Is leadership language ‘rewarded’ in crowdfunding? Replicating social entrepreneurship research in a rewards-based context
آیا زبان رهبری در تأمین مالی جمعیت پاداش می گیرد؟ تکرار تحقیقات کارآفرینی اجتماعی در یک زمینه مبتنی بر پاداش-2019
Rewards based crowdfunding (where individuals provide funding for a campaign in exchange for a pre-specified reward) represents one of the largest forms of crowdfunding to date. While an emerging stream of research examines how the rhetoric used in crowdfunding campaigns impacts funding success, a number of studies examining language used in crowdfunding have only been explored in the context of social crowdfunding campaigns that rely on very different audiences, funding amounts, and project goals. To build knowledge surrounding the relationship between the rhetoric used in rewards-based crowdfunding and potential campaign success we replicate a number of rhetoric approaches previously examined in social contexts. Specifically, we examine the efficacy of charismatic rhetoric, political rhetoric, entrepreneurial orientation rhetoric, and virtue rhetoric in a sample of 1000 campaigns drawn from Kickstarter. Our replication results reveal relatively little consistency across contexts underscoring the value of replication to understand boundary conditions of important entrepreneurial phenomena.
On improving the lifespan of wireless sensor networks with fuzzy based clustering and machine learning based data reduction
بهبود طول عمر شبکه های حسگر بی سیم با خوشه بندی مبتنی بر فازی و کاهش داده های مبتنی بر یادگیری ماشین-2019
A useful approach to increase the lifetime of wireless sensor networks is clustering. Exchange of messages due to successive and recurrent reclustering burdens the sensor nodes and causes power loss. This paper presents a modified clustering methodology that diminishes the overhead in clustering and message exchanges thereby effectively scheduling the clustering task. The network is clustered subject to the remaining energy of sensor nodes. Energy based parameters decide cluster head nodes and ancillary nodes and the member nodes are linked with them. The roles of the head nodes of the cluster are interchanged depending on the nodes’ states. Reclustering of nodes is accomplished to achieve minimum energy consumption by calculating the update cycle using a fuzzy inference system. The average sensed data rate of cluster members, the distance at which the member nodes are from the sink and the power of cluster head nodes are counted to achieve better energy saving. Cluster member nodes apply machine learning at regular intervals to classify data based on their similarity. The classified data are transmitted to the cluster head after a reduction in the number of message transfers. The proposed method improves the energy usage of clustering and data transmission.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks | Machine learning | Clustering | Network lifetime | Fuzzy | Energy efficiency
Novel updatable identity-based hash proof system and its applications
رویکرد سیستم هش مبتنی بر هویت به روز شده و برنامه های کاربردی آن-2019
Alwen et al. in Eurocrypt 2010, showed that an identity-based hash proof system (IB-HPS), where IB-HPS generalizes the notion of hash proof system (HPS) to the identity-based setting, almost immediately yields an identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme which is secure against partial leakage of the target identity’s decryption key. That is, an IBE scheme with bounded leakage resilience can be naturally created from an IB-HPS. However, in the real world, the leakage is unbounded, and any adversary can break the security of cryptography shceme by performing continuous leakage attacks. To further increase the practicability, a cryptography scheme must hold the claimed security in the continuous leakage setting. Dodis et al. in FOCS 2010, showed a generic method how to create a cryptography shceme with continuous leakage resilience from the bounded leakage-resilient cryptosystem by performing an additional key update algorithm while the public parameters keep unchanged. To construct a continuous leakage-resilient cryptography scheme, a new primitive, called it updatable identity-based hash proof system (U-IB-HPS), is proposed, which is an improved IB-HPS. In particular, the improved system has an additional key update algorithm, which can push some new randomness into the private key of user (or the master secret key), the updated results are random in the adversary’s view, and the leakage of previous private key of user (or the master secret key) does not work for the updated results. However, the previous instantiations of U-IB-HPS cannot achieve the claimed security. To solve the above problems, in this paper, two instantiations of U-IB-HPS with better performance are created, and the security of proposed system is proved, in the standard model, based on the classic decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. The corresponding IBE scheme created with our U-IB-HPS allows continuous leakage of multiple keys, i.e., continuous leakage of the master secret key and the private key of user. Additionally, our U-IB-HPS can also be employed as an underlying basic tool to build the generic construction of continuous leakage-amplified public-key encryption scheme, continuous leakage-resilient identity-based authenticated key exchange protocol, and continuous leakage-resilient public-key encryption scheme with keyword search, etc
Keywords: Continuous Leakage Resilience | Identity-based Hash Proof System | Identity-based Cryptography | DBDH Assumption
Practical card-based implementations of Yao’s millionaire protocol
پیاده سازی های عملی مبتنی بر کارت پروتکل میلیونر یائو-2019
Yao’s millionaire protocol enables Alice and Bob to know whether or not Bob is richer than Alice by using a public-key cryptosystem without revealing the actual amounts of their properties. In this paper, we present simple and practical implementations of Yao’s millionaire protocol using a physical deck of playing cards; we straightforwardly implement the idea behind Yao’s millionaire protocol so that even non-experts can easily understand their correctness and secrecy. Our implementations are based partially on the previous card-based scheme proposed by Nakai, Tokushige, Misawa, Iwamoto, and Ohta; their scheme admits players’ private actions on a sequence of cards called Private Permutation (PP), implying that a malicious player could make an active attack (for example, he/she could exchange some of the cards stealthily when doing such a private action). By contrast, our implementations rely on a familiar shuffling operation called a random cut, and hence, they can be conducted completely publicly so as to avoid any active attack. More specifically, we present two card-based implementations of Yao’s millionaire protocol; one uses a two-colored deck of cards (which consists of black and red cards), and the other uses a standard deck of playing cards. Furthermore, we also provide card-based protocols that rely on a logical circuit representing the comparison.
Keywords: Card-based protocols | Real-life hands-on cryptography | Secure multi-party computations | Yao’s millionaire protocol | Deck of cards
Blockchain for power systems: Current trends and future applications
بلاکچین برای سیستم های برق: روندهای فعلی و برنامه های آینده-2019
Today, the blockchain is synonymous of technological innovation, being recognized among the 10 top strategy technologies in 2018 by the consulting company Gartner, it is more and more adopted in different sectors. However, the initial enthusiasm around this technology is going beyond the peak of inflated expectations, towards more stable applications in money transactions, cryptocurrencies and Digital Commodity Exchanges. Essentially, misguided efforts, the overuse of blockchain, and the Bitcoin’s price drop have been the main reasons for this decay in expectations. Nevertheless, the exploitation of the blockchain technology in the power systems area appears largely underexplored, furthermore, the relation to the physical asset makes the blockchain application more complex but also more reliable and related to measurable benefits. The most common applications in the power systems area relate to the energy market. When the blockchain technology is indeed applied to the energy field, the term energy blockchain is used. This article aims to propose a wide perspective about the application of the blockchain technology in the power systems area, clarifying some technical aspects concerning this promising technology, the features and applications developed so far, while focusing on the future of innovative applications in the electrical energy sector.
Keywords: Peer-to-peer | Energy blockchain | Energy market | Supply chain management | Aggregation | Decentralized control | Decentralized management | Review
Sovereigns going bust: Estimating the cost of default
فرمانروایان ورشکستگی: برآورد هزینه های پیش فرض-2019
Article history:Received 6 December 2017Accepted 4 April 2019Available online 15 May 2019JEL classiﬁcation:H63 F34 F41 G01Keywords: Sovereign default Sovereign debt Banking crises Local projectionsInverse propensity score weightingWhat is the cost of sovereign default, and what makes default costly? This paper uses a novel econometric method – combining local projections and propensity score weighting as in Jordà and Taylor (2016) – to study these questions. We ﬁnd that default generates a long-lasting output cost – 2.7% of GDP on impact and 3.7% at peak after ﬁve years – but in the longer term, economic activity recovers. The downturn is characterised by a collapse in investment and gross trade. The cost rises dramatically if the default is followed by a systemic banking crisis – peaking at some 9.5% of GDP – but is attenuated for economies with ﬂoating exchange rates. Our ﬁndings suggest that ﬁnancial autarky, trade frictions and sovereign-banking spillovers play a key role in generating the cost of default.© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Sovereign default | Sovereign debt | Banking crises | Local projections | Inverse propensity score weighting
A novel crypto technique based ciphertext shifting
یک تغییر متن رمزنگاری مبتنی بر تکنیک رمزنگاری-2019
One of the significant issues in information security areas is a hidden exchange of data. There are several techniques for this purpose such as cryptography, steganography, etc. Generally, in cryptography, the secret message content is scrambled. In another hand in steganography, the secret message is embedded inside the cover medium. In this paper, a new crypto technique-based ciphertext shifting algorithm has been designed to improve the security for our previous work that combining cryptographic and steganographic. The improvement in the security of the secret message is done by changing the ciphertext value. The proposed shifting algorithm is used to rearranges the location of each character of ciphertext based on key value, in which the final ciphertext length is equivalent to encryption value but it different in value. The key strength of this method is two side one is trick the attacker from notice any change in ciphertext which is the same length as the original, so when used the common cryptanalysis will not get anything due to the original ciphertext has been changed. The second key strength of this method is that the shifting value is variable and dependent on key length. This method is inspected to be a very strong technique that can prevent common cryptography attacks such as a dictionary or brute-force attacks, etc.
Keywords: Cryptography | Ciphertext | Shifting algorithm | HMAC | AES
شارژ PV یکپارچه برای ناوگان خودروهای برقی براساس قیمت های انرژی، V2G و ارائه ی رزرو
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 12 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 42
شارژ خودروهای برقی (EV) در محل کار توسط پنل های فتوولتائیک (PV) نصب شده بر روی ساختمان اداره می تواند چندین مزیت داشته باشد. اینها عبارتند از تولید محلی و استفاده از انرژی PV برای شارژ EV و بکارگیری تعرفه های پویا در شبکه جهت زمانبندی تبادل انرژی با شبکه. زمان طولانی پارک خودرو در محل کار، این شانس را به EV می دهد که شبکه را از طریق فناوری اتصال خودرو به شبکه، استفاده از یک شارژر EV برای شارژ چندین EV به صورت چندتایی و ارائه ی خدمات جانبی به شبکه برای تنظیم افزایشی یا کاهشی، پشتیبانی کند. افزون بر این، محدودیت های شبکه ی توزیع را می توان در محدود نمودن توان و جلوگیری از اضافه بار شبکه، مؤثر دانست. فرمولاسیون برنامه ریزی خطی عدد صحیح مختلط (MILP) که تمامی کاربردهای بالا را لحاظ می کند، در این مقاله برای شارژ ناوگان EV ها توسط PV پیشنهاد شده است. MILP به عنوان مدل افق پیش رونده برای پیش بینی سیستم مدیریت انرژی پیاده سازی شده است. شبیه-سازی های عددی مبتنی بر بازار و داده های PV در شهر آستین در ایالت تگزاس، کاهش 32 تا 651% هزینه ی خالص شارژ EV از PV در مقایسه با خط مشی شارژ نرخ متوسط و آنی را نشان می دهد.
کلمات کلیدی: اتومبیل | حالت شارژ | اشتغال | باتری | وسایل نقلیه برقی | بهينه سازي
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Blockchain technology, improvement suggestions, security challenges on smart grid and its application in healthcare for sustainable development
فناوری بلاکچین،بهبودی پیشنهادات ، چالش های امنیتی در شبکه هوشمند و کاربرد آن در مراقبت های بهداشتی برای توسعه پایدار-2019
Blockchain technology has gained considerable attention for different types of stakeholders due to its stable implementation in the field of digital currency like Bitcoin. Some users use Bitcoin for payment exchanges against any business while others use the Bitcoin network for earning Bitcoins itself, and there is also another type of user who called hackers those flood different types of attacks to illegally earn some Bitcoins or collapsing overall network. There are also numerous uses of blockchain technology, e.g. health, automation industry, energy sector, security and authentication in smart grids. In this study, we have elaborated on different critical aspects of Blockchain technology like its style of working mechanism, possible improvement suggestions by using Proof-of-Stake, and other custom variations, attempting seven types of challenges by different novel techniques. Moreover, we have also explained the current state-of-the-artwork in blockchain’s non-financial applications like Healthcare in which contribution of four-layered custom blockchain models related to precision medicine and the clinical trial was notable. Moreover, a mobile app model called HDG for the automation of medical records without compromising privacy was also a prominent contribution.
Keywords: Blockchain | Bitcoin | Ethereum | Proof-of-Work | Proof-of-Stake
Implementing healthcare services on a large scale: Challenges and reme dies based on blockchain technology
اجرای خدمات مراقبت های بهداشتی در مقیاس گسترده: چالش ها و مرگ و میرها براساس فناوری بلاکچین -2019
The accessibility of electronic healthcare data is necessary for effective treatment, policy decisions, and healthcare information exchange. Due to the intangibility of digital data, healthcare information is also prone to privacy-breach and security attacks. Further, the importance of immutability and privacy of healthcare data becomes colossal when a nationwide healthcare and wellness scheme is planned to be implemented. Providing quality healthcare services to such an enormous population size is challenging and requires proper technological infrastructure. The cooperation from the society is equally important to lay such a copious architecture on which the healthcare services should seamlessly run. Objective: To assess the social and technical challenges that lie ahead in implementing large-scale com- prehensive healthcare services and suggest a technology-intervening solution to serve the society at large. Method: This study considers India’s National Health Policy (2017) initiatives. The social and technical hurdles in implementation of the schemes are discussed, and AarogyaChain, a Blockchain technology- based solution is proposed to eliminate the health policy implementation hiccups. Result: We find that the scalability is a primary concern in implementing healthcare services on blockchain at such a large scale. We experimented by creating a blockchain and found that the system throughput is a function of the number of special nodes called ordering nodes, and a trade-offis required to balance between time-to-commit and system’s fault tolerance. Conclusion: Blockchain provides a secure and transparent system of integrated healthcare services that keeps patients at the center and provides for corruption intolerant and efficient implementation of na- tionwide health-insurance programs.
Keywords: Blockchain | EHR | Health policy | Decentralized computing | Corruption intolerance | Health insurance | Hyper ledger fabric