensation market in order to understand why farmers with forest deficits would opt for such a mechanism. In particular, the main question explored in this study is: what economic and environmental factors influence the choice to compensate rather than restore in properties with a legal reserve deficit in Paragominas? Results show that an increase in the percentage of illegal deforestation that occurred up to 2008 on a property is associated with an increase in the predicted probability of choosing compensation, when keeping agriculture as a land use, the property size, and the number of land uses in the property unchanged. The study also reveals that farmers with forest deficits may prefer to buy a forest area instead of renting for compensation if they have enough capital to invest.
Keywords: Brazilian amazon | Forest Code | Environmental law compliance | Paragominas | Pará State
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Analysis of international, European and Scot’s law governing marine litter and integration of policy within regional marine plans
تجزیه و تحلیل قانون بین المللی ، اروپا و اسکاتلند در مورد حاشیه دریا و ادغام سیاست در برنامه های دریایی منطقه ای-2020
Within recent years, the issue of marine litter has become increasingly relevant to the citizens of Scotland. Inputs from shipping and fishing activities with additional contributions from society’s throw away lifestyle has inundated healthy seas, endangered wildlife and degraded the health of the oceans. International, European and Scot’s law governing the marine environment exists on a legally and non-legally binding basis, with the strictest of regulations concerning marine litter more commonly found on a non-legally binding basis. A global response is necessary to curb the issue but despite commitments to protect the marine environment, many States that have committed to reducing environmental pollution via international treaties are lagging on their promises. The introduction of marine planning to reduce conflict between users and the marine environment has the potential to address marine litter and to uphold commitments for healthy seas under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This paper, using a scientific literature-based analysis, evaluates international, European and Scottish environmental law that addresses aspects of marine litter, including inputs, types of marine litter and the outcomes of parties found guilty of contributing to the issue. Integration of these policies within regional marine plans utilising local knowledge has become the first step in tackling this ubiquitous problem, as well as increasing awareness of policies and marine planning amongst the public. A survey was carried out in Scotland to establish awareness levels on these topics: awareness of marine litter (100%), marine planning (34%) and regional marine plans (33%). Raising public awareness of marine planning will aid its effectiveness in reducing the presence and impact of marine litter.
Keywords: Marine litter | Marine planning | Environmental law | Policies | By-laws | Scotland
مقاله انگلیسی
6 از "پرداخت های آلوده" به "پرداخت های آلوده ای که آلوده نمی کند"
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 4 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 13
قراردادهای بدون نقض، ضمانت های اجرایی کوچک به شکل اجبار به پرداخت و تقلب و ریاکاری، واکنش های سیاسی معمول دربرابر زیان های محیطی بوده است. علاوه بر این، بسیاری از گونه های موجود قانون درمورد قانون و نظارت بین المللی محیطی بر مبنای نیت خوب و قرارداد داوطلبانه هستند و اثبات شده است که محدود یا غیرموثر هستند. این مقاله در شرایط فعلی بحران آب و هوایی، بحث می کند که هیچ اتاق فکر و گفتگو و پیشنهاد بیشتری وجود ندارد که منجر به راه حل های غلط شود. باتوجه به این، راه حل های قانونی درباره مشکلات محیطی نیازمند فرمول سازی های جدیدی است که یک درک بهتری از طبیعت و ساکنان غیر انسانی آن ایجاد کند؛ این مقاله بحث می کند که یک قانون بین المللی درباره تخریب محیط این توانایی را دارد که یک ابزار قدرتمند برای تغییر دادن ساختارهایی شود که باعث آسیب محیطی و جرائم آب و هوایی می شوند.
کلیدواژه ها: آسیب به محیط | تغییرات آب و هوایی | جرائم در برابر صلح | تخریب محیطی | قانون بین المللی | عدالت زیست محیطی
مقاله ترجمه شده
7 From ‘polluter pays’ to ‘polluter does not pollute’
از پرداخت آلوده به آلوده سالم-2016
Non-binding agreements, minor sanctions in the form of payment obligations and shaming have been the usual policy responses against environmental harms. In addition to this, many existing pieces of legisla- tion on international environmental law and governance are based on good intent and voluntary agree- ment and they have proven to be limited or ineffective. This article argues that, at the current state of the climate crisis, there is no more room for negotiations and proposals which lead to false solutions. Acknowledging that, legal solutions to environmental problems require new formulations which incorpo- rate a different understanding of nature and its non-human inhabitants; this article suggests that an international law of ecocide has the potential to become a very powerful tool to transform structures which cause environmental damage and climate crimes.© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ecocide | Climate change | Crimes against peace | Environmental degradation | International law | Ecological justice
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Toward clearer skies: Challenges in regulating transboundary haze in Southeast Asia
به سوی آسمان روشن تر: چالش در تنظیم ابهام فرامرزی در جنوب شرقی آسیا-2016
Addressing transboundary environmental problems, such as pollution, and climate change, hinge on strategies that often require both mandatory and voluntary participation of affected nations. Using an unprecedented approach, the Singapore government recently passed a Transboundary Haze Pollution Act (THPA) that financially penalizes companies for smoke-haze affecting the city-state but originating from activities outside her political boundaries. This Act may set a precedent for future actions against proximate actors of environmental degradation but is fraught with substantial challenges in implementation. In attempting to hold agri-business companies accountable, the THPA must present indisputable evidence of fire burning activities and positively identify the initiator of these fires. We further argue that small amendments to the THPA, and other similar laws, may result in environmental co-benefits related to carbon emissions, ecosystem services and biodiversity preservation.
Keywords: Environmental law | Deforestation | Fires | Governance | Industrial plantations | Indonesia
مقاله انگلیسی
9 توسعه نوين در حقوق بين الملل محيط زيست با تأكيد بر كنوانسيون حقوق بهره برداري از آبراههاي بين المللي براي مقاصد غيركشتيراني 1997
سال انتشار: 2012 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 10 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 12
تصويب كنوانسيون 1997 راجع به حقوق استفاده هاي غير كشتيراني از آبراههاي بين المللي گامي مهم و اساسي در توسعه حقوق بين الملل محيط زيست معاصر به شمار مي آيد. توسعه اي كه بيش از هر چيز مرهون اصول و قواعد نوين حقوقي است . در اين كنوانسيون بسياري از اصول حقوقي مطرح درحقوق بين الملل محيط زيست ، از قبيل اصل «بهره برداری و استفاده منطقی و منصفانه از منابع « ، اصل « ممنوع بودن وارد آوردن خسارت بر قلمرو سرزميني دولت ديگر« و اصل «همکاری بین المللی» تدوين وارائه گرديده است . با مطالعه اين قواعد و اصول حقوقي مي توان سير توسعه حقوق بين الملل معاصر را ملاحظه كرد ؛ گرچه بديهي است حقوق بين الملل محيط زيست براي رسيدن به جايگاه شايسته خود راهي طولاني پيش روي دارد.
واژگان کلیدی: حقوق بين الملل محيط زيست | كنوانسيون نويورك 1997 راجع به حقوق استفاده هاي غير كشتيراني از آبراههاي بين المللي | بهره برداري و استفاده منطقي و منصفانه از منابع | ممنوعيت وارد آوردن خسارت بر قلمرو سرزميني دولت ديگر | اصل همكاري بين المللي | آبراهها و درياچه هاي بين المللي
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