دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Forestry::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Forestry

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 32
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 The politics behind scientific knowledge: Sustainable forest management in Latin America
سیاست پشت دانش علمی: مدیریت جنگل پایدار در آمریکای لاتین-2021
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) seeks to achieve an equilibrium in the economic, social and environ- mental value of all types of forests. This practice contrasts with the conventional view of managing forests, in which the focus is productivity. Thus, discussions about conventional forest management versus sustainable forest management play a central role in the political and scientific agendas. However, knowledge production and its direction can be biased by different contextual factors such as the way funding is assigned by each country, institutional priorities, and constraints on international cooperation. With this paper, we aim to analyze the contribution of scientific knowledge produced in Latin America within the sustainable forest management research landscape by applying a literature review method (Scopus database for 2015–2018 period). Our results show a similar contribution of national and foreign funds and institutions supporting scientific knowledge about SFM in Latin America. Foreign funding comes mainly from United States of America, and Europe. Latin American authors lead high proportion of scientific articles, and authorship gender was more equitable between male and female researchers. The studies were mostly focused on conservation combined with productivity goals, as well as pure conservation goals, although social studies and restoration goals were also present. Our findings highlight a significant contribution to the paradigm shift in half of the scientific articles. Some studies provided recom- mendations (specific or general) derived from their results, but we did not detected a clear relationship with funding origin. Moreover, we found that the high contribution to the paradigm shift (studies supporting SFM instead of traditional management) came from institutions based in Latin America. This article aims to contribute to discussions related to scientific funding in Latin America, the North-South scientific relations, and the future of forest in times of climate change.
keywords: سیاست های جنگلداری | همکاری بین المللی | بررسی ادبیات | منابع طبیعی | تحقیق و توسعه | بودجه پژوهشی | Forestry policies | International cooperation | Literature review | Natural resources | Research and development | Research funding
مقاله انگلیسی
2 A detailed MILP formulation for the optimal design of advanced biofuel supply chains
یک فرمول دقیق MILP برای طراحی بهینه زنجیره های پیشرفته تأمین سوخت زیستی-2021
The optimal design of a biomass supply chain is a complex problem, which must take into account multiple interrelated factors (i.e the spatial distribution of the network nodes, the efficient planning of logistics activities, etc.). Mixed Integer Linear Programming has proven to be an effective mathematical tool for the optimization of the design and the management strategy of Advanced Biofuel Supply Chains (ABSC). This work presents a MILP formulation of the economical optimization of ABSC design, comprising the definition of the associated weekly management plan. A general modeling approach is proposed with a network structure comprising two intermediate echelons (storage and conversion facilities) and accounts for train and truck freight transport. The model is declined for the case of a multi- feedstock ABSC for green methanol production tested on the Italian case study. Residual biomass feed- stocks considered are woodchips from primary forestry residues, grape pomace, and exhausted olive pomace. The calculated cost of methanol is equal to 418.7 V/t with conversion facility cost accounting for 50% of the fuel cost share while transportation and storage costs for around 15%. When considering only woodchips the price of methanol increases to 433.4 V/t outlining the advantages of multi-feedstock approach.© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Residual biomass | Advanced biofuels | Supply chain design | Logistics network | MILP | Optimization
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Linking standard Economic Account for Forestry and ecosystem accounting: Total forest incomes and environmental assets in publicly-owned conifer farms in Andalusia-Spain
پیوند حساب استاندارد اقتصادی برای حسابداری جنگلداری و اکوسیستم: کل درآمد جنگل ها و دارایی های محیطی در مزارع عمومی متعلق به مالکیت در اندلس اسپانیا-2021
A major problem faced by government as trustee of society charged with conserving the nation’s forest envi- ronmental asset is that the standard Economic Account for Forestry (EAF) fails to measure the contribution of nature to total forest incomes and environmental assets. In the context of this government mission, the debate arises with regard to how to uncover the contribution of nature to the total forest incomes enjoyed by people through a refined accounting framework which extends the EAF. The latter is applied by the statistics office to estimate the values added of timber, firewood, cork, resin, industrial nut and other non-woody final products of the forest at national/sub-national scale. Bearing in mind this narrow scope of the EAF, this research proposes the application of the experimental Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS), which extends the forest incomes and environmental asset estimates by applying simulated exchange values stated/revealed by consumers for non- market public goods and services. We apply the EAF and AAS frameworks to 12 large publicly-owned pro- tected conifer forest farms which are not available for sale on the competitive land market and which cover an area of 47,262 ha in Andalusia-Spain. In this conifer farm case study, the EAF considers the economic activities of timber, firewood, aromatic plants and residential service. The AAS adds to the EAF activities those of grazing, conservation forestry, hunting, livestock, agricultural crops, livestock-keeper private amenity, fire services, free access recreation, mushrooms, carbon, landscape conservation, threatened wild biodiversity and water supply runoff stored lower down the watershed in public reservoirs. The objectives of this conifer farm case study are, first, to compare the final products and incomes estimated by applying the EAF and AAS frameworks and, second, to measure the sensitivity of conifer farm environmental assets to changes in land ownership rights and dis- counting rates in accordance with the AAS results. The conifer farm results show total income measured by the AAS is 38 times higher than the EAF net value added (NVA) for the 2010 period. The AAS economic activities of forestry conservation, fire services and landscape conservation activities generate 71% of the conifer farm labour compensation. The AAS opening environmental asset measured at the assumed competitive real baseline dis- counting rate of 3% is 6371.6 €/ha, which is 3.7 times lower than it would be if the conifer farm was available for sale on the competitive land market. The change in the baseline discounting rate chosen, from 3% to 1.5%, would lead to an increase of 116% in the value of the opening environmental asset. The above results reveal the inconsistent EAF measurement of total conifer farm incomes. The sensitivity analysis underlines the important effects on the environmental asset arising from changes in land ownership rights and discounting rates.
keywords: حساب اقتصادی برای جنگلداری | سیستم حساب های ملی | سیستم حسابداری جنگلداری | خدمات محیط زیستی | درآمد زیست محیطی | Economic account for forestry | System of national accounts | Agroforestry accounting system | Ecosystem services | Environmental income
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Experts’ multiple criteria evaluations of fuel management options to reduce wildfire susceptibility: The role of closer knowledge of the local socioeconomic context
ارزیابی معیارهای چندگانه کارشناسان گزینه های مدیریت سوخت برای کاهش حساسیت به آتش سوزی:نقش دانش دقیق تر از زمینه اجتماعی-اقتصادی محلی-2021
Expert opinion can be a valuable tool for informed decision making. Concerning wildfire susceptibility reduction at the landscape scale, forest ecosystem experts play a key role in offering advice about appropriate fuel man- agement practices to be applied by forest owners or their organizations, and in shaping public policies. A literature review aimed at identifying fuel management interventions and techniques found multiple and even opposing strategies. Recognizing the interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional nature of fuel management, we go beyond existing studies on forest experts’ opinions by comparing evaluations across forest experts with diverse training and experience, and by considering different evaluation criteria such as technical effectiveness, impact on soil or biodiversity, socioeconomic impact, and preference. Following an online survey to a sample of Por- tuguese experts, distinct socio-professional clusters were established and experts’ evaluations associated with their views on fire, forests, owners’ coordination, and rural development. Results show that experts rank their preferences by weighing effectiveness and impacts in different ways. Closer knowledge of the local context distinguishes expert preference, favouring more active fuels reduction strategies. Since experts with a closer knowledge of socioeconomic context tend to be further from policy-making processes, we urge their more balanced participation in those processes.
keywords: مدیریت منظره | کاهش حساسیت وحشی | مدیریت چند مالکیت | جنگلداری کوچک | تظاهرات کارشناس | Landscape management | Wildfire susceptibility reduction | Multi-ownership management | Small-scale forestry | Expert elicitation
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Informed conservation management of rare tree species needs knowledge of species composition, their genetic characteristics and ecological niche
مدیریت حفاظت از حفاظت از گونه های نادر درختی، نیاز به دانش ترکیب گونه ها، ویژگی های ژنتیکی آنها و طاقچه های زیست محیطی -2021
Woodland nature reserves must be scientifically assessed so that subsequent management leads to optimal conservation of biodiversity. This entails knowledge of the species composition, the genetics of the local pop- ulations and their ecology. Here we assess Tilia species in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), a large mixed coniferous and deciduous forest in South-Eastern Germany. Tilia occurs here at low density, as in many other mixed forests in Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, results are not only relevant to BFNP but also to other areas. Exhaustive sampling resulted in the collection of 113 mature trees that were genotyped using 20 microsatellite markers, derived from both T. cordata and T. platyphyllos. For the first time, size and aspect of trees, and their community association were contrasted between the species. Genotyping confirmed that T. platyphyllos, T. cordata and their hybrid (T. x europaea) were present in the BFNP and both species deserve conservation. T. platyphyllos has a higher genetic diversity for both sets of markers than T. cordata, confirming earlier work. Both species showed genetic diversity comparable to other populations in Central Europe, which is likely to be sufficient for the maintenance of the species in the short term. However, increasing the number of trees, ensuring local sources are used, and gene flow from surrounding forests over the next decennia may be crucial for long- term survival. Further, within the T. platyphyllos group there was a set of 11 trees that were distinct from the others: they had a lower genetic diversity and were shorter. We hypothesise that these were planted and should not be used for propagation and augmentation. Most saplings analysed appeared to derive from asexual propagation (36 out of 41), although a few (five out of 41) were novel genotypes. This means that, currently, there is some, but rather limited, regeneration. T. cordata was found at a lower altitude and less steep terrain than T. platyphyllos and the hybrid. The hybrid was taller than the two species, while the diameter at breast height was smallest in T. cordata. T. cordata shows a preference for mixed and coniferous forests, while T. platyphyllos occurs mostly in deciduous forests. Our results indicate that biodiversity at the species and genetic level as well as species’ ecology have to be considered in order to guide informed conservation management. These results form the basis to recommend conservation management improving the long-term viability of Tilia in the BFNP and other mixed forests.
keywords: جنگلداری | تیلیا | تنوع ژنتیکی | ترجیح زیستگاه | مناطق حفاظت شده | هیبریداسیون | جنگلکاری | Forestry | Tilia | Genetic diversity | Habitat preference | Protected areas | Hybridisation | Silviculture
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Environmental costs assessment for improved environmental-economic account for Indonesia
ارزیابی هزینه های زیست محیطی برای بهبود حساب زیست محیطی-اقتصادی برای اندونزی-2021
The overall purpose of this study is to assess priorities for new environmental accounts in Indonesia. We use environmental costs related to air pollution and resource extraction in Indonesia as a measure for priority. This study uses the damage costs approach to estimate the environmental degradation costs value and the Net Present Value (NPV) approach to obtain the environmental cost of natural resources depletion of several natural resources that are most important for the Indonesian economy. Our estimate of the total environmental costs amounts to around 13% of GDP in 2010. Environmental costs are mostly due to depletion of energy and mineral resources, followed by environmental degradation cost from air pollution, and the use of forestry resources and related depletion of ecosystems. The Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) has already published damage costs data related to resource depletion, which we find is a priority. However, the BPS should consider completing its data with additional information on the depletion costs of ecosystem services related to forestry. Moreover, the BPS could expand Indonesia’s economic-environmental accounts by including environmental degradation costs due to air pollution. We found that from a substance perspective, the priorities are SOx, NOx, CO2, CH4, and particulate matter. At the same time, from a sector perspective, the priorities are electricity, manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys and first products thereof, mining of coal and lignite, and extraction of peat, because if the national accounts included the external costs of air pollution and the depletion of natural resources, these sectors would create a negative value-added.
keywords: هزینه زیست محیطی | هزینه تخریب محیط زیست | خدمات محیط زیستی | کاهش منابع طبیعی | Environmental cost | Environmental degradation cost | Ecosystem services | Natural resources depletion
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Effect of REDDþ projects on local livelihood assets in Keo Seima and Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia
تأثیر پروژه های REDDþ بر دارایی های معیشت محلی در Keo Seima و Oddar Meanchey ، کامبوج-2020
Climate-change mitigation projects are expected to improve local livelihoods in targeted areas. Several REDDþ projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests have been implemented in Cambodia but few studies have examined the effects on local livelihoods before and during project implementation. Our study applies a sustainable livelihood framework to assess the livelihood assets of local communities in the Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima REDDþ project sites in Cambodia before and during project implementation. Five capital assets, namely natural, physical, human, financial, and social capital, are assessed and scored on a 1-to-5 Likert scale. Data analysis collected through 252 interviews in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima reveals a slight increase in livelihood assets in both sites from project validation to implementation. Generally, the mean scores for local livelihood assets increased from 2.81  0.07 (is followed by the standard error) and 2.66  0.06 to 3.07  0.09 and 3.06  0.08 in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima, respectively. Nevertheless, natural capital assets sharply declined from 3.50 and 3.32 to 2.09 and 2.25, respectively. Respondents mainly blamed illegal logging for the decline, suggesting that strict patrolling and enforcement must be implemented. Furthermore, the scarcity of carbon-credit buyers and the projects’ inability to generate carbon-based revenues has led to dissatisfaction among local communities, inducing avoidable illegal activities in pursuit of short-term benefits. A financial mechanism to ensure sufficient and sustained financial support regardless of carbon-market volatility is urgently needed.
Keywords: Business | Economics | Livelihood improvement | REDDþ | Natural capital | Physical capital | Human capital | Financial capital | Carbon credit | Agricultural policy | Agroforestry | Ecological restoration | Forestry | Human geography | Natural resource management | Sustainable development | Ecosystem services | Biodiversity
مقاله انگلیسی
8 A global mapping template for natural and modified habitat across terrestrial Earth
یک الگوی نقشه برداری جهانی برای زیستگاه طبیعی و اصلاح شده در سراسر زیستگاه های زمینی-2020
The IPBES Global Assessment proposed five key interventions to tackle the drivers of nature deterioration. One of these proposals was to take pre-emptive and precautionary actions in regulatory and management institutions and businesses. Performance standards are tools that can be used to help achieve these interventions. The most influential standard is Performance Standard 6 (PS6) of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank Group. Institutions like the IFC invest in the private sector in developing countries, including in the infrastructure, agribusiness, forestry, oil, gas and mining sectors, all of which have the potential to cause large environmental impacts. A core element of PS6 outlines the need for the consideration of “natural and modified habitat” within investment screening processes. Here we use freely available data layers in combination to develop a new global layer that identifies natural and modified habitat. It is aligned with the IFC PS6 definitions of natural and modified habitat. However, we propose this layer as an output that can be used beyond the IFC and could be integrated into the investment decision making of global and regional banks, or the decision making of international corporations.
Keywords: International Finance Corporation Performance | Standard 6 | Biodiversity safeguards | Natural habitat | Modified habitat | Investment screening | Environmental risk
مقاله انگلیسی
9 From elite-driven to community-based governance mechanisms for the delivery of public goods from land management
از مکانیسم های حاکم بر نخبگان گرفته تا مکانیسم های حاکم بر جامعه برای تحویل کالاهای عمومی از مدیریت زمین-2020
Several non-governmental initiatives have emerged in the Czech Republic in recent years with the aim to organise the provision of public goods or ecosystem services from agriculture and forestry. These initiatives are usually started by activists (elites) and take forms such as foundations or trust funds, but often present themselves as collective actions of communal interests. This paper sets out to present four cases of such efforts and to show their common and contrasting features in light of their relevance to local needs and possible integration in the future CAP framework. A particular focus is on the community-based character of these initiatives for the provision of public goods. This is done by examining the necessary conditions for the success of collectively managed common pool resources. The research shows that elite-driven non-governmental organisations often emerge because of a lack of interest on the part of public bodies and because local communities do not have the capacity to set up a collective action for the provision of environmentally and socially “beneficial outcomes” (ESBO). The investigated NGOs, however, soon came into conflict with non-involved actors. To improve the governance mechanism, an extension towards a community-based collective action is proposed. However, each step of such a transition is a challenge for the initiatives of the presented case studies. The first critical issue is to find a common interest among actors. Similarly, “sharing power” represents a struggle which consequently delays progress in creating effective internal governance. The difficulty in progressing towards community-based collective action is amplified by the uncertainty concerning property rights induced by the activities of the NGOs and unfavourable socioeconomic and institutional conditions. Finding that the private initiatives are far from being able to transform into community-based collective action, we propose to launch a measure of institutional funding for the coordination and management of their projects – similar to LEADER but more concentrated in scope.
Keywords: Public goods | Ecosystem services | Common pool resources | Non-governmental initiatives | Governance mechanism | Community-based collective action
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Facilitating collaboration in forest management: Assessing the benefits of collaborative policy innovations
تسهیل همکاری در مدیریت جنگل: ارزیابی مزایای نوآوری های سیاست مشارکتی-2020
Collaborative governance and landscape approaches have become a more prevalent in public land management in the United States in the face of increasing ecological and societal complexity and decreasing government resources and capacity. In this era of devolution and social-ecological change, there is a growing need for policy approaches that facilitate partnerships and participatory approaches to land management. One unique policy that emphasizes collaboration and large-landscape restoration on US federal forestlands is the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009 to accelerate the pace and scale of forest restoration. The policy included novel characteristics such as a decade-long commitment to landscapes and formal requirements for collaboration. This program presented an opportunity to assess how this policy affected collaboration and the factors that led to differential policy implementation. We conducted 89 interviews across all 23 CFLRP projects with internal agency staff and external collaborators on each project. We found that the CFLRP generated a variety of benefits related to collaboration, including increased trust and stronger relationships, increased collaborative partner influence, decreased litigation and conflict, and increased capacity to accomplish work; however, there were also challenges associated with the program, including thetime-intensive nature of collaboration and the lack of industry or contractors. Various local factors affected collaborative outcomes under the policy, including staff turnover and capacity, local leadership, and collaborative history. Successful collaborative outcomes were widespread under the CFLRP, and from this, we draw implications for the broader environmental governance literature about the policy characteristics that facilitate collaboration and the other institutional variables that may require attention in this context.
Keywords: Collaborative governance | Community-based forestry | Adaptive governance | Ecological | Restoration | Policy design
مقاله انگلیسی
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