Cooperative energy management of a community of smart-buildings: A Blockchain approach
مدیریت انرژی تعاونی جامعه از ساختمانهای هوشمند: رویکرد بلاکچین -2020
Demand Response (DR) is progressively moving from a centralized, unidirectional structure to a set of advanced decentralized mechanisms that better balance distributed supply and demand. This paper presents a decentralized cooperative DR framework to manage the daily energy exchanges within a community of Smart- Buildings, in the presence of local Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The proposed algorithm taps into the flexibility of the participants to let them decide of a day-ahead community power profile, and subsequently ensures the forecast tracking during the next day. In practice, the algorithm is fully decentralized by the Blockchain technology, that enables a trusted communication medium among the participants and enforces autonomous monitoring and billing via Smart-Contracts. With such an energy management framework, participating Smart-Buildings can together aim at a common objective, such as carbon-free resources usage or aggregated grid services, without depending on a centralized aggregator/utility. Simulations on realistic Swiss building models demonstrate that nearly all the renewable production resources could be harnessed locally through the presented framework, compared to selfish individual optimization. Under a quadratic cost of grid electricity, the considered community profile could dramatically be flattened, hence avoiding costly peaks at the grid interface. A scalability analysis shows that, considering the current public Ethereum Blockchain, the framework could handle a community size of up to 100 Smart-Building.
Keywords: Cooperative energy management | Smart-buildings | Smart-community | Blockchain | Demand response | Smart-contract | Linear optimization | Decentralized algorithm
Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
تدریس- تمرین به عنوان یک پل مهم برای کاهش شکاف تحقیق و عمل -2020
Management researchers and management practitioners increasingly appear to be talking past each other. A solution lies in understanding that interactive management education has an important role to play in bridging this divide, but for some reason this mode of academic exchange is often forgotten. Our paper broadens the stakeholder value perspective to explore how and why the interests of researchers and practitioners have diverged, before going on to present illustrative cases of programs attempting to bridge such differences. Current conditions suggest that the dissonance between different cycle-times of research and practice is not sustainable with the inevitable outcome of a shrinking commons. Generating new knowledge and propagating it rapidly through education and teaching-practice is an important way of disseminating higher-order research and findings. In a world where academic relevance is under threat, enabling academics to better cross such a divide is critical. Marketing-management researchers and teachers ironically have their own challenge of taking what can be a complex theory (the marketing academic equivalent of a “sausage”) and making it “sizzle”.
Keywords: Research | Practice | Social | Teaching | Commons | Education
A new isolated renewable based multi microgrid optimal energy management system considering uncertainty and demand response
یک سیستم مدیریت انرژی بهینه ریز شبکه چندگانه مبتنی بر انرژی تجدید پذیر منفرد جدید با توجه به عدم اطمینان و پاسخ تقاضا-2020
This paper proposes a novel energy management system (EMS) for an isolated structure of networked microgrids (NMGs). The interconnected microgrids consist of the cyber-physical connections for information and power exchanges. A bi-level EMS is presented in which the outer-level EMS is aimed to exchange the required information and power between the interconnected microgrids, and the inner-level EMS is intended for energy scheduling of each on-fault microgrid in case of separation from other microgrids. This paper focuses on the operation of interconnected microgrids. A step-wise demand response program (DRP) is also considered in the energy management to attain the cost-effective operation. Furthermore, a new pricing model based on microgrid marginal pricing (MGMP) is introduced for the power exchanges between the interconnected microgrids. To cope with the uncertainties of the renewable energy sources and loads, some scenarios are generated using the scenario-based analysis. Also, a backward scenario reduction method is used to reduce the number of the scenarios. Besides, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is applied to the stochastic optimization problem of the NMGs. The proposed model is implemented on a test system with five NMGs. The simulation is run over a 24- hour scheduling time horizon. Both cases without and with demand response program (DRP) are compared in the numerical results. The results of the simulation demonstrate that using the proposed DRP in the energy management increases the performance of the generation units and decreases the total operational cost of the proposed NMGs. Also, the voltages of the buses converge to their rated values.
Keywords: Networked microgrids (NMGs) | Isolated structure | Demand response program (DRP) | Microgrid marginal pricing (MGMP) | Energy management system (EMS)
The role of multiple ties in knowledge networks: Complementarity in the Montefalco wine cluster
نقش پیوندهای متعدد در شبکه های دانش: مکمل در خوشه شراب Montefalco-2020
After decades of studies about pervasive, wide, and inclusive knowledge externalities and the advantages of being there, recent literature on management, industrial marketing, economic geography, regional studies, and related fields has stressed that knowledge spreads imperfectly, unevenly, and selectively within regional and cluster contexts. In this respect, little is known about the role played by heterogeneous knowledge ties among the same set of actors and to what extent they follow overlapping or different routes of exchanging knowledge. Thus, an investigation of multiple knowledge networks in clusters is a fundamental approach to interpret the reasons for innovation and economic performance. With an original dataset comprised of data collected by surveys directly administered in local wineries in the Montefalco wine region of Italy, this paper aims to analyse the roles played by different local knowledge ties within a sector that is critically driven by the exchange of knowledge among economic actors. Social network analysis and exponential random graph modelling were applied to investigate the driving forces of the knowledge flows. The empirical results showed that economic and social ties positively affect the spread of knowledge, but the former has a higher magnitude impact than the latter. Moreover, they follow complementary routes of exchange rather than overlapping ones. We suggest that such a structure has implications for understanding the diffusion of knowledge and structures of innovation in cluster contexts.
Keywords: Multiple networks | Knowledge diffusion | ERGM | Industrial cluster | Wine industry
Multi-stage stochastic framework for energy management of virtual power plants considering electric vehicles and demand response programs
چارچوب تصادفی چند مرحله ای برای مدیریت انرژی نیروگاه های مجازی با توجه به وسایل نقلیه برقی و برنامه های پاسخ به تقاضا-2020
Nowadays, the importance of the coordinated operation of power system assets has caused severe challenges that can be addressed through some recently emerged concepts, such as microgrids (MGs) and virtual power plants (VPPs). In this paper, a hierarchical model is proposed for simultaneous modeling of an MG scheduling and VPP energy management problems. Given the stochastic nature of the scheduling inputs, power production and also, load demand uncertainties are modeled using a scenario-based method. Therefore, the final model is presented as a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model. It is possible to cover the fluctuations at the minimum cost using demand response (DR) programs and electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, the possibility of power transaction between the adjacent MGs is analyzed in scheduling model, preventing unreal power exchanges. The simulation results indicate that the coordinated operation of MGs can improve load restoration, and reduce the load supply costs in each MG. It is also observed that the profit of the VPP would be higher in the case with the time-of-use (TOU) tariff compared to the cases with the real-time pricing (RTP) and critical peak pricing (CPP) mechanisms
Keywords: Virtual power plant | Islanded microgrid | Multi-stage stochastic programming | Electric vehicles | Demand response | Renewable energy resour
A hierarchical energy management system for islanded multi-microgrid clusters considering frequency security constraints
یک سیستم مدیریت انرژی سلسله مراتبی برای خوشه های چند ریزشبکه جزیره با توجه به محدودیت های امنیتی فرکانس-2020
With the widespread development of microgrids (MGs) in future smart distribution networks, a number of neighboring MGs can be connected and form a multi-microgrid (MMG) cluster. In this regard, the energy management of a MMG is challenging due to more complex components and higher degrees of uncertainty in a small region of power system. Likewise, in the islanded MMG (IMMG) clusters, due to the low-inertia and high intermittent energy delivery of renewable resources, the frequency security should be considered in the energy management. To address this issue, this paper proposes an energy management system (EMS) in which hierarchical control structure of IMMG clusters is precisely modeled. The proposed EMS aims to minimize total operation cost of IMMG cluster while sufficient primary and secondary reserves are scheduled to preserve frequency security in a predefined range. Besides, the proposed EMS provides optimal strategies for MGs to exchange energy and reserves during scheduling horizon. To consider operational uncertainties, the proposed EMS is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem that guaranties the global optimal solution. The obtained results verify that through the proposed EMS, total operation cost of the IMMG cluster is minimized while the frequency can be cost-effectively preserved within a pre-defined secure range.
Keywords: Energy and reserve scheduling | Energy management system | Islanded multi-microgrid clusters | Hierarchical control | Two-stage stochastic optimization
A preliminary assessment of industrial symbiosis in Sodankylä
ارزیابی مقدماتی از همزیستی صنعتی در Sodankylä-2020
This study focuses on developing a possible architecture of planned industrial symbiosis in Sodankylä, Finland. The municipality of Sodankylä is considering the establishment of new businesses to boost the regions local economy. The preliminary assessment presented here evaluates some new markets, including combined heat and power plants, a biogas reactor, greenhouse farm, ﬁsh farm and several insect farms. These businesses should be able to fulﬁl the criteria of sustainability and circular economy. This study proposes an architecture where companies can quantify the value and the cost of material exchange. The combined life cycle cost and the net present value of symbiosis are estimated at €93 and €43 million respectively. The combined life cycle cost of waste management is calculated to be €6.40 million. The studys novelty is its projection of the quantiﬁed cost of bio-waste and recyclable waste of industries, highlighting the monetary value of industrial symbiosis where waste products can turn into industries raw material. The value gained and cost reduced by such symbiosis is forecast at 14.65% and 6.8% respectively.
Keywords: Industrial symbiosis | Life cycle cost of waste management | Architecture of industrial symbiosis | Material exchange | Circular economy
Long term durability test of open-cathode fuel cell system under actual operating conditions
تست دوام طولانی مدت سیستم سلول سوختی کاتد آزاد در شرایط عملیاتی واقعی-2020
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are promising energy conversion solutions for both stationary and transportation applications. However, for the latter application, durability still needs to be improved in order to compete with internal combustion engine. Therefore, many researches have been carried out to improve their design, materials, reliability and energy management. A good understanding of the degradation mechanisms is one of the keys to a better durability. However, these degradation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to present a long term durability test performed on a commercial 1 kW open-cathode proton exchange membrane fuel cell system during more than 5000 h under specific operating conditions that aim at reproducing driving cycles, including electrical solicitations, idle, start-up, shutdown, and environmental temperature conditions. This study presents voltage, efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements evolution all along the system operating duration. Results are used to investigate and understand effects of ambient temperature on the PEMFC system performance and degradation. Analyses could be used in further studies to improve energy management and extend the system durability.
Keywords: Fuel cell system | Fuel cell aging | Long term durability test | Fuel cell experimental data
How do hotels adapt their pricing strategies to macroeconomic factors?
چگونه هتل ها استراتژی های قیمت گذاری خود را با عوامل اقتصاد کلان تطبیق می دهند؟-2020
The hospitality industry is naturally highly sensitive to subtle changes in the external environment, and its performance is aﬀected by various external factors. Therefore, hoteliers should carefully monitor the various macroeconomic indicators aﬀecting the market, when making important strategic management decisions. In particular, hotels’ pricing decisions are important because they play a crucial role in the determination of hotel revenue and in the process of proﬁt maximization. In this paper we classify hotels by business model (i.e., chain management, franchise and independent) and analyze how these diﬀerent types of hotels in Switzerland adapt their pricing strategies to macroeconomic factors (i.e., exchange rate, room supply and market demand). We ﬁnd that hotels adopting diﬀerent business models react diﬀerently to the same macro shock. Implications of our ﬁndings and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Room supply | Pricing strategy | Exchange rate | Macro-economic factor | Market demand
Effects of a mandatory local currency pricing law on the exchange rate pass-through
تأثیر قانون اجباری قیمت گذاری ارز محلی بر تصویب نرخ ارز-2020
This paper discusses whether Law 28300 of 2004, that required Peruvian firms to express their prices in Peru’s currency in a context of high price dollarization, affected the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT). We hypothesize that the enactment of the Law introduced menu costs for firms that used to set their prices in dollars, prompting several of them to make a permanent switch to pricing in local currency. Using disaggregated consumer price index (CPI) data, we find that, following passage of the Law, the ERPT was completely offset for non-durable goods with dollarized prices, and partially offset for durable goods with dollarized prices. These effects may vary due to differences in imported component shares, market power, and markup pricing
Keywords: Exchange-rate pass through | Price dollarization | Local currency pricing