شکاف جنسیتی در حقوق معلمان K-12
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 4 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 16
ما شکاف های جنسیتی موجود در حقوق و مزایای معلمان K-12 را بررسی می کنیم. این یک شغلی است که در آن تبعیض جنسیتی مستقیم کمتر است چراکه حقوق و مزایا توسط یک مقیاس پرداخت واحد تعیین می شود و زنان اکثریت استخدام شده ها را تشکیل می دهند. ما با استفاده از داده های حاصل از ارزیابی جامعه آمریکا (ACS) یک شکاف جنسیتی 12000 دلاری در درآمد فردی معلمان K-12 پیدا کردیم که فقط بخشی از این شکاف ریشه در تفاوت های جنسیتی موجود در مقامات مدیریتی، مدارک تحصیلی و درجات تدریس دارد. برعکس، وقتی که ما از یک سری داده های مربوط به حقوق و مزایای عمومی معلمان K-12 استفاده می کنیم، یک شکاف جنسیتی خامی را پیدا می کنیم که تقریبا" سه برابر کوچکتر است. وقتی که ما مستقیما" توزیع درآمد سالانه برای معلمان مرد و زن را بین حقوق عمومی و داده های ACS مقایسه می کنیم، پی می بریم که بخش مهمی از شکاف جنسیتی ریشه در داشتن درآمد اضافی و خارج از حقوق اصلی تدریس معلمان مرد دارد.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Regional inequalities and gender differences in academic achievement as a function of educational opportunities: Evidence from Ethiopia
نابرابری های منطقه ای و تفاوت های جنسیتی در موفقیت علمی به عنوان تابعی از فرصت های آموزشی: شواهدی از اتیوپی-2018
This study investigated regional and gender differences in academic achievement in Ethiopia, and examined whether these differences can be explained in terms of unequal educational opportunities (EO). Educational opportunity was operationalized in a broad sense based on a regional differentiation in terms of socio-economic and school environment factors. The study results are based on a multilevel analysis of the 2014 and 2015 national standardized exam for grade 12 students (n = 194503 and n = 205719). Whereas the Central (high EO) regions outperformed the other regions (Cohen’s d = 0.85) as expected, there were some inconsistencies in the comparison between Established (mid EO) regions and Emerging (low EO) regions. Coincidentally, the two Emerging regions that were unexpectedly performing at the level of the Established regions were also the two regions in which there was no evidence for a gender gap in achievement. For other regions, including the Central regions, evidence for a gender gap sometimes as large as the regional gap was identified, with boys having on average higher scores than girls (Cohen’s d = [0.02, 0.92] with an average of 0.50). Plausible explanations and further policy recommendations are discussed.
keywords: Educational opportunity |Regional inequalities |Gender |Academic achievement |Ethiopia
شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران دانمارکی
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 18
هدف این مطالعه بررسی دوپینگ فصلی و همیشگی دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی (تعداد = 771، مردها = 5/56%) و بررسی تفاوت های جنسیتی می باشد. یک ارزیابی آنلاین انجام شد (نرخ پاسخ = 57 درصد) که شامل اطلاعات زندگی نامه ای و نیز سوالاتی به روش پاسخ تصادفی درباره دوپینگ فصلی و همیشگی بود. درباره آخرین شیوع فصلی، بیشترین نرخ دوپینگ در 6/30% (95% اطمینان در بازه 7/35 – 6/22) تخمین زده شد و نرخ غیر دوپینگی های درستکار در 4/69% تخمین زده شد. برای شیوع همیشگی دوپینگ، یک نرخ حداقل 1/3% دوپینگی ها (95% اطمینان در بازه 9/8 – 0) و یک نرخ ماکزیمم 26% (95 درصد اطمینان در بازه 8/40 – 4/13) با یک نرخ تقریبا" 74% ا0شناسایی شد ز کسانی که می توانند به صورت قابل اطمینانی تخمین زده شوند که هرگز درطی کار خود دوپینگ نکرده اند. هیچ تفاوت جنسیتی قابل توجهی یافت نشد. به عنوان نتیجه گیری، شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی شبیه به ورزشکاران نخبه آلمانی و هلندی است.
کلیدواژه ها: روش پاسخ تصادفی | تفاوت های جنسیتی | تفاوت های جنسی | سوالات حساس
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Doping prevalence among Danish elite athletes
شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی-2018
The objective of this study was to investigate seasonal and all time doping among Danish elite athletes (N = 771, male = 56.5%) and to investigate gender differences. An online survey was conducted (response rate = 57%) which included biographical information as well as randomized response technique questions about seasonal and all-time doping. Concerning last season prevalence, the maximum doping rate was estimated at 30.6% (95% confidence interval 22.6–35.7) and the rate of honest non-dopers was estimated at 69.4%. For the lifetime prevalence of doping, a rate of at least 3.1% dopers (95% confidence interval 0–8.9) and a maximum of 26% (95% confidence interval 13.4–40.8), with a rate of approximately 74% who can reliably be estimated to have never doped throughout their career was identified. No significant gender differences were found. In conclusion, the doping prevalence among Danish elite athletes is similar to that of Dutch and German elite athletes.
keywords: Randomized response technique |Gender differences |Sex differences |Sensitive questions
Passive social network site use and subjective well-being among Chinese university students: A moderated mediation model of envy and gender
استفاده از سایت اجتماعی شبکه منفعل و رفاه ذهنی دانشجویان دانشگاهی چینی: یک مدل میانجی گرایی تعدیل شده از حسادت و جنس-2017
Research has revealed that passive social network site (SNS) use might undermine subjective well-being. How ever, less is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the mediation effect of envy in the association between passive SNS use and low subjective well being, and whether this mediating process was moderated by gender. A sample of 707 Chinese university stu dents (mean age = 19.06 years, SD = 1.12) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding passive SNS use, envy, and subjective well-being. Results revealed that the association between passive SNS use and low subjec tive well-being was mediated by envy. Moreover, the mediating effect of envy was moderated by gender, with the effect being stronger for females. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and for whom pas sive SNS use predict low subjective well-being, and suggest the need to take gender into account in prevention and intervention programs for problematic SNS use.
Keywords: Passive social network site use | Envy | Subjective well-being | Gender differences
Understanding factors affecting users’ social networking site continuance: A gender difference perspective
درک عوامل موثر بر ادامه ی سایت های شبکه های اجتماعی کاربران: چشم انداز تفاوت جنسیتی-2017
Social networking sites (SNSs) have attracted more and more people to interact on line. Because of their popularity, firms and organizations are now marketing their business on SNS pages. It is essential for both SNS providers and firms to retain their current members. Consequently, use continuity of SNSs has gained the attention of both practitioners and researchers. However, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in such a context. To address this gap, we have developed an advanced framework to explain and analyze gender differences in users’ SNS continuance decisions. We propose an SNS continuance model by integrating SNS-oriented constructs (perceived privacy risk, perceived enjoyment, perceived reputation, and community identification) into the established ECM-ISC model and introduce gender as a key moderator. Our research results indicate that all the added SNS-oriented constructs influence users’ SNS continuance directly and indirectly. Furthermore, the impact of each factor on SNS continuance varies by gender. Each gender bases SNS continuance decisions on a different set of factors and/or different weights of the same factors. This study provides evidence that gender effects should be considered in understanding the continued usage of SNSs. It also provides an opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of gender differences in SNS continuance and fills the research gap regarding this. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking sites | The expectation–confirmation model and IS | continuance (ECM-ISC) | Gender | Gender differences
``Its complicated: A systematic review of associations between social network site use and romantic relationships
``ان پیچیده است : بررسی سیستماتیک از انجمن استفاده از سایت های شبکه اجتماعی و روابط عاشقانه-2017
Social network site (SNS) use may have important implications for romantic relationships. This sys tematic literature review aims to (a) identify theory-based approaches for studying associations between SNS use and romantic relationships, (b) identify key romantic relationship constructs measured in relation to SNS use, (c) synthesize the mechanisms by which SNS use may influence and be influenced by romantic relationships, and (d) discuss improved methods for guiding future research. Twenty-six peer reviewed articles published in English from 2000 to 2015 that include measures of a romantic rela tionship construct as an outcome or predictor of SNS-related behavior for someone in a romantic rela tionship comprise this review. Studies are categorized as focusing on individual characteristics, relationship characteristics, or behavioral actions. Overall, findings indicate underdevelopment of SNS related theory, and suggest that SNS behaviors may both influence and be influenced by individual and relationship characteristics such as adult attachment style, SNS-induced jealousy, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and partner identity overlap. Gender appears to influence associations between SNS use and relationship constructs, particularly in relation to interpreting ambiguous infor mation about a partner. Further, SNSs may serve a maintenance function within romantic relationships. Directions for future research include assessing multiple SNSs in diverse samples and standardizing measurement of SNS behaviors.
Keywords: Social network sites | Social media | Romantic relationships | Emerging adults | Gender differences
The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample
نقش شبکه اجتماعی آنلاین چت برای استفاده از الکل در نوجوانی : تست سه راه مرتبط با همتایان در یک نمونه سوئدی مبتنی بر جمعیت-2017
The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15e16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. In direct effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.
Keywords: Internet | Adolescence | Alcohol drinking | Cross-sectional studies
Why men and women continue to use social networking sites: The role of gender differences
چرا مردان و زنان همچنان از سایت های شبکه های اجتماعی استفاده می کنند: نقش تفاوت های جنسیتی-2017
Organizations increasingly use social media and especially social networking sites (SNS) to support their marketing agenda, enhance collaboration, and develop new capabilities. However, the success of SNS initiatives is largely dependent on sustainable user participa tion. In this study, we argue that the continuance intentions of users may be gender sensitive. To theorize and investigate gender differences in the determinants of continu ance intentions, this study draws on the expectation-confirmation model, the uses and gratification theory, as well as the self-construal theory and its extensions. Our survey of 488 users shows that while both men and women are motivated by the ability to self enhance, there are some gender differences. Specifically, while women are mainly driven by relational uses, such as maintaining close ties and getting access to social information on close and distant networks, men base their continuance intentions on their ability to gain information of a general nature. Our research makes several contributions to the dis course in strategic information systems literature concerning the use of social media by individuals and organizations. Theoretically, it expands the understanding of the phe nomenon of continuance intentions and specifically the role of the gender differences in its determinants. On a practical level, it delivers insights for SNS providers and marketers into how satisfaction and continuance intentions of male and female SNS users can be dif ferentially promoted. Furthermore, as organizations increasingly rely on corporate social networks to foster collaboration and innovation, our insights deliver initial recommenda tions on how organizational social media initiatives can be supported with regard to gender-based differences.
Keywords: Gender | Social networking sites | Facebook | Continuance intention | Satisfaction | Uses and gratifications | Gendered self-construal Relational interdependence | Collective interdependence
Gender and central banking
جنسیت و بانک مرکزی-2017
Female Central Bank chairs represent but a tiny minority. To understand why, this article analyzes socio economic and socio-political characteristics of the countries where women have chaired Central Banks. Then, it suggests that gender differences in preferences as regards monetary policy goals may have some influence. This hypothesis is based on an empirical analysis showing that female Central Bank chairs focus more than their male counterparts on achieving the price stability goal. This means, then, that women are more resistant than men to political pressures. Finally, it concludes that gender differences in degree of conservatism may be an explanatory factor in female underrepresentation in the Central Bank chairs.
Keywords: Central banks | Conservatism | Female | Gender gap | Monetary policy | Preference parameters