System architecture for blockchain based transparency of supply chain social sustainability
معماری سیستم برای شفافیت مبتنی بر بلاکچین پایداری اجتماعی زنجیره تأمین-2020
Social sustainability is a major concern in global supply chains for protecting workers from exploitation and for providing a safe working environment. Although there are stipulated standards to govern supply chain social sustainability, it is not uncommon to hear of businesses being reported for noncompliance issues. Even reputable firms such as Unilever have been criticized for production labor exploitation. Consumers now increasingly expect sellers to disclose information on social sustainability, but sellers are confronted with the challenge of traceability in their multi-tier global supply chains. Blockchain offers a promising future to achieve instant traceability in supply chain social sustainability. This study develops a system architecture that integrates the use of blockchain, internet-of-things (IoT) and big data analytics to allow sellers to monitor their supply chain social sustainability efficiently and effectively. System implementation cost and potential challenges are analyzed before the research is concluded.
Keywords: Blockchain | Social sustainability | Multi-tier supply chain | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability
Exploring dependency based probabilistic supply chain risk measures for prioritising interdependent risks and strategies
بررسی اقدامات ریسک وابستگی بر اساس زنجیره تامین احتمالاتی برای اولویت بندی ریسک های وابسته و استراتژی-2017
In this paper, we introduce an integrated supply chain risk management process that is grounded in the theoretical framework of Bayesian Belief Networks capturing interdependency between risks and risk mitigation strategies, and integrating all stages of the risk management process. The proposed process is unique in four different ways: instead of mapping the supply network, it makes use of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to model the risk network which is feasible for modelling global supply chains; it is driven by new dependency based risk measures that can effectively capture the network wide impact of risks for prioritisation; it utilises the concept of Shapley value from the field of cooperative game theory to determine a fair allocation of resources to the critical risks identified; and the process helps in prioritising potential risk mitigation strategies (both preventive and reactive) subject to budget and resource constraints. We demonstrate its application through a simulation study.
Keywords: Supply chain risk management | Bayesian Belief Networks | Failure Modes and Effects Analysis |Risk measures | Risk mitigation strategies
What Accounts for the Growth of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Advanced and Emerging Economies? The Role of Consumption, Technology and Global Supply Chain Participation
چه حساب هایی برای رشد انتشار دی اکسید کربن در اقتصادهای پیشرفته و نوظهور لازم است؟ نقش مصرف، فناوری و مشارکت در کل زنجیره تامین-2017
This paper examines the driving forces behind the growth in carbon dioxide emissions in forty advanced and emerging economies between 1995 and 2008. We use the global supply chain concept introduced in Timmer et al. (2014) to measure CO2 emissions in internationally fragmented production networks and embed the concept in structural decomposition analysis. Our findings suggest that rising levels of domestic consumption are related to increased carbon dioxide emissions in both advanced and emerging economies. A substantial share of CO2 emissions growth in emerging economies is accounted for by increased participation in global supply chains. However, even for countries that rapidly integrated in global production networks, such as China, rising domestic consumption accounts for the majority of territorial emissions.
Keywords: CO2 emissions | Global supply chains | Global Multi-Regional Input-Output Model | Structural decomposition analysis
Rethinking the role of partnerships in global supply chains: A risk-based perspective
بازاندیشی نقش مشارکت در زنجیره تامین جهانی: دیدگاه مبتنی بر ریسک-2017
Growing global operations on one hand drive cost down substantially but on the other hand make the supply chain more vulnerable to numerous risks. Confronted with increased risks, companies are more inclined to form partnerships and engage in supply chain collaboration consciously. Such inclination for partnerships simulates thinking of its incentives behind in association with risk management. However, traditional literature, confining its focus to individual enterprise, echoes inadequately on the role of partnerships in supply chain risk management. To bridge this gap, this paper refines the notion of risk in supply chains and proposes a model of supply chain risk system which is able to convey a risk-based view of partnerships in global supply chains. Through analytical inference it is shown that the level of collaboration among partners contributes to the resilience of supply chains. This implies that partnerships can positively affect the integration of supply chain risk system, thus benefiting operations in supply chains. A simulation program has been developed with aim to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed model. Implemented in simulation, two sets of experiments have been conducted for testing the model in actual business scenarios. The experimental results manifest high consistence with the analytical prediction.
Keywords: Partnerships | Supply chain risk management | Resilience | Modeling and simulation
Tracking mercury emission flows in the global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis
ردیابی جریان های انتشار جیوه در زنجیره های عرضه جهانی: تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی-خروجی چند منطقه ای-2017
Mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production have overtaken that from energy consumption as the leading contributor of global anthropogenic mercury emissions. Though Minamata Convention has put restrictions on import or export of mercury-added products, the inter-connected global economy that features an intensive correlated supply chain still has large impacts on mercury emissions. There fore, this study aims to track global nonferrous metal related mercury emission flows among 186 indi vidual economies for the year of 2010, by applying an empirically validated multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. The total amount of direct mercury emissions is 974 tonnes, to which gold production contributed a dominant proportion. However, a spectacular 2/3 of mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production were traded internationally, primarily as exports from emerging economies such as mainland China and Colombia to wealthy economies including the USA and Germany through global supply chains. Understanding the redistribution of mercury emissions along the global supply chains can facilitate international efforts to reduce mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production.
Keywords:Global mercury emissions| Non-ferrous metals| Multi-regional input-output analysis| Global supply chains
Corporate investments in supply chain sustainability: Selecting instruments in the agri-food industry
Corporate investments in supply chain sustainability: Selecting instruments in the agri-food industry-2017
Private investments to address environmental issues are perceived as a powerful engine of sustainability. For the agri-food sector, multiple instruments have been developed to green supply chains. Yet little is known about the underlying process and conditions under which green sourcing concerns lead to the adoption of specific sustainability instruments among agri-food companies. This study: i) offers a syn thesis of the most commonly used instruments agri-food companies adopt to promote sustainability in their supply chains; ii) proposes an analytical framework to elucidate how those decisions are made, based on the competitive environment in which firms operatedwith respect to location of their raw materials, technologies available to their suppliers, leverage over upstream suppliers, and end-markets’ characteristics; and iii) presents seven case-studies illustrating the decision-making process leading to the adoption of a specific instrument by a particular company. Companies that do not have sustainable technologies available to improve their environmental practices but operate in highly sensitive places are better off taking their operation somewhere else. But companies with available cleaner technologies, effective law enforcement and control over the supply chains, as well as a brand to protect, can capitalize on their environmental efforts by introducing strict standards, such as third-party certifications. Enforcement of social and environmental regulations at countries of origin is a key factor that deters companies form adopting very strict standards, even if they have a brand value to enhance. The multiplication of private labels and initiatives are, in most cases, not driven by a desire to disorient the consumer, but rather by a careful consideration of the complex conditions under which agri-food supply chains operate. With minor adaptations, the framework could be applied to other economic sectors that have environmental impacts, from mining and energy-generating industries, to apparel, and electronics.
Keywords:Environmental governance|Marked-based mechanisms|Global supply chains|Agri-food sector|Corporate social responsibility
Trade in occupational safety and health: Tracing the embodied human and economic harm in labour along the global supply chain
تجارت در ایمنی و بهداشت شغلی: ردیابی آسیب های انسانی و اقتصادی مندرج در کار در طول زنجیره تامین جهانی-2017
Over the past years there has been enormous concern about labour conditions in developing countries particularly around work for the export market. This study addresses human rights issues related to Occupational Safety and Health for people suffering injuries from work demanded as a result of international trade arrangements. Here we present Occupational Safety and Health Footprints, which include the number of work-related accidents that occur throughout the world and that are directly and indirectly linked to the consumption of products, calculated for every nations consumption bundle. OSHF include fatal footprints, non-fatal footprints, days lost footprints and wages lost footprints per given year. In order to calculate the OSHF, we used a comprehensive Multi-Regional Input Output MRIO table (Eora) in addition to data from the International Labour Organization, ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network (ASEAN-OSHNET) and others. This study finds that in 2010 there were 12 fatal and 4.8 thousand non-fatal incidents, 27 thousand days lost and two million US$ lost in wages per 100 thousand workers in supply chains worldwide. The results presented in this paper show hidden accidents throughout global supply chains and hence can be used to apply pressure on international organisations, governments and focal companies to improve the conditions of workers, particularly in terms of OSH in the workplace.
Keywords:Occupational safety and health| Social footprint|Occupational accidents footprint|Multi-regional input-output analysis|Global supply chains| International trade
Energy overview for globalized world economy: Source, supply chain and sink
مروری انرژی برای اقتصاد جهانی جهان: منبع، زنجیره تامین و سینک-2017
Energy use of the globalized world economy is comprehensively overviewed by means of a systems input-output analysis based on statistics of 2010. Emphases are put on the sources of primary energy exploitation, inter regional trade imbalance of energy use via global supply chains, and sinks of energy use in final demand. The largest final user turns out to be the United States, compared with China as the leading energy exploiter. The global trade volume of energy use is shown in magnitude up to about 90% of the global primary energy exploited. The United States is recognized as the world’s biggest energy use importer, in contrast to Russia as the biggest exporter. Approximately one third of global primary energy exploited is shown to be embodied in inter-regional net trade. Japan and Russia are respectively illustrated to be the world’s leading net importer and leading net exporter of energy use. For China as the leading energy exploiter, about 30% of its exploited energy is for foreign regions’ final use, and 70% for its own final use. For the European Union as the largest sink region, nearly 80% of the energy required in its final use is from foreign regions, led by Russia. As reflected in the results, the conventional perspective based only on the direct energy consumption by region inevitably leads to inter-regional “energy grabbing” and “carbon leakage”, which raises a serious concern of “regional decrease at the expense of global increase”. In current context of energy shortage and climate change, this global energy overview can provide essential strategic implications at the international, national and regional scales for sustainable energy policy making.
Keywords:Energy|Trade imbalance|Input-output analysis|World economy|Global sustainability
Ocean container transport in global supply chains: Overview and research opportunities
حمل و نقل کانتینر اقیانوس در زنجیره های تامین جهانی: بررسی ها و فرصت های تحقیق-2017
This paper surveys the extant research in the field of ocean container transport. A wide range of issues is discussed including strategic planning, tactical planning and operations management issues, which are categorized into six research areas. The relationships be tween these research areas are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. Represen tative models are selected or modified to provide a flavour of their functions and applica tion context, and used to explain current shipping practices. Future research opportunities bearing in mind the emerging phenomena in the field are discussed. The main purpose is to raise awareness and encourage more research into and application of operations man agement techniques and tools in container transport chains.
Keywords: Container transport | Competition and cooperation | Pricing and contracting | Shipping service design and scheduling |Empty container repositioning and | disruption management
Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints
اندازه گیری عملکرد پایدار زیست محیطی زنجیره های تامین جهانی: تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی-خروجی چند منطقه ای برای کربن، اکسید گوگرد و رد پای آب-2017
Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO2, SO2, biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between coun tries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, directcarbonemissionsinthe electricitysectoracrossall27memberstatesof theEUwasestimatedtobe1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62.8 gSOx/, respectively, $ and 84.4 gSOx/$ although being higher than in other countries. In terms of water use, the high water use intensity in China (1040.27 L/$) and India (961.63 L/$), which are among the highest in the sector in the electricity sector is exacerbated by both countries being ranked as High Water Stress Risk countries. The paper also highlights many advantages of the MRIO approach including: a 15-year time series study (which provides a measurement of environmental performance of key industries and an oppor tunity to assess technical and technological change during the investigated time period), a supply chain approach that provides a consistent methodological framework and accounts for all upstream supply chain environmental impacts throughout entire global supply chains. The paper also discusses the implications of the study to environmental sustainability performance measurement in terms of the level of analysis from a value chain hierarchy perspective, methodological issues, performance indicators, environmental exchanges and policy relevance.
Keywords: Environmental sustainability | Supply chain | Value chain | Performance measurement | Industry-level |Input-output analysis