Access to resources and entrepreneurial well-being: A self-efficacy approach
دسترسی به منابع و رفاه کارآفرینی: رویکرد خودکارآمدی-2020
In this study, we examine an important predictor and outcome associated with well-being for entrepreneurs: access to resources and persistence. Drawing on social-cognitive theory, we contend that access to resources helps people feel conﬁdence in abilities to be successful entrepreneurs, resulting in greater well-being during venture development. We push the model further by hypothesizing that well-being is positively related to persistence in venture creation activities. Employing an experimental, vignette-based approach, we test the model by asking 258 subjects to consider how prospective entrepreneurs respond to varying contexts of resource accessibility (low vs. high) in terms of their self-eﬃcacy, well-being, and persistence. Results of serial mediator regression analysis support the hypothesized model such that greater access to resources is associated with higher levels of multiple indicators of well-being such as happiness, life satisfaction, and psychological well- being through a self-eﬃcacy mechanism. We also ﬁnd that entrepreneurial persistence increases through this mechanism.
Keywords: Recession | Opportunity | Improvisation | Entrepreneurship | Latin America
Can entrepreneurship bring happiness? Evidence from China
آیا کارآفرینی می تواند خوشبختی به همراه داشته باشد؟ مدارکی از چین-2020
This paper investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the happiness of entrepreneurs. We estimate the effects of entrepreneurial decision-making, business experience and other factors on happiness by using China Household Finance Survey data. Our results derived from maximum likelihood estimation methods indicate that entrepreneurial decision-making and entrepreneurial experience affect household happiness signiﬁcantly. The family well-being is signiﬁcantly increased if the family is entrepreneurial, and it will be higher if actively entrepreneurial. Both entrepreneurial experience and entrepreneurial investment of time have signif- icantly positive effect on the probability of family well-being. In addition, we ﬁnd that the mechanism by which entrepreneurship brings happiness to households is through raising household income and wealth, that is, income effects and wealth effects.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial activities | Happiness | Income effect | Wealth effect
Air pollution: A systematic review of its psychological, economic, and social effects
آلودگی هوا: بررسی سیستماتیک اثرات روانی ، اقتصادی و اجتماعی -2020
This review (178 published articles) is the first to systematically examine the psychological (affective, cognitive, behavioral), economic, and social effects of air pollution beyond its physiological and environmental effects. Affectively, air pollution decreases happiness and life satisfaction, and increases annoyance, anxiety, mental disorders, self-harm, and suicide. Cognitively, it impairs cognitive functioning and decision making. Behaviorally, air pollution triggers avoidance behavior, defensive expenditure, and migration as coping strategies. Economically, it hurts work productivity and stock markets. Socially, it exacerbates criminal activities and worsens perception of the government. Importantly, both actual and perceived air pollution levels matter. Limitations of past research and future directions are discussed.
Micro-entrepreneurship and subjective well-being: Evidence from rural Bangladesh
خرد کارآفرینی و بهزیستی ذهنی: مدارکی از روستاهای بنگلادش-2019
Microcredit has long been hailed as a powerful tool to promote livelihoods and reduce poverty through entrepreneurship. However, its impacts on peoples subjective well-being remain underexplored. We present a unified theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of microcreditenabled entrepreneurship on overall life satisfaction – a key manifestation of subjective wellbeing. Empirically, we apply an instrumental variable approach to a unique census-like household survey conducted in three villages of Bangladesh in 2013. In spite of having no direct effects, we find that microcredit borrowing has an indirect negative effect on overall life satisfaction, through increased worry. On a positive note, we find that female micro-borrowers experience an increase in satisfaction with financial security and achievement in life. We also provide evidence that micro-borrowers with higher levels of assets experience an increase in satisfaction with financial security.
Keywords: Microcredit | Entrepreneurship | Life satisfaction | Happiness | Depression | Worry | Female empowerment | Bangladesh
Entrepreneurship and eudaimonic well-being: Five venues for new science
کارآفرینی و رفاه eudaimonic: پنج مکان برای علم جدید-2019
Researchers in entrepreneurial studies are increasingly interested in the psychological well-being of entrepreneurs. Approaches to well-being tend to be partitioned into hedonic and eudaimonic formulations. Most entrepreneurial studies have focused on hedonic indicators (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect). The central objective of this essay is to examine the relevance of eudaimonic well-being for understanding entrepreneurial experience. The theoretical background and key dimensions of eudaimonic well-being are described and their relevance for entrepreneurial studies is considered. Illustrative findings from prior well-being studies are examined, also with emphasis on possible extensions to entrepreneurship. Five key venues for the entrepreneurial field are then considered: (1) entrepreneurship and autonomy, viewed both as a motive (self-determination theory) and as an aspect of well-being (eudaimonic well-being theory); (2) varieties of entrepreneurship (opportunity versus necessity) and eudaimonic wellbeing; (3) eudaimonia in the entrepreneurial journey (beginning, middle, end); (4) entrepreneurship, well-being and health; and (5) entrepreneurs and the eudaimonia of others – contrasting virtuous and vicious types. In each topic, extant findings from entrepreneurial studies are considered and new research directions proposed. The overall aim is to be generative regarding the interplay between entrepreneurial experience and eudaimonic well-being. Executive summary: Although there is growing research on the psychological well-being of entrepreneurs, most studies to date have focused on hedonic conceptions of well-being. However, key aspects of eudaimonic well-being (e.g., realization of personal potential, purposeful life engagement, effective management of complex environments) have received little attention even though they may be particularly relevant to entrepreneurial pursuits. To address this issue, the theoretical foundation of a widely-used eudaimonic model is briefly described along with its empirical operationalization. Illustrative findings generated with this model are noted, and their relevance for entrepreneurial studies is considered. Shifting to extant entrepreneurial research, five topical venues are then presented, beginning with a call to better distinguish the meaning and measurement of autonomy (as a core motive from self-determination theory, and as an aspect of well-being from eudaimonic theory) in studies of entrepreneurial experience. The eudaimonic well-being of different types of entrepreneurs is then considered with a primary focus on the distinction between necessity versus opportunity entrepreneurs. These particular types invoke emphasis on sociodemographic factors (e.g., educational and occupational status, income, wealth) that are known from previous research to matter in accounting for differences in reported levels of well-being. The third venue considers how eudaimonic well-being may matter over the course of entrepreneurial experience, underscoring that certain aspects of well-being may account for who chooses an entrepreneurial path while other aspects may serve as protective resources (buffers) vis-à-vis the stresses attendant to managing a self-initiated business. Still other aspects of well-being may be nurtured by the longer-term journey of business venturing. The health of entrepreneurs is then considered as linked to experiences of well-being. New directions for objective health assessments (functional health, biomarkers, neuroscience, gene expression) are considered; all have previously been linked in population-based studies to eudaimonic wellbeing. Finally, the impact of entrepreneurs on the lives of others (co-workers, employees, families, communities, society) is considered via the contrast between benevolent (virtuous) versus malevolent (vicious) entrepreneurs. Promising empirical questions that follow from these observations are detailed. From a lay perspective, th
Entrepreneurship and well-being: Past, present, and future
کارآفرینی و رفاه: گذشته ، حال و آینده-2019
Entrepreneurship research typically emphasizes firm-level outcomes such as growth and performance. However, people pursue entrepreneurship for deeply personal, idiosyncratic reasons. Therefore, as in other self-organized human pursuits, how entrepreneurship relates to fulfillment and well-being is of utmost importance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the well-being concept, related research, and its connection to entrepreneurship. We define entrepreneurial well-being as the experience of satisfaction, positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and psychological functioning in relation to developing, starting, growing, and running an entrepreneurial venture. We explain this definition of entrepreneurial well-being and review significant developments in our field and the broader field of well-being. Highlights of social, technological and institutional trends illustrate key areas for future research that can enhance our understanding of these phenomena. The eight papers in this special issue focus on entrepreneurial well-being each offering a specific perspective on how scholars can theorize and study the antecedents and consequences of entrepreneurship related to well-being.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial well-being | Self-employment | Happiness | Subjective well-being | Eudaimonic well-being | Positive and negative affect | Life satisfaction | Health
Estimating willingness to pay for a cycling event using a willingness to travel approach
تخمین تمایل به پرداخت برای یک چرخه رویداد با استفاده از یک دیدگاه تمایل به مسافرت کردن-2018
This study examines the monetary value of nonmarket benefits to participants of an active sport tourism event, such as happiness and pride from participating in an event. Willingness to travel (WTT) greater distances for future events is assessed and converted into willingness to pay (WTP) estimates using travel costs. Using survey data from the 2014 and 2015 Blood Sweat Gears bike ride, the intended visitation models show that changes in travel cost have a significant negative effect. WTP to revisit the event was between $41 and $57. The likelihood of return visit decreases as travel costs increase, indicating that WTP estimates are internally valid. WTP estimates stemming from two years of data collection are stable, suggesting that they are also temporally reliable. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stated preference WTT questions to assign a monetary value to nonmarket benefits of active sport tourists.
keywords: Active sport tourism |Consumer surplus |Intention to revisit |Nonmarket good |Temporal reliability
Does a happy destination bring you happiness? Evidence from Swiss inbound tourism
آیا یک مقصد شاد برای شما شادی می آورد؟ شواهدی از گردشگری داخلی سوئیس-2018
This study aims to explain tourist happiness by examining a specific destination in which happiness is generated for tourists via their travel behavior at the destination. Building upon the spillover theory of happiness, we developed a destination-based model of tourist happiness, which is shaped by destination image and service quality and mediated by tourist satisfaction and life satisfaction. This model was tested using data from 1048 inbound tourists in Switzerland in 2015. We found that destination image is positively associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonia, and positive and negative affect; no evidence indicated the effect of service quality on life satisfaction and negative affect. In particular, life satisfaction can largely predict eudaimonia and positive and negative affect. We also discovered that negative affect is poorly explained by its antecedents in the tourism context, suggesting that tourists are reluctant to link their travel experiences to negative affect.
keywords: Happiness |Life satisfaction |Tourist destination |Switzerland
The Unintended Long-Term Consequences of Mao’s Mass Send-Down Movement: Marriage, Social Network, and Happiness
پیامدهای ناخواسته درازمدت حرکت روبه پایین عظیم مائو: ازدواج، شبکه اجتماعی و شادی-2017
This paper uses the China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2003 to evaluate the long-term consequences of a forced migration, the state’s ‘‘send-down” movement (shang shan xia xiang, or up to the mountains, down to the villages) during the Chinese Cultural Revolution, on individuals’ nonmaterial well-being. The send-down program resettled over 16 million urban youths to the countryside to carry out hard manual labor over the years 1968–78. Most of them were allowed to return to urban areas when the Cultural Revolution ended. To estimate the long-term impacts of the send-down experience, we compare the outcomes of individuals with send-down experience to those of individuals without send-down experience but having similar characteristics and family backgrounds during the senddown period. We conduct primarily OLS estimates with a careful sample selection. We find that those who had the send-down experience have worse marriage outcomes, lower-quality social networks, and a lower level of happiness than non-send-downs. The negative effects of the forced migration are robust against regression methods and various model specifications. Our study adds to the growing literature in economics that seeks to evaluate the impact of forced migration.
Key words : send-down movement | forced migration | marriage | social network | happiness | China
Sport team emotion: Conceptualization, scale development and validation
هیجانات تیم ورزشی: مفهوم سازی، توسعه مقیاس و اعتبار-2017
The purpose of this study was to identify key emotions associated with professional sport team brands and to develop a valid, reliable scale to measure the recall of these emotions. A pool of 30 potential emotions was drawn through a content analysis, a qualitative study (n = 67), frequency analysis (n = 560), and categorization process. The identified emotions were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (n = 260) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 286). The emotion recall scale consists of 24 emotions representing 7 dimensions: connectedness, elation, competitiveness, surprise, anger, unhappiness, and worry. The authors offer evidence of internal consistency of the scale and convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity evidence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Emotion | Sport team brand | Sport consumer behavior | Scale development