AI, Blockchain, and Vehicular Edge Computing for Smart and Secure IoV: Challenges and Directions
هوش مصنوعی ، بلاکچین و محاسبه لبه ای برای هوشمند و ایمن IoV: چالش ها و دستورالعمل ها-2020
Internet of Things (IoT) is turning into an undeniably developing point of discussion in both research and industrial fields. A key area that is witnessing a quick development in the utilization of IoT devices is the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), which allows information exchange among vehicles and infrastructures. Notably, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been widely adopted for solving challenging vehicular problems and managing the IoV infrastructure. Despite the advantages AI carries for IoV, its deployment can be negatively affected by lacking computation resources and processing unreliable data. On the other hand, Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed peer-to-peer network architecture that can be employed to empower security and resist against undesirable data modification. However, integrating both technologies (i.e., AI and Blockchain) exhausts, even more, the IoV infrastructure. Therefore, we present in this paper an overview discussing the AI and Blockchain approaches and models for IoV and propose a new Vehicular Edge Computing based architecture embedding both technologies and overcoming the aforementioned limitations. We then discuss the main challenges and give notice to the concerned parties and stakeholders about promising directions that arise from enabling the three technologies for providing smart, secure, and efficient IoV.
Entrepreneurship in marketing: Socializing partners for brand governance in EM firms
کارآفرینی در بازاریابی: معاشرت شرکای حاکمیت برند در شرکت های EM-2020
We present case studies of opportunity exploration and exploitation in two small, established Entrepreneurial Marketing ﬁrms who actively build online and oﬄine partnerships with a range of stakeholders. We use ef- fectuation principles to explore the use of the relational norms of trust, selection, solidarity, information ex- change and ﬂexibility within the ﬁrms, considering these as mechanisms used by the organization to socialise their partners. We examine the way ﬁrms vary their emphasis on trust, selection, solidarity and information exchange in line with the nature and importance of the partnership, and how each contributes to opportunity exploration. We also examine how ﬂexibility enables the exploitation of opportunities validated as having po- tential. Finally, we present a theoretical framework based on our results along with propositions for future research. Contributions are made to entrepreneurial marketing, eﬀectuation, and brand governance literatures.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial marketing | Socialization | Effectuation Relational norms | Brand governance | SMEs
Mindful management of relationships during periods of crises: A model of trust, doubt and relational adjustments
مدیریت آگاهانه روابط در دوره های بحران: الگویی از اعتماد ، تردید و تنظیمات رابطه ای-2020
This paper identiﬁes practices of business-to-business relationship management that lead to building resilience during crisis. Business relationships play a signiﬁcant role when ﬁrms face turbulence and disruption. Crises create resource limitations that businesses need to manage by the rapid formation of new relationships to access resources and build adequate capabilities. Mindfully managing such relationships requires a combination of trust, doubt and control mechanisms to enable exchange while safeguarding against relational vulnerabilities. Drawing on data from 33 ﬁrms operating within highly turbulent and uncertain environments, and crisis management literature, we apply the concept of mindfulness and introduce a model of mindful management of relationships as a process that combines the cognitive and behavioural capabilities of trusting, doubting, verifying, and adjusting relational exposure. This process enables a rapid acquisition of resources and building capabilities while enabling businesses dealing with issues before relational failure manifests. The mindful process supports ongoing and highly interactive relationships that adjust to changing circumstances fostering collaboration to deal with crises. Results encourage managers to rapidly develop relationships and trust new partners, whilst practicing suspicious thinking, enacting continuous interaction, empowering experienced boundary personnel, enabling frequent informal communication, and supporting the development of diverse social bonds.
Keywords: Mindfulness | Relationship management | Trust | Doubt | Crisis | Resilience
Entrepreneurship within the history of marketing
کارآفرینی در طول تاریخ بازاریابی-2020
Few scholarly articles explore the history of marketing beyond the commonly accepted origins. Even fewer studies explore the role of the entrepreneur in early markets and economies or how entrepreneurs adapted as the world economy shifted. Aside from recognizing that early forms of commercial exchange existed in the pre-industrial age, little is written about the social, historical, and anthropological constructs that contributed to the development of marketing and entrepreneurial theory or the profile of the first entrepreneurs who sought to expand commerce beyond simple exchanges within their community. We believe this to be an oversight on the part of historical scholars in marketing, entrepreneurship, and related disciplines which leaves a gap in the literature that we address by comparing and contrasting the traditional marketing perspectives with the entrepreneurial and relational perspectives across different eras. Propositions are developed in conjunction with the discussion of implications.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship history | Marketing history | Relational marketing | Business history | Exchange
Design optimization of a cross-flow He-Xe recuperator through second law analysis
بهينه سازي طراحي عبور متقابل جریان He-Xe از طريق تحليل قانون دوم-2020
Nuclear power conversion in space has been approached by various means since the first space missions, with the advent of concepts such as thermoelectric, thermionic and thermodynamic conversion. Nowadays, thermal cycles are under greater focus for being capable of providing higher conversion efficiencies. In this context, one of the main concerns of engineers is the trade-off between power and mass. Therefore, this work aims the optimization of a recuperator used in a regenerative closed Brayton cycle applied for power conversion in the project of a small-scale nuclear reactor. The recuperator consists of a cross-flow, shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a matrix of tubes distributed in a staggered configuration. In this work, the number of tubes and the mass flow rate are varied. The number of tubes distributed axially is fixed as 4, whereas the quantity around the axis can be 5, 7, 9, 12 and 16 tubes. The working fluid considered in this study is a mixture of noble gases He-Xe with a molecular weight of 40 g/mol, whereas Inconel alloy 617 is applied as the recuperator material. The optimization procedure was based on the entropy generation minimization and the heat exchanger effectiveness, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to obtain the flow field. Optimum mass flow rates are obtained for all the geometries at the points of minimum entropy generation number, around which lie the ranges of tested mass flow rates. The ratio between the entropy generation number and effectiveness associated with the optimum mass flow rate is considered a performance evaluation criterion, and the dependence of this parameter with exchanger mass is assessed in order to select the most suitable geometry for the studied application. This analysis leads to the optimum design point at the geometry of 9 tubes around the recuperator axis, yielding a lost available work of 929.76 W for an ambient temperature of 298 K.
Keywords: Optimization | Recuperator | CFD | Second law | Entropy
Business disruptions and affective reactions: A strategy-as-practice perspective on fast strategic decision making
اخلال در تجارت و واکنشهای عاطفی: یک دیدگاه استراتژی به عنوان عمل در تصمیم گیری سریع استراتژیک-2020
This study examines management teams work in making fast strategic decisions under extreme time pressure. Focusing on affective reactions as behavioural responses to business disruptions due to unforeseen events, we elaborate the strategy-as-practice perspective by drawing upon qualitative and quantitative datasets collected from 39 sites in a corporate setting over three consecutive phases during a four-year period. The data show two types of patterns: intensity-focused and type-focused affective reactions in management teams use of management tools as part of mental shortcuts when making fast decisions. These patterns are contingent on whether the teams functioned in contexts that had previous experience of management of similar unforeseen events. Affective reactions in the use of tool-based mental shortcuts unveil a mechanism of practices that explains middle management teams’ strategic actions during business disruption due to unforeseen events. While research predominantly suggests that affect is “bad” for management teams in crisis-related contexts, we find that this view is misleading. Affective reactions not only hinder but also aid crucial information exchanges between middle management teams and corporate levels while making strategic decisions under extreme time pressure. Therefore, we propose a reconceptualized view of managing fast strategic decision making and discuss the implications for theory and practice.
Online adaptive water management fault diagnosis of PEMFC based on orthogonal linear discriminant analysis and relevance vector machine
تشخیص خطای مدیریت آب انطباقی آنلاین PEMFC بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل تمایز خطی متعامد و دستگاه بردار ارتباط-2020
A data-driven strategy for characterizing the water management failure in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is presented in this paper. To carry out the diagnosis of water management failure, first the original single cell voltages are projected into lowerdimension features by applying orthogonal linear discriminant analysis (OLDA). Then, a classification methodology termed relevance vector machine (RVM) is employed to classify the lower-dimension features into different categories that indicate the respective health states of the system. The initially trained projecting vectors and classifiers lose their efficiency gradually the characteristics of PEMFC system change, such as the cell voltages decaying with time due to the normal degradation due to aging. An online adaptive diagnostic strategy based on the posterior probability of RVM is proposed, so as to keep the diagnostic accuracy over time. The efficiency and reliability of this online adaptive diagnostic strategy is validated using an experimental database from a 90-cell PEMFC stack.
Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell | (PEMFC) | Orthogonal linear discriminant | analysis (OLDA) | Relevance vector machine (RVM) | Water management failure | Online adaptive diagnostics
Family support as social exchange in entrepreneurship: Its moderating impact on entrepreneurial stressors-well-being relationships
حمایت از خانواده به عنوان تبادل اجتماعی در کارآفرینی: تأثیر تعدیل کننده آن بر روابط استرس زا و رفاه کارآفرینی-2020
Current studies suggest mixed eﬀects concerning the impact of the family system on entrepreneurial outcomes. Through the integration of the family embeddedness theory and social exchange theory, we further investigate the potential beneﬁts and costs of family support as a social exchange process between entrepreneurs and their family members. We propose that perceived family support can diﬀerentially shape well-being across diﬀerent entrepreneurial contexts (ﬁnancial and workload stressors) depending on the nature of the exchange relationship (economic vs. social), thereby dual eﬀects are anticipated from time-based and temporal processes. After ana- lyzing the data gathered from 61 entrepreneurs over 14 days, we found evidence that high levels of family support attenuate the relationships between the ﬁnancial stressor and the well-being indicators but amplify the relationships between the workload stressor and the well-being indicators. These results demonstrate family support process models are central to between-person heterogeneity. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial stressors | Entrepreneurial well-being | Between- and within-person effects | Family support | Social exchange
Dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) in dental restorative materials: Implementation of a DCC-based adaptive interface (AI) at the resin–filler interface for improved performance
شیمی کووالانسی پویا (DCC) در مواد ترمیمی دندانپزشکی: اجرای یک رابط سازگار مبتنی بر (DCC )هوش مصنوعی در رابط رزین-پرکننده برای بهبود عملکرد-2020
Objective. Dental restorative composites have been extensively studied with a goal to improve material performance. However, stress induced microcracks from polymerization shrinkage, thermal and other stresses along with the low fracture toughness of methacrylate-based composites remain significant problems. Herein, the study focuses on applying a dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC)-based adaptive interface to conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA (70:30) dental resins by coupling moieties capable of thiol–thioester (TTE) DCC to the resin–filler interface as a means to induce interfacial stress relaxation and promote interfacial healing. Methods. Silica nanoparticles (SNP) are functionalized with TTE-functionalized silanes to covalently bond the interface to the network while simultaneously facilitating relaxation of the filler–matrix interface via DCC. The functionalized particles were incorporated into the otherwise static conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA (70:30) dental resins. The role of interfacial bond exchange to enhance dental composite performance in response to shrinkage and other stresses, flexural modulus and toughness was investigated. Shrinkage stress was monitored with a tensometer coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Flexural modulus/strength and flexural toughness were characterized in three-point bending on a universal testing machine. Results. A reduction of 30% in shrinkage stress was achieved when interfacial TTE bond exchange was activated while not only maintaining but also enhancing mechanical properties of the composite. These enhancements include a 60% increase in Young’s modulus, 33% increase in flexural strength and 35% increase in the toughness, relative to composites unable to undergo DCC but otherwise identical in composition. Furthermore, by combining interfacial DCC with resin-based DCC, an 80% reduction of shrinkage-induced stress is observed in a thiol–ene system “equipped” with both types of DCC mechanisms relative to the composite without DCC in either the resin or at the resin–filler interface. Significance. This behavior highlights the advantages of utilizing the DCC at the resin–filler interface as a stress-relieving mechanism that is compatible with current and future devel- opments in the field of dental restorative materials, nearly independent of the type of resin improvements and types that will be used, as it can dramatically enhance their mechanical performance by reducing both polymerization and mechanically applied stresses through- out the composite lifetime.
Keywords: Adaptive interface | Interfacial stress relaxation | Thiol–thioester exchange | Dynamic covalent chemistries | Composites
Frontline encounters of the AI kind: An evolved service encounter framework
برخوردهای خط مقدم از نوع هوش مصنوعی : یک چارچوب مواجهه با خدمات تکامل یافته-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is radically transforming frontline service encounters, with AI increasingly playing the role of employee or customer. Programmed to speak or write like a human, AI is poised to usher in a frontline service revolution. No longer will frontline encounters between customer and employee be simply human-tohuman; rather, researchers must consider an evolved paradigm where each actor could be either human or AI. Further complicating this 2×2 framework is whether the human, either customer or employee, recognizes when they are interacting with a non-human exchange partner. Accordingly, we develop an evolved service encounter framework and, in doing so, introduce the concept of counterfeit service, interspecific service (AI-tohuman), interAI service (AI-to-AI), and offer a research agenda focused on the implementation of AI in dyadic service exchanges.
Keywords: Service encounter | Artificial intelligence (AI) | Technology | Customer experience | Frontline employee | Counterfeit