Gender differences among homicide offenders with schizophrenia in Hunan Province, China
تفاوت های جنسیتی در بین مجرمین قتل با اسکیزوفرنی در استان هونان ، چین-2019
This study aimed to understand the demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia from a gender-based perspective. Information on all homicide offenders with schizophrenia who received forensic psychiatric assessment between 2010 and 2016 in Hunan Province, China, was systematically retrieved (n=669). Gender differences in the above characteristics were analyzed, and independent correlates of homicide were explored. The male to female ratio of homicide offenders was about 4:1. Proportionally more males were single, unemployed and younger when committing their first crime than was apparent in females. Male perpetrators were more often influenced by delusions. Females were more likely to target their close family members. For males, living in rural areas and having a family history of mental disorder were positively associated with homicide, while having a criminal history and being unemployed were negatively associated. For females, younger age was positively, while being unmarried and unemployment were negatively associated with homicide. Our results indicate significant gender differences among Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia in demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics and in independent correlates of homicide. Further research in this field, especially aims at determining risk factors for crime in this population, should take the gender differences into account.
Keywords: Violence | Murder | Severe mental disorder | Sex difference | Independent correlates | Risk factors | Chinese
Gender gap in entrepreneurship
شکاف جنسیتی در کارآفرینی-2019
Using data on the entire population of businesses registered in the states of California and Massachusetts between 1995 and 2011, we decompose the well-established gender gap in entrepreneurship. We show that femaleled ventures are 63 percentage points less likely than male-led ventures to obtain external funding (i.e., venture capital). The most significant portion of the gap (65 percent) stems from gender differences in initial startup orientation, with women being less likely to found ventures that signal growth potential to external investors. However, the residual gap is as much as 35 percent and much of this disparity likely reflects investors’ gendered preferences. Consistent with theories of statistical discrimination, the residual gap diminishes significantly when stronger signals of growth are available to investors for comparable female- and male-led ventures or when focal investors appear to be more sophisticated. Finally, conditional on the reception of external funds (i.e., venture capital), women and men are equally likely to achieve exit outcomes, through IPOs or acquisitions.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Gender | Venture capital | Discrimination
شکاف جنسیتی در حقوق معلمان K-12
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 4 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 16
ما شکاف های جنسیتی موجود در حقوق و مزایای معلمان K-12 را بررسی می کنیم. این یک شغلی است که در آن تبعیض جنسیتی مستقیم کمتر است چراکه حقوق و مزایا توسط یک مقیاس پرداخت واحد تعیین می شود و زنان اکثریت استخدام شده ها را تشکیل می دهند. ما با استفاده از داده های حاصل از ارزیابی جامعه آمریکا (ACS) یک شکاف جنسیتی 12000 دلاری در درآمد فردی معلمان K-12 پیدا کردیم که فقط بخشی از این شکاف ریشه در تفاوت های جنسیتی موجود در مقامات مدیریتی، مدارک تحصیلی و درجات تدریس دارد. برعکس، وقتی که ما از یک سری داده های مربوط به حقوق و مزایای عمومی معلمان K-12 استفاده می کنیم، یک شکاف جنسیتی خامی را پیدا می کنیم که تقریبا" سه برابر کوچکتر است. وقتی که ما مستقیما" توزیع درآمد سالانه برای معلمان مرد و زن را بین حقوق عمومی و داده های ACS مقایسه می کنیم، پی می بریم که بخش مهمی از شکاف جنسیتی ریشه در داشتن درآمد اضافی و خارج از حقوق اصلی تدریس معلمان مرد دارد.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
The Yin and Yang of entrepreneurship: Gender differences in the importance of communal and agentic characteristics for entrepreneurs subjective well-being and performance
یین و یانگ کارآفرینی: تفاوت های جنسیتی در اهمیت خصوصیات جمعی و عامل برای رفاه ذهنی و عملکرد ذهنی کارآفرینان-2019
This research examines gender differences in the relationships of entrepreneurs agentic and communal personality characteristics with measures of subjective well-being and new venture performance. Results from a stratified national (USA) random sample of founding CEOs (N=303) demonstrate the advantages of an agentic characteristic (creativity) for women and a communal characteristic (teamwork) for men, with regard to the respective abilities of such persons to achieve high levels of subjective well-being and new venture performance. These relative advantages for women and men were mediated by perceptions of person-work fit.
Keywords: Character strengths | Person-environment fit | Person-job fit | Positive organizational behavior | Positive psychology | Gender differences | Subjective well-being
Regional inequalities and gender differences in academic achievement as a function of educational opportunities: Evidence from Ethiopia
نابرابری های منطقه ای و تفاوت های جنسیتی در موفقیت علمی به عنوان تابعی از فرصت های آموزشی: شواهدی از اتیوپی-2018
This study investigated regional and gender differences in academic achievement in Ethiopia, and examined whether these differences can be explained in terms of unequal educational opportunities (EO). Educational opportunity was operationalized in a broad sense based on a regional differentiation in terms of socio-economic and school environment factors. The study results are based on a multilevel analysis of the 2014 and 2015 national standardized exam for grade 12 students (n = 194503 and n = 205719). Whereas the Central (high EO) regions outperformed the other regions (Cohen’s d = 0.85) as expected, there were some inconsistencies in the comparison between Established (mid EO) regions and Emerging (low EO) regions. Coincidentally, the two Emerging regions that were unexpectedly performing at the level of the Established regions were also the two regions in which there was no evidence for a gender gap in achievement. For other regions, including the Central regions, evidence for a gender gap sometimes as large as the regional gap was identified, with boys having on average higher scores than girls (Cohen’s d = [0.02, 0.92] with an average of 0.50). Plausible explanations and further policy recommendations are discussed.
keywords: Educational opportunity |Regional inequalities |Gender |Academic achievement |Ethiopia
شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران دانمارکی
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 18
هدف این مطالعه بررسی دوپینگ فصلی و همیشگی دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی (تعداد = 771، مردها = 5/56%) و بررسی تفاوت های جنسیتی می باشد. یک ارزیابی آنلاین انجام شد (نرخ پاسخ = 57 درصد) که شامل اطلاعات زندگی نامه ای و نیز سوالاتی به روش پاسخ تصادفی درباره دوپینگ فصلی و همیشگی بود. درباره آخرین شیوع فصلی، بیشترین نرخ دوپینگ در 6/30% (95% اطمینان در بازه 7/35 – 6/22) تخمین زده شد و نرخ غیر دوپینگی های درستکار در 4/69% تخمین زده شد. برای شیوع همیشگی دوپینگ، یک نرخ حداقل 1/3% دوپینگی ها (95% اطمینان در بازه 9/8 – 0) و یک نرخ ماکزیمم 26% (95 درصد اطمینان در بازه 8/40 – 4/13) با یک نرخ تقریبا" 74% ا0شناسایی شد ز کسانی که می توانند به صورت قابل اطمینانی تخمین زده شوند که هرگز درطی کار خود دوپینگ نکرده اند. هیچ تفاوت جنسیتی قابل توجهی یافت نشد. به عنوان نتیجه گیری، شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی شبیه به ورزشکاران نخبه آلمانی و هلندی است.
کلیدواژه ها: روش پاسخ تصادفی | تفاوت های جنسیتی | تفاوت های جنسی | سوالات حساس
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Doping prevalence among Danish elite athletes
شیوع دوپینگ دربین ورزشکاران نخبه دانمارکی-2018
The objective of this study was to investigate seasonal and all time doping among Danish elite athletes (N = 771, male = 56.5%) and to investigate gender differences. An online survey was conducted (response rate = 57%) which included biographical information as well as randomized response technique questions about seasonal and all-time doping. Concerning last season prevalence, the maximum doping rate was estimated at 30.6% (95% confidence interval 22.6–35.7) and the rate of honest non-dopers was estimated at 69.4%. For the lifetime prevalence of doping, a rate of at least 3.1% dopers (95% confidence interval 0–8.9) and a maximum of 26% (95% confidence interval 13.4–40.8), with a rate of approximately 74% who can reliably be estimated to have never doped throughout their career was identified. No significant gender differences were found. In conclusion, the doping prevalence among Danish elite athletes is similar to that of Dutch and German elite athletes.
keywords: Randomized response technique |Gender differences |Sex differences |Sensitive questions
Passive social network site use and subjective well-being among Chinese university students: A moderated mediation model of envy and gender
استفاده از سایت اجتماعی شبکه منفعل و رفاه ذهنی دانشجویان دانشگاهی چینی: یک مدل میانجی گرایی تعدیل شده از حسادت و جنس-2017
Research has revealed that passive social network site (SNS) use might undermine subjective well-being. How ever, less is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the mediation effect of envy in the association between passive SNS use and low subjective well being, and whether this mediating process was moderated by gender. A sample of 707 Chinese university stu dents (mean age = 19.06 years, SD = 1.12) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding passive SNS use, envy, and subjective well-being. Results revealed that the association between passive SNS use and low subjec tive well-being was mediated by envy. Moreover, the mediating effect of envy was moderated by gender, with the effect being stronger for females. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and for whom pas sive SNS use predict low subjective well-being, and suggest the need to take gender into account in prevention and intervention programs for problematic SNS use.
Keywords: Passive social network site use | Envy | Subjective well-being | Gender differences
Understanding factors affecting users’ social networking site continuance: A gender difference perspective
درک عوامل موثر بر ادامه ی سایت های شبکه های اجتماعی کاربران: چشم انداز تفاوت جنسیتی-2017
Social networking sites (SNSs) have attracted more and more people to interact on line. Because of their popularity, firms and organizations are now marketing their business on SNS pages. It is essential for both SNS providers and firms to retain their current members. Consequently, use continuity of SNSs has gained the attention of both practitioners and researchers. However, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in such a context. To address this gap, we have developed an advanced framework to explain and analyze gender differences in users’ SNS continuance decisions. We propose an SNS continuance model by integrating SNS-oriented constructs (perceived privacy risk, perceived enjoyment, perceived reputation, and community identification) into the established ECM-ISC model and introduce gender as a key moderator. Our research results indicate that all the added SNS-oriented constructs influence users’ SNS continuance directly and indirectly. Furthermore, the impact of each factor on SNS continuance varies by gender. Each gender bases SNS continuance decisions on a different set of factors and/or different weights of the same factors. This study provides evidence that gender effects should be considered in understanding the continued usage of SNSs. It also provides an opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of gender differences in SNS continuance and fills the research gap regarding this. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking sites | The expectation–confirmation model and IS | continuance (ECM-ISC) | Gender | Gender differences
``Its complicated: A systematic review of associations between social network site use and romantic relationships
``ان پیچیده است : بررسی سیستماتیک از انجمن استفاده از سایت های شبکه اجتماعی و روابط عاشقانه-2017
Social network site (SNS) use may have important implications for romantic relationships. This sys tematic literature review aims to (a) identify theory-based approaches for studying associations between SNS use and romantic relationships, (b) identify key romantic relationship constructs measured in relation to SNS use, (c) synthesize the mechanisms by which SNS use may influence and be influenced by romantic relationships, and (d) discuss improved methods for guiding future research. Twenty-six peer reviewed articles published in English from 2000 to 2015 that include measures of a romantic rela tionship construct as an outcome or predictor of SNS-related behavior for someone in a romantic rela tionship comprise this review. Studies are categorized as focusing on individual characteristics, relationship characteristics, or behavioral actions. Overall, findings indicate underdevelopment of SNS related theory, and suggest that SNS behaviors may both influence and be influenced by individual and relationship characteristics such as adult attachment style, SNS-induced jealousy, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and partner identity overlap. Gender appears to influence associations between SNS use and relationship constructs, particularly in relation to interpreting ambiguous infor mation about a partner. Further, SNSs may serve a maintenance function within romantic relationships. Directions for future research include assessing multiple SNSs in diverse samples and standardizing measurement of SNS behaviors.
Keywords: Social network sites | Social media | Romantic relationships | Emerging adults | Gender differences