Internet of Things-enabled Passive Contact Tracing in Smart Cities
ردیابی تماس غیرفعال با قابلیت اینترنت اشیا در شهرهای هوشمند-2022
Contact tracing has been proven an essential practice during pandemic outbreaks and is a critical non-pharmaceutical intervention to reduce mortality rates. While traditional con- tact tracing approaches are gradually being replaced by peer-to-peer smartphone-based systems, the new applications tend to ignore the Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystem that is steadily growing in smart city environments. This work presents a contact tracing frame- work that logs smart space users’ co-existence using IoT devices as reference anchors. The design is non-intrusive as it relies on passive wireless interactions between each user’s carried equipment (e.g., smartphone, wearable, proximity card) with an IoT device by uti- lizing received signal strength indicators (RSSI). The proposed framework can log the iden- tities for the interacting pair, their estimated distance, and the overlapping time duration. Also, we propose a machine learning-based infection risk classiﬁcation method to char- acterize each interaction that relies on RSSI-based attributes and contact details. Finally, the proposed contact tracing framework’s performance is evaluated through a real-world case study of actual wireless interactions between users and IoT devices through Bluetooth Low Energy advertising. The results demonstrate the system’s capability to accurately cap- ture contact between mobile users and assess their infection risk provided adequate model training over time. © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
keywords: بلوتوث کم انرژی | ردیابی تماس | اینترنت اشیا | طبقه بندی خطر عفونت | Bluetooth Low Energy | Contact Tracing | Internet of Things | Infection Risk Classiﬁcation
Prediction of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) of smoked chicken thighs using computer vision during storage at 4 °C
پیشبینی کل نیتروژن بازی فرار (TVB-N) و اسید ۲-تیوباربیتوریک (TBA) ران مرغ دودی با استفاده از بینایی رایانه در طول نگهداری در دمای ۴ درجه سانتیگراد-2022
As the traditional indicators of freshness measurement of meat products, TVB-N and TBA have the disadvantage of time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive to the sample. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of computer vision techniques to visualize the variation of TVB-N and TBA during the storage of smoked chicken thighs. In this study, freshness indicators (TVB-N and TBA) and images of smoked chicken thighs were obtained simultaneously every 3 days during storage at 4 ◦C. Then, the RGB color space was converted to HSI and L*a*b* color spaces by color conversion algorithm, and the color parameters (RGB, HSI and L*a*b*) were correlated with TVB-N and TBA, respectively, for establishing multiple regression models. Finally, visu- alization maps of the spoilage were established by applying the multiple regression model to each pixel in the image. The results showed that the multiple linear regression models of TBA and TVB-N based on the color parameters L*, a*, I, S and R were well correlated (R 2 = 0.993 for TBA and R 2 = 0.970 for TVB-N). Distribution maps of TBA and TVB-N changed color gradually from blue to red during storage, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that distribution maps can be employed as a rapid, objective, and non-destructive method to predict the TBA and TVB-N values of smoked chicken thighs during storage.
keywords: ران مرغ دودی | بینایی کامپیوتر | خنکی | TVB-N | TBA | Smoked chicken thigh | Computer vision | Freshness
Non-destructive and contactless estimation of chlorophyll and ammonia contents in packaged fresh-cut rocket leaves by a Computer Vision System
تخمین غیر مخرب و بدون تماس محتویات کلروفیل و آمونیاک در برگ های موشک تازه برش خورده بسته بندی شده توسط یک سیستم کامپیوتر ویژن-2022
Computer Vision Systems (CVS) offer a non-destructive and contactless tool to assign visual quality level to fruit and vegetables and to estimate some of their internal characteristics. The innovative CVS described in this paper exploits the combination of image processing techniques and machine learning models (Random Forests) to assess the visual quality and predict the internal traits on unpackaged and packaged rocket leaves. Its perfor- mance did not depend on the cultivation system (traditional soil or soilless). The same CVS, exploiting its ma- chine learning components, was able to build effective models for either the classification problem (visual quality level assignment) and the regression problems (estimation of senescence indicators such as chlorophyll and ammonia contents) just by changing the training data. The experiments showed a negligible performance loss on packaged products (Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient of 0.84 for chlorophyll and 0.91 for ammonia) with respect to unpackaged ones (0.86 for chlorophyll and 0.92 for ammonia). Thus, the non-destructive and con- tactless CVS represents a valid alternative to destructive, expensive and time-consuming analyses in the lab and can be effectively and extensively used along the whole supply chain, even on packaged products that cannot be analyzed using traditional tools.
keywords: Contactless quality level assessment | Diplotaxis tenuifolia L | Image analysis | Packaged vegetables | Senescence indicators prediction
LoRaWAN-Based IoT System Implementation for Long-Range Outdoor Air Quality Monitoring
پیاده سازی سیستم اینترنت اشیاء مبتنی بر LoRaWAN برای نظارت بر کیفیت هوای خارج از منزل در محدوده بلند-2022
This study proposes a smart long-range (LoRa) sensing node to timely collect the air quality in- formation and update it on the cloud. The developed long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN)- based Internet of Things (IoT) air quality monitoring system (AQMS), hereafter called LoRaWAN- IoT-AQMS, was deployed in an outdoor environment to validate its reliability and effectiveness. The system is composed of multiple sensors (NO2, SO2, CO2, CO, PM2.5, temperature, and hu- midity), Arduino microcontroller, LoRa shield, LoRaWAN gateway, and The Thing Network (TTN) IoT platform. The LoRaWAN-IoT-AQMS is a standalone system powered continuously by a rechargeable battery with a photovoltaic solar panel via a solar charger shield for sustainable operation. Our system simultaneously gathers the considered air quality information by using the smart sensing unit. Then, the system transmits the information through the gateway to the TTN platform, which is integrated with the ThingSpeak IoT server. This action updates the collected data and displays these data on a developed Web-based dashboard and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that uses the Virtuino mobile application. Thus, the displayed information can be easily accessed by users via their smartphones. The results obtained by the developed LoRaWAN-IoT- AQMS are validated by comparing them with experimental results based on the high- technology Aeroqual air quality monitoring devices. Our system can reliably monitor various air quality indicators and efficiently transmit the information in real time over the Internet.
keywords: پایش کیفیت هوا | Air quality monitoring | Iot lora lorawan | TTN ThingSpeak Virtuino
Attention-based model and deep reinforcement learning for distribution of event processing tasks
مدل مبتنی بر توجه و یادگیری تقویتی عمیق برای توزیع وظایف پردازش رویداد-2022
Event processing is the cornerstone of the dynamic and responsive Internet of Things (IoT). Recent approaches in this area are based on representational state transfer (REST) principles, which allow event processing tasks to be placed at any device that follows the same principles. However, the tasks should be properly distributed among edge devices to ensure fair resources utilization and guarantee seamless execution. This article investigates the use of deep learning to fairly distribute the tasks. An attention-based neural network model is proposed to generate efficient load balancing solutions under different scenarios. The proposed model is based on the Transformer and Pointer Network architectures, and is trained by an advantage actorcritic reinforcement learning algorithm. The model is designed to scale to the number of event processing tasks and the number of edge devices, with no need for hyperparameters re-tuning or even retraining. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms conventional heuristics in many key performance indicators. The generic design and the obtained results show that the proposed model can potentially be applied to several other load balancing problem variations, which makes the proposal an attractive option to be used in real-world scenarios due to its scalability and efficiency.
keywords: Web of Things (WoT) | Representational state transfer (REST) | application programming interface (APIs) | Edge computing | Load balancing | Resource placement | Deep reinforcement leaning | Transformer model | Pointer networks | Actor critic
A Novel Hypercube-Based Heuristic for Quantum Boolean Circuit Synthesis
یک رویکرد مبتنی بر هایپرمکعب جدید برای سنتز مدار بولی کوانتومی-2022
Quantum computation has extraordinary capabilities for solving complicated problems. As quantum computations are reversible by nature, reversible circuits are important for the development of quantum computation techniques. Designing an effective and efficient method for synthesizing reversible circuits to reduce costs and stabilize circuit efficiency is crucial. The traditional synthesis methods of solving reversible circuits focus on the conversion efficiency rather than discussing the properties of the reversible function. Thus, this paper aims to propose a novel synthesis method that directly and efficiently optimizes reversible circuit synthesis with the properties of the reversible circuit. The proposed method converts the reversible function into a hypercube, allowing visual observations of the overall circuit. Two new indicators, the adjacent Hamming distance (AHD) and total cycle distance (TCD), aid in effective decision-making, generating shorter circuits. Furthermore, we use the generalized Toffoli gate set, which without requiring any additional ancilla bits and has applications in error correction and fault tolerance. The experimental results show that our method can find better solutions than traditional methods, significantly reducing the gate count, while the hypercube assists in synthesizing the reversible circuit.
Index Terms— Quantum computing | quantum Boolean circuits | reversible circuits | synthesis algorithm | hypercube | generalized Toffoli gate.
Making the invisibles visible: Including animals in sustainability (and) accounting
قابل مشاهده کردن نامرئی ها: شامل حیوانات در حسابداری و پایداری-2021
In this essay we draw attention to a crisis that touches upon a great number of individuals: the plight of non-human animals. Billions of farmed animals are slaughtered each year to produce for instance food and clothes, while wild animals experience various degrees of human-induced harms. Yet, non-human animals are largely invisible in discussions of sustainability and associated accounting efforts. This is due to a problematic ontology that leaves domesticated animals hovering between society and nature while grouping wild animals with their habitats and inanimate things. Our purpose is to consider how to make animals visible in sustainability (and) accounting. To that end, we first illustrate how sociology and philosophy, among other disciplines, have begun to shift towards the view that non-human animals are worthy of our moral, political and legal consideration. We then develop a view of sustainability that explicitly includes animals and introduce an accounting framework with examples of indicators to track progress from no rights to fundamental rights for non-human animals.
keywords: حقوق حیوانات | رفاه حیوانات | شاخص ها | پایداری | Animal rights | Animal welfare | Indicators | Sustainability
Biometric indicators can be early signs of declines in activities of daily living functioning among the Indonesian elderly
شاخص های بیومتریک می توانند نشانه های اولیه کاهش فعالیت های روزانه در افراد مسن اندونزی باشند-2021
Background: Signs associated with the onset of disability can be useful in disability projection and have signiﬁcant implications in elderly care policy. Objective: To explored the associations between biometric screening indicators and declines in activities of daily life (ADLs) functioning among the Indonesian elderly.
Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 4 conducted in 2007e2008, and IFLS 5 conducted in 2014e2015 were used to assess the association be- tween biometric indicators and ADLs at baseline and follow-up.
Results: Findings revealed that 22.3% of participants surveyed in 2007e2014 had become disabled in terms of ADLs. Anemia status, stage 2 hypertension, lung capacity, and a longer sit-to-stand time were associated with ADLs.
Conclusion: These ﬁndings are important to help early detection and potentially help the prevention of ADLs in elderly people in the future. Accuracy of disability estimation could possibly be improved if including biometric parameters.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biometric screening | Activities of daily living (ADLs) | Cohort study | Elderly | Indonesia
Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian seaport transportation and maritime supply chain
تأثیر COVID-19 در حمل و نقل و تأمین دریایی بندر دریایی هند-2021
Impacts of COVID-19 in maritime transportation and its related policy measures have been investigated by more and more organizations and researchers across the world. This paper aims to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on seaport transportation and the maritime supply chain field and its related issues in India. Secondary data are used to analyze the performance indicators of major seaports in India before and during the COVID-19 crisis. We further explore and discuss the expert’s views about the impact, preparedness, response, and recovery aspects for the maritime-related sector in India. The results on the quantitative performance of Indian major seaports during the COVID-19 indicate a negative growth in the cargo traffic and a decrease in the number of vessel traffic compared to pre-COVID-19. The expert survey results suggest a lack of preparedness for COVID-19 and the need for developing future strategies by maritime organizations. The overall findings of the study shall assist in formulating maritime strategies by enhancing supply chain resilience and sustainable business recovery process while preparing for a post-COVID-19 crisis. The study also notes that the Covid-19 crisis is still an ongoing concern, as the government, maritime organizations, and stakeholders face towards providing vaccine and remedial treatment to infected people. Further, this study can be expanded to the global maritime supply chain business context and to conduct interdisciplinary research in marine technical fields and maritime environment to measure the impact of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19 | India | Seaports | Maritime | Supply chain | Stakeholders | Sustainability
Linking biodiversity into national economic accounting
پیوند تنوع زیستی به حسابداری اقتصادی ملی-2021
Biodiversity underpins the supply of ecosystem services essential for well-being and economic development, yet biodiversity loss continues at a substantial rate. Linking biodiversity indicators with national economic accounts provides a means of mainstreaming biodiversity into economic planning and monitoring processes. Here we examine the various strategies for biodiversity indicators to be linked into national economic accounts, specif- ically the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) framework. We present what has been achieved in practice, using various case studies from across the world. These case studies demonstrate the potential of economic accounting as an integrating, mainstreaming frame- work that explicitly considers biodiversity. With the right indicators for the different components of biodiversity and scales of biological organisation, this can directly support more holistic economic planning approaches. This will be a significant step forward from relying on the traditional indicators of national economic accounts to guide national planning. It is also essential if society’s objectives for biodiversity and sustainable development are to be met.
keywords: سیستم حسابداری اقتصادی محیط زیست | رادیو | تنوع زیستی | خدمات محیط زیستی | توسعه پایدار | System of environmental economic accounting | SEEA-EEA | Biodiversity | Ecosystem services | Sustainable development