دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Input-output analysis::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Input-output analysis

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 11
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Greenhouse gas emissions in British Columbia: Production versus consumption accounting from 2010 to 2015
انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای در بریتیش کلمبیا: تولید در مقایسه با مصرف حسابداری از سال 2010 تا 2015-2021
As a result of carbon-pricing policies, a number of jurisdictions across the world claim to be decoupling their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their gross domestic product (GDP). In British Columbia (BC), Canada, in what appears to be decoupling from 2007 to 2018, GHGs with respect to GDP declined by 16% ( BC Government 2020 ). This finding, however, is the result of a production-based method of accounting— the predominant global approach for allocating emissions—and not a consumption-based method. In this study, we compare these two accounting methods with respect to British Columbian decoupling. We cal- culate consumption-based emissions through a multi-regional input-output analysis from 2010 to 2015. In our results for 2015, we find total consumption emissions of 82.5Mt of CO 2 e; when compared to the total production emissions of 73.7Mt of CO 2 e, we find BC to be a net consumer of emissions by 8.8Mt of CO 2 e for 2015. Although BC has had this net consumer status since at least 2004 ( Dobson and Fellows, 2017 ), this orientation is in decline primarily due to the decarbonizing trends of China and the USA. In short, for BC from 2010–2015, on a per capita basis, both production and consumption accounts of emissions de- clined (even as GDP rose), but per capita consumption accounts declined more than production accounts and mostly due to emissions reductions from trade partners. Finally, this study may be of interest to policymakers and scientists, and like other scholars, we recommend that consumption-based inventories accompany production-based accounts when designing and assessing global GHG mitigation policy. © 2021 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
keywords: انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای | تجزیه و تحلیل خروجی چند منطقه ای | معامله بین المللی | گازهای گلخانه ای | تغییرات اقلیمی | Embodied emissions | Multi-regional input-output analysis | International trade | Greenhouse gasses | Climate change
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Mapping spatial supply chain paths for embodied water flows driven by food demand in China
نقشه برداری از مسیرهای زنجیره تأمین فضایی برای جریان های آب تجسم یافته ناشی از تقاضای مواد غذایی در چین-2021
Identifying critical spatial supply chain paths for embodied water flows driven by food demand can guide the development of more spatially explicit food-related policies for water savings. Previous studies have quantified water uses caused by food demand, but overlook intermediate transfer paths within and among regions. That is, spatial supply chain paths describing step-by-step transfer stages between water uses and final food demand have not been well characterized. Based on the multi-regional input-output model and structural path analysis, this study exhaustively identifies critical spatial supply chain paths for provincial water withdrawals driven by final food demand in China. Results show that the final demand of food products from critical sectors (e.g., agricultural products processing, rice, and swine) and regions (e.g., Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, and Guangdong) drives large amounts of water withdrawals. Critical supply chain paths indicate that agricultural products processing, food manufacturing, and catering should pay special attention to increasing the use efficiency of rice, poultry, cotton, water, and gas products, which can effectively reduce national water withdrawals. The interregional paths further provide evidence for interregional cooperation to save food-related water resources, such as the transfer of capital and technologies from agricultural products processing in Shandong to cotton production in Xinjiang and rice production in Heilongjiang. These critical supply chain paths provide spatially explicit and targeted hotspots for demand-side policies. They can also serve for the evaluation of measures in each stage of the supply chain paths.
Keywords: Food-water nexus | Input-output analysis | Structural path analysis | Supply chains | Consumption
مقاله انگلیسی
3 From exports to value added to income: Accounting for bilateral income transfers
از صادرات به ارزش افزوده به درآمد: حسابداری برای انتقال درآمد دوجانبه-2021
The existence of multinational firms and the rise of global value chains raise the question how international trade contributes to a countrys income. Ownership relations between, for example, headquarters and subsidiaries result in international income transfers. These transfers are ignored in standard trade data. Taking them into account in a global input-output analysis allows us to assess how much income is generated in one country due to the consumption of final products in another country. This provides a new perspective compared to the concept of value-added exports introduced by Johnson and Noguera (2012). For the US, we find that the income generated by foreign consumption is 51% higher than the value added in the US that is generated by foreign consumption. Similar findings hold for other countries as well, but to a lesser extent. The implication is that the current account deficit of the US almost disappears from the income perspective.
keywords: تجارت بین الملل | شرکت های چند ملیتی | درآمد ناخالص ملی | تجارت ارزش افزوده | تراز تجاری | International trade | Multinational firms | Gross national income | Value-added trade | Trade balance
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Road freight emission in China: From supply chain perspective
انتشار بار جاده ای در چین: از دیدگاه زنجیره تامین-2021
Freight emissions management has entered the deep-water zone. This study evaluated road freight emissions from supply chain perspective using China’s 2007, 2010 and 2012 multiregional input-output table. For the first time, we quantified road freight emission based on sectors in China. Heavy industries, mining, agriculture and light industry contributed 71%,14%, 12% and 3% of total NOx emissions in 2012 from production perspective. Construction was the largest consumption sector (43%) responsible for road freight emission from consumption perspective. Upstream transport and final product transport emitted 3.04 Tg (80%) and 0.77 Tg (20%) NOx in 2012. Huge disparities of road freight emissions flows and allocation patterns were found across provinces in China in terms of resource endowments, geographical position and economic development. The road freight emission increased rapidly from 2007 to 2012, and economic growth effect outpaced emission control effect caused by emission standard upgrade and thus dominated the emission growth. The production structure and consumption pattern changes also promoted the emission growth. It is thus important to mitigate freight emissions with different strategies based on a certain sector’s freight emissions features from the whole supply chain.
Keywords: Road freight emission | Input-output analysis | Driving force | Supply chain
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Double accounting in energy footprint and related assessments: How common is it and what are the consequences?
حسابداری دوگانه در ارزیابی انرژی و ارزیابی های مرتبط: چقدر رایج است و پیامدهای آن چیست؟-2021
The number of input-output assessments focused on energy has grown considerably in the last years. Many of these assessments combine data from multi-regional input-output (MRIO) databases with energy extensions that completely or partially depict the different stages through which energy products are supplied or used in the economy.
The improper use of some energy extensions can lead to double accounting of some energy flows, but the frequency with which this happens and the potential impact on the results are unknown. Based on a literature review, we estimate that around a quarter of the MRIO-based energy assessments reviewed incurred into double accounting. Using the EXIOBASE MRIO database, we also analyse the effects of double accounting in the absolute values and rankings of different countries’ and products’ energy footprints.
Building on the insights provided by our analysis, we offer a set of key recommendations to MRIO users to avoid the double accounting problem in the future. Likewise, we conclude that the harmonisation of the energy data across MRIO databases led by experts could simplify the choices of the data users until the provision of official energy extensions by statistical offices becomes a widespread practice.
keywords: تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی خروجی | مایه | رد پای انرژی | پسوند انرژی | حسابداری دوگانه | استفاده از انرژی | Input-output analysis | MRIO | Energy footprint | Energy extensions | Double accounting | Energy use
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Managing sustainability using financial accounting data: The value of input-output analysis
مدیریت پایداری با استفاده از داده های حسابداری مالی: ارزش تجزیه و تحلیل خروجی ورودی-2021
This paper explores the potential of a practical sustainability accounting roadmap that might contribute to transforming organisational accounting approaches to sustainability. The paper develops and evaluates an approach to input-output analysis, which combines existing financial accounting with publicly available national input-output data for scanning upstream supply chains of organisations for comprehensive scope-3 impact assessments. A range of accounting outputs are availed, providing insight into aspects of an organisation’s direct and indirect environmental and social supply chain impacts at a national and international level. The practical sustainability accounting roadmap presented in this study has the potential to address a range of organisational-level sustainability accounting questions focused on efficiency, consistency and sufficiency, and to assist in the preparation of external sustainability reporting commitments. The findings suggest the accounting profession ought to assume a greater responsibility in the sustainability debate by facilitating and promoting the trial and uptake of related methodologies and tools to enable organisations to measure and report on broader aspects of performance.
keywords: حسابداری پایداری | زنجیره تامین | حسابداری زیست محیطی | گزارش پایداری | تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی خروجی | Sustainability accounting | Supply chain | Environmental accounting | Sustainability reporting | Input-output analysis
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Examining industrial structure changes and corresponding carbon emission reduction effect by combining input-output analysis and social network analysis: A comparison study of China and Japan
بررسی تغییرات ساختاری صنعتی و اثر کاهش انتشار کربن مربوط به آن با ترکیب تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی / خروجی و تحلیل شبکه های اجتماعی: مطالعه مقایسه ای از چین و ژاپن-2017
Industrial structure adjustment is one solution for responding economic slowdown and environmental problems occurred during China’s rapid industrialization. Such an adjustment may also lead to carbon emission reduction since it encourages industrial innovation and resource efficiency. However, few studies have been conducted on examining the effect of industrial structure adjustment on carbon emission reduction. Under such a circumstance, this study develops an integrated evaluation model based on Input-Output Analysis and Social Network Analysis to quantify the evolutionary trends of industrial structure, demonstrate the inner relationship between different sectors and investigate the industrial structure-related carbon emissions. China and Japan were selected as case study countries. Results show that industrial structure was gradually improved in China and various connections were established between different sectors. For Japan, the industrial network densities were lower than for China and exhibited a downward trend that reflected the weakened relationship between different industries. Service sectors dominated the Japanese economy, as shown by the relatively higher degree centrality and betweenness centrality of service sectors. The electricity and heat production sector was further investigated to illustrate the industrial structure-related carbon emissions. Finally, this study concluded that compared to the industrial structure features in a developed country, such as Japan, China’s industrialization is still in its infancy. Thus, it is crucial to prepare industrial structure adjust policies so that the overall social-economic performance can be improved.
Keywords: input-output analysis | social network analysis | industrial structure | carbon emissions |China
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Tracking mercury emission flows in the global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis
ردیابی جریان های انتشار جیوه در زنجیره های عرضه جهانی: تجزیه و تحلیل ورودی-خروجی چند منطقه ای-2017
Mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production have overtaken that from energy consumption as the leading contributor of global anthropogenic mercury emissions. Though Minamata Convention has put restrictions on import or export of mercury-added products, the inter-connected global economy that features an intensive correlated supply chain still has large impacts on mercury emissions. There fore, this study aims to track global nonferrous metal related mercury emission flows among 186 indi vidual economies for the year of 2010, by applying an empirically validated multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. The total amount of direct mercury emissions is 974 tonnes, to which gold production contributed a dominant proportion. However, a spectacular 2/3 of mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production were traded internationally, primarily as exports from emerging economies such as mainland China and Colombia to wealthy economies including the USA and Germany through global supply chains. Understanding the redistribution of mercury emissions along the global supply chains can facilitate international efforts to reduce mercury emissions from nonferrous metal production.
Keywords:Global mercury emissions| Non-ferrous metals| Multi-regional input-output analysis| Global supply chains
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Trade in occupational safety and health: Tracing the embodied human and economic harm in labour along the global supply chain
تجارت در ایمنی و بهداشت شغلی: ردیابی آسیب های انسانی و اقتصادی مندرج در کار در طول زنجیره تامین جهانی-2017
Over the past years there has been enormous concern about labour conditions in developing countries particularly around work for the export market. This study addresses human rights issues related to Occupational Safety and Health for people suffering injuries from work demanded as a result of international trade arrangements. Here we present Occupational Safety and Health Footprints, which include the number of work-related accidents that occur throughout the world and that are directly and indirectly linked to the consumption of products, calculated for every nations consumption bundle. OSHF include fatal footprints, non-fatal footprints, days lost footprints and wages lost footprints per given year. In order to calculate the OSHF, we used a comprehensive Multi-Regional Input Output MRIO table (Eora) in addition to data from the International Labour Organization, ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network (ASEAN-OSHNET) and others. This study finds that in 2010 there were 12 fatal and 4.8 thousand non-fatal incidents, 27 thousand days lost and two million US$ lost in wages per 100 thousand workers in supply chains worldwide. The results presented in this paper show hidden accidents throughout global supply chains and hence can be used to apply pressure on international organisations, governments and focal companies to improve the conditions of workers, particularly in terms of OSH in the workplace.
Keywords:Occupational safety and health| Social footprint|Occupational accidents footprint|Multi-regional input-output analysis|Global supply chains| International trade
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Energy overview for globalized world economy: Source, supply chain and sink
مروری انرژی برای اقتصاد جهانی جهان: منبع، زنجیره تامین و سینک-2017
Energy use of the globalized world economy is comprehensively overviewed by means of a systems input-output analysis based on statistics of 2010. Emphases are put on the sources of primary energy exploitation, inter regional trade imbalance of energy use via global supply chains, and sinks of energy use in final demand. The largest final user turns out to be the United States, compared with China as the leading energy exploiter. The global trade volume of energy use is shown in magnitude up to about 90% of the global primary energy exploited. The United States is recognized as the world’s biggest energy use importer, in contrast to Russia as the biggest exporter. Approximately one third of global primary energy exploited is shown to be embodied in inter-regional net trade. Japan and Russia are respectively illustrated to be the world’s leading net importer and leading net exporter of energy use. For China as the leading energy exploiter, about 30% of its exploited energy is for foreign regions’ final use, and 70% for its own final use. For the European Union as the largest sink region, nearly 80% of the energy required in its final use is from foreign regions, led by Russia. As reflected in the results, the conventional perspective based only on the direct energy consumption by region inevitably leads to inter-regional “energy grabbing” and “carbon leakage”, which raises a serious concern of “regional decrease at the expense of global increase”. In current context of energy shortage and climate change, this global energy overview can provide essential strategic implications at the international, national and regional scales for sustainable energy policy making.
Keywords:Energy|Trade imbalance|Input-output analysis|World economy|Global sustainability
مقاله انگلیسی
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