Determinants of CSER practices for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: From the perspectives of administrative managers in tour operators
عوامل تعیین کننده اقدامات SCER برای کاهش انتشار گاز گلخانه ای: از نقطه نظر مدیران اجرایی در عملگران گردشگری-2018
Responsible corporate action has long been recognized as a vital step toward sustainability. Recently, this notion has also been introduced in tourism practices. Consequently, researchers have gradually become involved in exploring how tourism CSER is practiced, what might motivate it, and the relationship between financial performance and accredited actions. However, studies have primarily focused on the hospitality, airline, and cruise industries, and been geographically limited to Europe and North America. In order to fill this research gap, this study measures Taiwanese tour operators CSER activeness in reducing GHG emission according to a comprehensive set of items ranging from firm operation to destination management. Particularly, an extended TPB model has been employed to examine significant predictors of CSER performance, from the perspective of administrative managers. The findings indicate that managers’ attitudes regarding the benefits to the society and company interests are the most important predictors of business operations, supply chain, and destination management in CSER practices, respectively. The age of tourism business also plays an important role. This study contributes to the theoretical enhancement of CSER and TPB. Also, several practical suggestions are proposed in this study that will enhance the CSER profiles of tour operators.
keywords: Corporate social environmental responsibility (CSER) |Corporate social responsibility (CSR) |Green gas house (GHG) emissions |Climate change |Theory of planned behavior (TPB) |Tour operators
Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries
ارزیابی مشخصات و پایداری سیستم های مدیریت زباله های الکتریکی و الکترونیکی در کشورهای توسعه یافته و درحال توسعه کشورهای اتحادیه اروپا-2018
The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007–2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainabil ity of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste man agement performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007–2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different pat terns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing spe cial collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the recycling carbon footprints of WEEE are lower in 2013 than in 2007 for each country, the order in reducing the environmental impacts being: Germany, Italy, Sweden, Bulgaria and Romania. The negative values indi cate savings in greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the GHG efficiency shows no differences of the WEEE management in the developed and developing countries.
Keywords: WEEE ، Waste management profile ، Sustainability ، Carbon footprint ، EU
A model to control environmental performance of project execution process based on greenhouse gas emissions using earned value management
یک مدل برای کنترل عملکرد محیطی فرآیند اجرای پروژه برمبنای انتشار گاز گلخانه ای با استفاده از مدیریت ارزش درآمدی-2018
In response to recent climate change, which is believed to be attributed to the release of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, many countries are placing CO2 abatement programs such as carbon tax and cap-and-trade. Projects do have a significant share in GHGs and therefore their environmental performance, like their schedule and cost performance, should be monitored and controlled. Although many large projects would pass an environmental assessment in the project evaluation phase, the issue of environmental performance monitoring during the project execution phase has not been addressed in project management methodologies. The objective of this paper is to develop a model to estimate project GHG emissions, and to measure project GHG performance using the developed metrics, which can be used at any point in time over the life of a project. A comprehensive study is conducted to collect information on GHG emission factors of various project activity data (such as material use, energy and fuel consumption, transportation, etc.), and a user form interface is developed to calculate the total GHG of an activity. Also, a breakdown structure is proposed which supports managing all the project GHG accounts. The monitoring and control model is formulated based on the logic used in earned value management (EVM) methodology. The proposed model is then implemented to a work package of a real construction project. The results present the project initial GHG plan and show that the model is able to calculate project GHG variance by the reporting date and predict project final GHG based on a project GHG performance index. The method presented in this paper is general and can be applied to any type of projects in an organization that aims to reduce its carbon footprint. The same structure can be applied to monitor and control any other environmental impact associated with project execution process.
keywords: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions |Project control |Earned value management (EVM)
Carbon emissions and energy effects on a two-level manufacturer-retailer closed-loop supply chain model with remanufacturing subject to different coordination mechanisms
مدل زنجیره تامین انتشار کربن و اثرات انرژی در دو سطح تولید کننده خرده حلقه بسته با موضوع بازسازی به هماهنگی های مختلف-2017
This paper presents two models (classical and VMI-CS coordination) for a two-level closed-loop supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer with a facility to remanufacture used items. The paper considers three critical environmental issues, which are the energy used in production (manufacturing and re manufacturing) processes, GHG emissions from production and transportation activities (subject to a penalty tax), and the number of times to remanufacture (recover) a used item. Numerical results show that the traditional optimization approach, which minimises the sum of inventory related costs, sug gested less remanufacturing, fewer recovery times and more GHG emissions and energy usage; a result of operating at high production rates. The VMI-CS model was shown to be more economical than the classical model for a wide range of manufacturing rates, but not necessarily a more environmentally responsible choice. An extensive numerical analysis was conducted to enrich the discussion and to draw some managerial insights on how to make environmentally conscious decisions.
Keywords: Closed-loop supply chains | Green supply chains | Greenhouse gas emissions | Carbon emissions | Remanufacturing | Energy
Impact of congestion on greenhouse gas emissions for road transport in Mumbai metropolitan region
تاثیر تراکم بر انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای برای حمل و نقل جاده ای در منطقه شهری بمبئی-2017
Traffic congestion on roads not only increases the fuel consumption but consequently leads to increase in carbon dioxide emissions, outdoor air pollution as well as increase in the exposure time of the passengers. We analyse the greenhouse gas emissions for road transport sector in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) using fuel consumption and the vehicle kilometre travelled methods. In addition, by conducting traffic survey on four major roads in MMR, the congestion factor was established to estimate the share of greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport sector that can be attributed to traffic congestion.
Keywords: Mumbai | greenhouse gas emissions | traffic congestion
مفهوم سازی مدلی برای تأثیر رشد تجارت الکترونیک در جهت تولید گازهای گلخانه ای که ناشی از حمل و نقل لاجستیکی شهری است: مطالعه موردی شهر جاکارتا
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 8
چکیده در سال های اخیر استفاده از انرژی در بخش حمل و نقل تاثیر مهمی در کل سطح کربن ایجاد شده در مناطق شهری داشته است. شبکه های حرارت مرکزی معمولا در مقالات به عنوان یکی از موثرترین راه حل ها برای کاهش هزینه ها مورد توجه قرار می گیرند . یکی از مشارکت کنندگان مهم بخش لاجستیک به اندازه 70٪ از فعالیت کل لاجستیک است که ناشی از حمل و نقل است. در همین حال، افزایش تجارت الکترونیک در مناطق شهری شیوه ای را تغییر داده است که مردم کالاها را خرید می کنند و منجر به تکرار بیشتر تحویل در مناطق شهری می شود که باعث افزایش قابل توجه مصرف انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای می شود. مشارکت این مقاله در ارائه مفهوم سازی مدل است که بر درک کل انتشار دی اکسیدکربن تمرکز دارد و ناشی از حجم حمل و نقل شهری است و با رشد تجارت الکترونیک در جاکارتا تقویت می شود. این مقاله از نمودار حلقه ای علیت استفاده می کند که به عنوان یکی از ابزارهای مفهوم سازی مدل برای نشان دادن سیستم ها در لاجستیک شهری است. این مدل به طور عمده بر محیط و جنبه های اقتصادی لجستیک شهری تمرکز دارد.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
A multi-objective optimization-based pavement management decision-support system for enhancing pavement sustainability
یک سیستم پشتیبانی تصمیم گیری مدیریت پیاده روی مبتنی بر بهینه سازی چند منظوره برای افزایش پایداری پیاده رو-2017
Current practice adopted by highway agencies with regards to pavement management, has mostly consisted of employing life cycle costs analysis (LCCA) systems to evaluate the overall long-term eco nomic efficiency of competing pavement design and maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities alternatives. This way of supporting the decision-making process as it relates to pavement management, in which little or no importance is given to environmental considerations, suggests the need for pave ment management decision-support systems (DSS), which, by integrating multi-disciplinary and com plementary pavement life cycle modelling approaches, enable the decision makers (DMs) to properly account for, consider and assess the lifetime impacts of their decisions and practices regarding sus tainability goals and targets. This only can be achieved by employing techniques and tools provided with a comprehensive and wide-scoped cradle-to-grave capacity of analysis. To address this multifaceted problem, this paper presents a comprehensive and modular multi objective optimization (MOO)-based pavement management DSS which comprises three main compo nents: (1) a MOO module; (2) a comprehensive and integrated pavement life cycle costs - life cycle assessment (LCC-LCA) module that covers the whole life cycle of the pavement; and (3) a decision support module. The potential of the proposed DSS is illustrated with one case study consisting of determining the optimal M&R strategy for a one-way flexible pavement section of a typical Interstate highway in Virginia, USA, which yields the best trade-off between the following three often conflicting objectives: (1) minimization of the present value (PV) of the total life cycle highway agency costs (LCHAC); (2) mini mization of the PV of the life cycle road user costs (LCRUC); and (3) minimization of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions (LCGHG). In comparison to the traditional maintenance strategy, the proposed DSS suggests a maintenance plan that reduces LCHAC by 15%, LCRUC by 28% and LCGHG by 26%.
Keywords: Pavement management | Life cycle assessment | Life cycle costs | Greenhouse gas emissions | Multi-objective optimization | Genetic algorithms
Imposing emission trading scheme on supply chain: Separate- and joint implementation
Imposing emission trading scheme on supply chain: Separate- and joint implementation-2017
In response to global warming, it is urgent to control and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially from the supply chain perspective. The most often discussed topic in this domain indicates that emission trading scheme (ETS) could be employed as one of policy instruments for supply chain emis sions management. Via mathematical models, scholars have shown that the employment of emission trading is affecting supply chain performances (both environmental and economic) in different levels. However, previous literature focus on the cost-effectiveness analysis only from the mathematical aspect. To provide policy-makers and companies with the theoretical bases on this hot topic, it is significant to discuss how ETS, one of market-based instruments, could be imposed in the context of supply chain from the mechanical point of view. By incorporating ideas from relevant literature, this paper generates two concepts/modes in imposing ETS on supply chain: jointly imposed supply chain emission trading (e.g., jointly imposed SC-ETS) and separately imposed supply chain emission trading (e.g., separately imposed SC-ETS). It illustrates the working principles of both concepts/modes and conducts a sandbox example to analyze the cost-effectiveness of them. Furthermore, this paper discusses the challenges and opportu nities of implementing two modes from practical aspects. Results of quantitative analysis and discussion show that for the sake of both policy-makers and supply chain companies, the separately imposed SC ETS allowing selling permits would be so far the better mode to manage supply chain GHG emissions compared to the jointly imposed SC-ETS.
Keywords:Emission trading scheme|Supply chain greenhouse gas emissions|Supply chain emission trading
Carbon management of infrastructure performance: Integrated big data analytics and pavement-vehicle-interactions
مدیریت کربن عملکرد زیرساخت: تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ مجتمع و تعاملات-خودرو-پیاده رو-2017
As a crucial part of the transportation system, roadway network provides mobility to the society and is vital for the economy. At the same time it contributes significantly to the environmental footprint during its construction, operation and maintenance. Hence, the sustainable development of our Nations roadway system requires quantitative means to link infrastructure performance to lifecycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Recent developments in mechanistic models of roughness- and deflection-induced pavement-vehicle interaction aim at providing such engineering estimates. Herein, it is demonstrated that these models when implemented at a network scale are a powerful basis for big data analytics of excess-energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by integrating spatially and temporally varying road conditions, pavement properties, traffic loads and climatic conditions. A novel ranking algorithm is proposed, that allows upscaling of the local carbon dioxide emissions due to pavement vehicle interaction to the size of state-wide or national sustainability goals. Implemented for 5157 lane-miles of the interstate highway system in the State of Virginia, sections contributing signifi cantly to carbon dioxide emissions are identified. It is shown that the proposed ranking algorithm based on the inferred emission that exhibits a power-law distribution, provides the shortest path for green house gas emissions savings per maintenance at network scale. That is, maintaining a few lane miles allows for a significant synergetic improvement of both infrastructure performance and environmental impact of the interstate network and helps transportation agencies in making economic and environ mentally sustainable decisions.
Keywords:Pavement-vehicle-interaction|Greenhouse gas emissions|Network analysis|Power-law distribution|Big data analytics
Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and water-energy optimization for shale gas supply chain planning based on multi-level approach: Case study in Barnett, Marcellus, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales
ارزیابی چرخه زندگی انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای و بهینه سازی انرژی آب برای برنامه ریزی زنجیره تامین گاز شیلنگ بر اساس رویکرد چند سطحی: مطالعه موردی در برنت، مارسلوس، فایتلویل و شیل های هینسوییل-2017
This study develops a multi-level programming model from a life cycle perspective for performing shale gas supply chain system. A set of leader-follower-interactive objectives with emphases of environmental, economic and energy concerns are incorporated into the synergistic optimization process, named MGU MEM-MWL model. The upper-level model quantitatively investigates the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as controlled by the environmental sector. The middle-level one focuses exclusively on system benefits as determined by the energy sector. The lower-level one aims to recycle water to min imize the life-cycle water supply as required by the enterprises. The capabilities and effectiveness of the developed model are illustrated through real-world case studies of the Barnett, Marcellus, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shales in the US. An improved multi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satis factory degree is then presented to improve computational efficiency. Results indicate that: (a) the end use phase (i.e., gas utilization for electricity generation) would not only dominate the life-cycle GHG emissions, but also account for 76.1% of the life-cycle system profits; (b) operations associated with well hydraulic fracturing would be the largest contributor to the life-cycle freshwater consumption when gas use is not considered, and a majority of freshwater withdrawal would be supplied by surface water; (c) nearly 95% of flowback water would be recycled for hydraulic fracturing activities and only about 5% of flowback water would be treated via CWT facilities in the Marcellus, while most of the wastewater gen erated from the drilling, fracturing and production operations would be treated via underground injec tion control wells in the other shale plays. Moreover, the performance of the MGU-MEM-MWL model is enhanced by comparing with the three bi-level programs and the multi-objective approach. Results demonstrate that the MGU-MEM-MWL decisions would provide much comprehensive and systematic policies when considering the hierarchical structure within the shale-gas system.
Keywords: Multi-level programming | Life cycle | Shale gas | Greenhouse gas | Energy | Water supply