When there are no abortion laws: A case study of Canada
هنگامی که هیچ قانون سقط جنین وجود ندارد: مطالعه موردی در کانادا-2019
Canada decriminalized abortion, uniquely in the world, 30 years ago. We present the timeline of relevant Canadian legal, political, and policy events before and since decriminalization. We assess implications for clinical care, health service and systems decisions, health policy, and the epidemiology of abortion in the absence of criminal legislation. As the criminal abortion law was struck down, dozens of similar private members bills, and one government bill, have been proposed, but none were passed. Key findings include that initially Canadian provinces attempted to provide restrictive regulations and legislation, all of which have been revoked and largely replaced with supportive policies that improve equitable, accessible, state-provided abortion service. Abortion rates have been stable over 30 years since decriminalization, and a falling proportion of abortions occur late in the second trimester. Canada demonstrates that abortion care can safely and effectively be regulated as a normal component of usual medical care.
Keywords: Abortion | Induced | Decriminalization | Canada | Health policy | Health law
Violence against health professionals and facilities in China: Evidence from criminal litigation records
خشونت علیه متخصصان و امکانات بهداشتی و درمانی در چین: شواهدی از سوابق دادرسی کیفری-2019
Objectives: This study aims to extend the current understanding of violence against health professionals and facilities in China, with data from an authoritative, national-representative, but under-researched data source – litigation records, and discuss implications for developing violence prevention strategies. Design: We collected all legal cases relevant to violence against health professionals and facilities from criminal ligation records released by the Supreme Court of China from 2010 to 2016. Main outcome measures: (i) Characteristics of perpetrators: gender, age, education, occupation, history of mental illness and alcohol; (ii) characteristics of victims: medical specialization, location, type of violence; (iii) outcome of treatment. Results: 140 cases were collected for analysis. Beating, pushing, verbal abuse, threatening, burning mock paper money, placing a corpse in the hospital, hanging banners, blocking hospital gates and doors, and smashing hospital property were the most frequently reported types of violence. Specifically following patient deaths, the interval between a patients death and violence by the patients families and friends was short, with 51% happening on the same day. Conclusions: Our study provides a comprehensive overview of violence against health professionals and facilities in China, which can be used to inform the development of prevention strategies.
Keywords: Violence against health professionals | Criminal litigation records | Health system reform | Health policy
The rehabilitation of the mentally disabled in the community act in Israel: Entrepreneurship, leadership, and capitalizing on opportunities in policy making
بازسازی معلول ذهنی در عمل جامعه در اسرائیل: کارآفرینی، رهبری، و سرمایه گذاری در فرصت ها در سیاست گذاری-2019
This paper examines the role of policy entrepreneurs in the formation of a rehabilitation program in the field of mental health in Israel, shedding light on their role in general and specifically in mental health policy formation. Our research is based on a historical case study. The legislation process was examined through interviews with key actors in the legislative process and archival materials. While in general our findings reinforced existing literature, our research also revealed new information on several topics: organizations as policy entrepreneurs; inter-sectorial coalitions of entrepreneurs; and possible problems arising from the concept of ‘leadership by example.
Keywords: Policy formation | Policy entrepreneurs | Mental health policy | Mental health rehabilitation
Operating an environmentally sustainable city using fine dust level big data measured at individual elementary schools
مدیریت یک شهر سازگار با محیط زیست با استفاده از داده های بزرگ گرد و غبار، اندازه گیری شده در مدارس ابتدایی فردی-2018
As the problem of fine dust pollution becomes increasingly serious in South Korea, the country is becoming more interested in obtaining information on fine dust levels. Fine dust level data are sufficiently local to make regional forecasting meaningless. Thus, this study proposes an alternative measurement technique to minimize differ ences between published and perceived levels of fine dusts. Owing to the large variations in the fine dust levels within urban areas, it is very difficult to provide measurements that are sufficiently area-representative. Because infants and elementary school students are more sensitive to fine dust than adults, it is useful to construct large data sets of measurements of fine dust levels at elementary schools. In Korea, the distribution of elementary schools is consistent with population density, which is useful for analyzing local differences in the fine dust levels in urban areas. This study will provide a basis for big data application to public health policy and infographics using color fuzzy model.
Keywords: Fine dust ، Big data ، Sustainable city ، Public health policy ، Infographics ، Color fuzzy model
Why Policymakers Should Care About “Big Data” in Healthcare
چرا سیاست گذاران باید در مورد "داده های بزرگ" در بهداشت مراقبت کنند-2018
The term ―big data‖ has gotten increasing popular attention, and there is growing focus on how such data can be used to measure and improve health and healthcare. Analytic techniques for extracting information from these data have grown vastly more powerful, and they are now broadly available. But for these approaches to be most useful, large amounts of data must be available, and barriers to use should be low. We discuss how ―smart cities‖ are beginning to invest in this area to improve the health of their populations; provide examples around model approaches for making large quantities of data available to researchers and clinicians among other stakeholders; discuss the current state of big data approaches to improve clinical care including specific examples, and then discuss some of the policy issues around and examples of successful regulatory approaches, including deidentification and privacy protection.
Keywords: Health policy, analytics, electronic health records, clinical care, costs Word count: Abstract (142), Body (3645)
Insights into Antidepressant Prescribing Using Open Health Data
بینشی به تجویز ضد افسردگی با استفاده از داده های باز بهداشتی-2018
The growth of big data is transforming many economic sectors, including the medical and healthcare sector. Despite this, research into the practical application of data analytics to the development of health policy is still limited. In this study we examine how data science and machine learning methods can be applied to a variety of open health datasets, including GP prescribing data, disease prevalence data and economic deprivation data. This paper discusses the context of mental health and antidepressant prescribing in Northern Ireland and highlights its importance as a public policy issue. A hypothesis is proposed, suggesting that the link between antidepressant usage and economic deprivation is mediated by depression prevalence. An analysis of various heterogeneous open datasets is used to test this hypothesis. A description of the methodology is provided, including the open health datasets under investigation and an explanation of the data processing pipeline. Correlations between key variables and several different clustering analyses are presented. Evidence is provided which suggests that the depression prevalence hypothesis is flawed. Clusters of GP practices based on prescribing behaviour and disease prevalence are described and key characteristics are identified and discussed. Possible policy implications are explored and opportunities for future research are identified.
Keywords: Health policy ، Data analytics ، Big data ، Prescribing ، Prevalence ، Machine learning ،Deprivation
Privacy-aware Big Data Analytics as a service for public health policies in smart cities
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات خصوصی به عنوان یک سرویس برای سیاست های بهداشت عمومی در شهرهای هوشمند-2018
Smart cities make use of a variety of technologies, protocols, and devices to support and improve the quality of everyday activities of their inhabitants. An important aspect for the development of smart cities are innovative public policies, represented by requirements, actions, and plans aimed at reaching a specific goal for improving the societys welfare. With the advent of Big Data, the definition of such policies could be improved and reach an unprecedented effectiveness on several dimensions, e.g., social or economic. On the other hand, however, the safeguard of the privacy of its citizens is part of the quality of life of a smart city. In this paper, we focus on balancing quality of life and privacy protection in smart cities by providing a new Big Data-assisted public policy making process implementing privacy-by-design. The proposed approach is based on a Big Data Analytics as a Service approach, which is driven by a Privacy Compliance Assessment derived from the European Unions GDPR, and discussed in the context of a public health policy making process.
Keywords: Big Data , Privacy , Public policy making
عملیاتی کردن یک شهر ازنظر زیست محیطی پایدار با استفاده از داده های بزرگ مربوط به سطح ریزگردها که در هر مدرسه ابتدایی اندازه گیری شده اند
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 16
از آنجایی که مشکل آلودگی ریزگردها به صورت روزافزونی در کره جنوبی درحال جدی تر شدن می باشد، این کشور روز به روز به دستیابی به اطلاعاتی درباره سطوح ریزگردها درحال علاقه مندتر شدن می باشد. داده های مربوط به سطح ریزگردها حدکافی محلی هستند تا پیش بینی های منطقه ای را بی معنی کنند. بنابراین این مطالعه دارای یک روش سنجش جایگزین برای به حداقل رساندن اختلافات بین سطوح منتشر شده و سطوح مشاهده شده ریزگردها می باشد. با وجود تغیرات زیاد در سطح ریزگردها در داخل نواحی شهری، فراهم کردن سنجش هایی که به حدکافی نماینده و معرّف ناحیه باشند بسیار دشوار می باشد. چون بچه ها و دانش آموزان دوره ابتدایی نسبت به بزرگسال ها به ریزگردها حساس تر می باشد ساخت یک سری داده های بزرگ از سنجش های سطح ریزگردها در مدارس ابتدایی مفید می باشد. در کره، توزیع مدارس ابتدایی با چگالی جمعیت سازگار می باشد که برای تحلیل تفاوت های محلی موجود در سطح ریزگردها در نواحی شهری مفید می باشد. این مطالعه با استفاده از مدل رنگی فازی، یک پایه ای را برای به کارگیری داده های بزرگ در سیاست و چشم انداز سلامت همگانی فراهم خواهد کرد.
کلیدواژه ها: ریزگرد | داده های بزرگ | شهر پایدار | سیاست سلامت همگانی | تصاویر حاوی اطلاعات | مدل فاز رنگی
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Economic environment and health care coverage: Analysis of social acceptance of access restrictive policies applied in Spain in the context of economic crisis
محیط زیست اقتصادی و پوشش مراقبت های بهداشتی: تجزیه و تحلیل پذیرش اجتماعی سیاست های محدود کننده دسترسی که در زمینه بحران اقتصادی در اسپانیا اعمال می شود-2018
The strongest economic crisis ever known, started in 2008, destroyed much of the social achievements. Although the European Union had to deal with this situation by designing common policies, the member states have handled this crisis in many different ways. Nevertheless, not all the countries had the same possibilities for manage their economic policies inside a common currency area. These states involved in the EuroZone have faced some restrictions due to their belonging to a currency area, so they have had to design alternative economic policies to the monetary one. The main objective of this paper is to assess the acceptance of the restrictive policies on public health expenses due to economic crisis and the implemented economic policy, from the point of view of citizens. This paper hypothesized that this acceptance or not depends on citizens perception of adequate use of the public health care system. A survey was conducted among the main social actors involved on healthcare system: the general popu lation and health professionals. And for testing the hypotheses a means comparison (t-test and ANOVA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been developed using data from that survey. Outcomes from those econometric exercises show a general disagreement with the cuts in health expenses, but in a level very related with citizen’s perceptions of overuse of public health services.
Keywords: Economic crisis ، Social sustainability ، Health policy ، Inequality ، Poverty ، Structural equations model
A Big Data Repository and Architecture for Managing Hearing Loss Related Data
یک مخزن داده های بزرگ و معماری برای مدیریت اطلاعات مرتبط با از دست دادن شنوایی-2018
The vast amount of data, which arise in healthcare applications makes traditional data processing technology inadequate and requires the use of fast emerging big data technologies to cope with key challenges, including data heterogeneity, pace of acquisition, size, privacy and security. Addressing these challenges requires a shift from traditional data analysis systems and techniques to big data management and processing platforms as well as big data analytics centric architectures. In this paper, we introduce such an architecture. The architecture has been developed to support the acquisition and analysis of big data sets regarding hearing loss and the provision of related healthcare services for the purpose of informing public health policy making. The paper provides an overview of the system and presents the outcomes of an initial evaluation of its performance.
Keywords: big data, architectures, security, hearing loss and audiological data, e-health