افزایش هوشمندی به منظور بهره وری ، زیست پذیری و پایداری
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 11
این کتاب به دنبال توسعه چارچوبی برای بررسی تجربیات شهرهای هوشمند در حوزه های قضایی مختلف در سراسر آسیا اقیانوسیه ، قاره آمریکا ، اروپا و انگلستان ، خاورمیانه و آفریقا است. این چارچوب ، که در فصل 2 شرح داده شده ، برای درک محرک ها ، هنرمندان و نتایج سیاست ها و همچنین سیستم عامل های فناوری است که پایه و اساس نوآوری هایی است که باعث افزایش بهره وری ، پایداری و زیست پذیری شده اند. در حالی که مقیاس ابتکارات شهرهای هوشمند در زمینه های مختلف جغرافیایی متفاوت است ، این مسئله که چگونه مردم به سوی نوآوری روی بیاورند و چگونه آن را در کل شهر قابل استفاده کرد؛ اهمیت به سزایی دارد. این کتاب عوامل اصلی عملکردهای فعلی شهرهای هوشمند را در چندین مکان مشخص بیان می کند. همچنین به شرح عوامل اصلی و نقش های آنها - دولت ها ، صنایع خصوصی ، شرکت های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) ، شهروندان و کاربران نهایی در هر زمینه می پردازد. شناسایی محرکها ، هنرمندان و نتایج کلیدی به صورت سازمان یافته، بینش مهمی در سایر حوزه های قضایی در مورد چگونگی بازنگری یا تدوین بهتر سیاستها و برنامه¬های فعلی و آینده¬ی جنبش¬های نوآوری در زمینه فناوری و اجتماعی فراهم می کند.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
The development of complex and controversial innovations. Genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria eradication
توسعه نوآوری های پیچیده و بحث برانگیز. پشه های اصلاح شده ژنتیکی برای ریشه کن کردن مالاریا-2020
When there is significant uncertainty in an innovation project, research literature suggests that strictly sequencing actions and stages may not be an appropriate mode of project management. We use a longitudinal process approach and qualitative system dynamics modelling to study the development of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes for malaria eradication in an African country. Our data were collected in real time, from early scientific research to deployment of the first prototype mosquitoes in the field. The gene drive technology for modifying the mosquitoes is highly complex and controversial due to risks associated with its characteristics as a living, self-replicating technology. We show that in this case the innovation journey is linear and highly structured, but also embedded within a wider system of adoption that displays emergent behaviour. Although the need to control risks associated with the technology imposes a linearity to the NPD process, there are possibilities for deviation from a more structured sequence of stages. This arises from the effects of feedback loops in the wider system of evidence creation and learning at the population and governance levels, which cumulatively impact on acceptance of the innovation. The NPD and adoption processes are therefore closely intertwined, meaning that the endpoint for R&D and beginning of mainstream adoption and diffusion are unclear. A key challenge for those responsible for NPD and its regulation is to plan for the adoption of the technology while simultaneously conducting its scientific and technical development.
Keywords: New product development | Adoption | Genetically modified mosquitoes | Living technology | Gene drive | Malaria
Intelligent energy management in off-grid smart buildings with energy interaction
مدیریت انرژی هوشمند در ساختمانهای هوشمند خارج از شبکه با تعامل انرژی-2020
The energy interaction between smart homes can be a solution for developing renewable energy systems in residential sections and optimal energy consumption in homes. The main objectives of such energy interactions are to increase consumer participation in energy management‘ boost economic efficiency‘ increase the user’s satisfaction by choosing between electricity sellers and buyers‘ and reduce the electricity purchased from the grid especially at peak hours. Thus, the innovations of this study includes defining an energy exchange method between smart buildings in an off-grid mode considering renewable energy systems, considering both thermal and electrical equilibrium and studying the lightning loads. it is assumed, here, that smart homes are off-grid‘ and the critical loads are supplied by the energy transfer between the homes using mixed integer linear programming. A compromise between the cost and time interval for using home appliances is considered to provide consumer’s comfort. An objective function is introduced considering programmable and non-programmable loads‘ thermal and electrical storages and lighting loads aiming to optimize the cost of energy between different smart buildings. Based on the method, which is tested in two different cases not only does the total cost of the smart buildings decrease but also the cost is reduced significantly when lightning loads are managed.
Keywords: Energy management | Smart homes | Smart microgrid | Energy storage system | Wind turbine
Research on the policy route of China’s distributed photovoltaic power generation
تحقیق در مورد مسیر سیاست تولید انرژی فتوولتائیک و توزیع شده در چین-2020
The distributed photovoltaic power generation is an important way to make use of solar energy in cities. China issues a series of policies to support the development of distributed photovoltaics in law, electricity price, grid connection standard, project management, financial support and so on. However, there are still some defects in policies and market mechanism. China creates a competitive market with a significant number of projects of distributed photovoltaic power through the reform of the electricity market, yet substantial drawbacks of the corresponding investment subsidies prevent distributed photovoltaic power from rapidly developing. This paper summarizes the status quo of China’s distributed photovoltaic power development, given its long-term plan, presents excellences and shortcomings of the existing policy system, and looks into the supporting policies and implementation paths for China’s distributed photovoltaic power in different stages. Innovative business models and financial support models are conducive to the development of distributed photovoltaic power. Financial innovation methods such as crowd funding and asset securitization should be encouraged to develop a sound risk assessment mechanism for projects, involve insurance institutions, and establish a risk sharing mechanism. In the context of a series of supporting policies, the distributed photovoltaic power in China will move towards market-oriented standardization for a healthier and more stable development.
Keywords: Distributed photovoltaic power | Electricity price | Policy route | Development strategy
MISS-D: A fast and scalable framework of medical image storage service based on distributed file system
MISS-D: یک چارچوب سریع و مقیاس پذیر از خدمات ذخیره سازی تصویر پزشکی بر اساس سیستم فایل توزیع شده-2020
Background and Objective Processing of medical imaging big data is deeply challenging due to the size of data, computational complexity, security storage and inherent privacy issues. Traditional picture archiving and communication system, which is an imaging technology used in the healthcare industry, generally uses centralized high performance disk storage arrays in the practical solutions. The existing storage solutions are not suitable for the diverse range of medical imaging big data that needs to be stored reliably and accessed in a timely manner. The economical solution is emerging as the cloud computing which provides scalability, elasticity, performance and better managing cost. Cloud based storage architecture for medical imaging big data has attracted more and more attention in industry and academia. Methods This study presents a novel, fast and scalable framework of medical image storage service based on distributed file system. Two innovations of the framework are introduced in this paper. An integrated medical imaging content indexing file model for large-scale image sequence is designed to adapt to the high performance storage efficiency on distributed file system. A virtual file pooling technology is proposed, which uses the memory-mapped file method to achieve an efficient data reading process and provides the data swapping strategy in the pool. Result The experiments show that the framework not only has comparable performance of reading and writing files which meets requirements in real-time application domain, but also bings greater convenience for clinical system developers by multiple client accessing types. The framework supports different user client types through the unified micro-service interfaces which basically meet the needs of clinical system development especially for online applications. The experimental results demonstrate the framework can meet the needs of real-time data access as well as traditional picture archiving and communication system. Conclusions This framework aims to allow rapid data accessing for massive medical images, which can be demonstrated by the online web client for MISS-D framework implemented in this paper for real-time data interaction. The framework also provides a substantial subset of features to existing open-source and commercial alternatives, which has a wide range of potential applications.
Keywords: Hadoop distributed file system | Data packing | Memory mapping file | Message queue | Micro-service | Medical imaging
A robust co-state predictive model for energy management of plug-in hybrid electric bus
یک مدل پیش بینی شده مشترک قدرتمند برای مدیریت انرژی اتوبوس برقی هیبریدی پلاگین-2020
This paper proposes a robust co-state predictive model for Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP)-based energy management of plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB). The main innovation is that the robust costate predictive model is only expressed by a simplified formula. Moreover, it is exclusively designed by the Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) method in consideration of noises of driving cycles and stochastic vehicle mass. Because the DFSS strives to minimize the weighted sum of mean and standard deviation of fuel consumption, the proposed strategy can simultaneously improve the fuel economy of the PHEB and its robustness. The DFSS results show that the coefficients of the robust co-state predictive model can be found; the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy has similar fuel economy to dynamic programming (DP); the hardware-in-loop (HIL) results demonstrate that the proposed strategy has good real-time control performance, and can averagely improve the fuel economy by 35.19% compared to a rule-based control strategy.
Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric bus | Energy management | PMP | Co-state predictive model | Design for six sigma
Strengthening science, technology, and innovation-based incubators to help achieve Sustainable Development Goals : Lessons from India
تقویت علم، فن آوری، و رشد مبتنی بر نوآوری برای کمک به دستیابی اهداف توسعه پایدار: درس هایی از هند-2020
Policymakers in developing countries increasingly see science, technology, and innovation (STI) as an avenue for meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs), with STI-based startups as a key part of these efforts. Market failures call for government interventions in supporting STI for SDGs and publicly-funded incubators can potentially fulfil this role. Using the specific case of India, we examine how publicly-funded incubators could contribute to strengthening STI-based entrepreneurship. Indias STI policy and its links to societal goals span multiple decades—but since 2015 these goals became formally organized around the SDGs. We examine why STI-based incubators were created under different policy priorities before 2015, the role of public agencies in implementing these policies, and how some incubators were particularly effective in addressing the societal challenges that can now be mapped to SDGs. We find that effective incubation for supporting STI-based entrepreneurship to meet societal goals extended beyond traditional incubation activities. For STI-based incubators to be effective, policymakers must strengthen the ‘incubation system’. This involves incorporating targeted SDGs in specific incubator goals, promoting coordination between existing incubator programs, developing a performance monitoring system, and finally, extending extensive capacity building at multiple levels including for incubator managers and for broader STI in the country.
Keywords: Science technology and innovation | developing countries | entrepreneurship | incubators | public policy | sustainable development goals | science policy
Micro-foundations of organizational ambidexterity in the context of cross-border mergers and acquisitions
مبانی خرد دوسویه سازمانی در زمینه ادغام و ادغام مرزی-2020
Micro-foundational approaches can enable firms to develop organizational ambidexterity, which is critical to long-term prosperity. However, to date, few studies have examined how mergers and acquisitions (M& A)—processes reliant on knowledge transfer—provide a useful organizational context through which to understand the achievement of organizational ambidexterity. Considering organizational ambidexterity from the viewpoint of exploitative and explorative innovation, we examine how behavioral contexts (corporate entrepreneurship) and structure (integration) regulate knowledge transfer activities at the micro-foundational and firm levels within a cross-border M&A context. Analysis of 143 cross-border M&As completed by United Kingdom (UK) acquiring firms revealed that: (1) knowledge sharing between the acquirer and the acquired leads to organizational ambidexterity; (2) increased use of the acquired targets capabilities has a negative effect on organizational ambidexterity; (3) overall, capability sharing is positively related to organizational ambidexterity; (4) corporate entrepreneurship has both negative and positive moderating effects (on use of the acquired targets capabilities and capability sharing, respectively), while integration positively moderates the effects of knowledge sharing on organizational ambidexterity.
Keywords: Micro-foundations | Organizational ambidexterity | Corporate entrepreneurship | Merger and acquisitions | Capabilities Knowledge sharing
Are social incubators different from other incubators? Evidence from Italy
آیا دستگاه های جوجه کشی اجتماعی با سایر دستگاه های جوجه کشی فرق دارند؟ مدارکی از ایتالیا-2020
This paper defines and analyses incubators that mainly support start-ups with a significant social impact. In 2016, a survey was conducted on the 162 incubators active in Italy, and a total of 88 responses were received. An analysis of the literature and of this dataset led to the identification of three types of incubators: Business, Mixed, and Social. Thirty of the respondents sent information on their tenants. Thanks to the data regarding 247 tenants, it was possible to analyze the impact of the three different types of incubators (Business, Mixed, and Social) on the tenants’ growth through OLS regression analyses. A Social Incubator is here defined as an incubator that supports more than 50% of start-ups that aim to introduce a positive social impact. The study shows that Social Incubators perceive social impact measurement and training/consulting on business ethics and CSR as being more important services than other incubator types. The regression analyses explain that Social Incubators are as efficient as other incubators, in terms of tenants’ economic growth, notwithstanding the focus of Social Incubators on start-ups that do not pursue only economic objectives. Finally, this study indicates that policy- makers can foster Social Incubators to support social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Incubators | Accelerators | Social start-up | Social entrepreneurship | Social innovation | Entrepreneurship
Leveraging inter-industry spillovers through DIY laboratories: Entrepreneurship and innovation in the global bicycle industry
استفاده از سرریز بین صنایع از طریق آزمایشگاه های DIY: کارآفرینی و نوآوری در صنعت جهانی دوچرخه-2020
DIY laboratories have the potential to advance new technologies, products and services through the leveraging of low-cost facilities by entrepreneurial individuals. We add to this emerging understanding of the DIY phenomenon by investigating the prevalence, operations and contextual factors that impact the use of DIY laboratories in the bicycle industry. We find two contexts in which DIY laboratories are utilised to develop component-level innovations: first, DIY laboratories are utilised as a low-cost way to enter an industry where the entrepreneur lacks the necessary financial resources and rely upon bootstrapping to build their enterprise. Second, and more frequently, DIY laboratories were used for the integration of diversified technical knowledge originating in other industries. Our study highlights the important role that DIY laboratories may play in leveraging inter-industry knowledge spillovers whereby DIY laboratories operate as incubators in the repurposing of diversified knowledge from high-technology sectors to lower-technology sectors to generate incremental innovation. Further, the modular product architecture of the bicycle helped facilitate the co-opting of technical knowledge prevalent in other industries by allowing entrepreneurs to focus their product development and subsequent commercialisation activities at the component level of the product artefact.
Keywords: DIY laboratories | Knowledge spillover | Modularity | Exaptation