Trans-incarceration: Reimagining confinement and the criminality of aging
حبس خارج از زندان: تجسم مجدد در زندان و جرم پیری-2020
As the U.S. population continues to age and will require increasing levels of care, scholars continue to question what conventional methods of “custodial care” and rehabilitation accomplish for the individuals receiving them, relative to those providing them. To this end, critical discourse surrounding the spatial institutionalization of older adults argues that formal institutions of care and rehabilitation are simply alternative and synonymous forms of incarceration and imprisonment. Using semi-structured interviews with ten male residents of a Rhode Island nursing home and ten incarcerated males at the Rhode Island state prisons medium security unit, this work explores the following questions within the existing scholarship of the medical sociology of confinement and incarceration: In what ways are experiences of confinement alike for older adults living in prisons and for those living in nursing homes, and what do these similarities/differences imply about aging, disabled, and economically unproductive bodies as “deviant” and subsequently “criminal” as the traditional definition of the carceral space expands? Participant responses across the nursing home and prison settings fit into three categories, including “home as historical/home as negation,” “institution as escape,” and “self as non-human/self as non-agent.” As a result, there exist thematic consistencies amidst the subjective experiences of older adults across settings of confinement that argue for a shared “criminality” socially assigned to an aging body.
Keywords: Incarceration | Criminality | Nursing homes | Identity loss | Home
Differences in attachment dimensions and reflective functioning between traumatized juvenile offenders and maltreated nondelinquent adolescents from care services
تفاوت در ابعاد دلبستگی و عملکرد بازتاب بین مجرمین نوجوان آسیب دیده و نوجوان رفتار غیر متعارف از خدمات مراقبت-2020
Background: Adverse childhood experiences, especially maltreatment, are regarded as significant risk factors for the development of antisocial behavior in adolescence. However, possible correlates are still to be investigated after considering the history of criminal records and the experience of institutionalization. Objective: In this study, differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, and reflective functioning (RF) between traumatized incarcerated juvenile offenders and non-delinquent adolescents institutionalized in child services because of domestic violence were examined. Participants, setting and method: Forty-two juvenile offenders (Nfemale=19) and 43 inmates of institutions for adolescents without parental care (Nfemale=20) with the history of trauma filled in the childhood trauma and attachment dimensions questionnaires, and were scored on the Reflective Functioning Scale. Groups were matched on age and education. Results: Results indicate that both groups reported equally high levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Male juvenile offenders had lower scores on reflective functioning than both female convicted minors (B=1.06; Odds Ratio=2.88; Nagelkerkes R2=45) and non-delinquent adolescents of both genders (B=−.65; Odds Ratio=.52; Nagelkerkes R2=42). In comparison to non-convicted males, male offenders also had higher scores on the control scale of idealization (B=.35; Odds Ratio=1.42; Nagelkerkes R2=42). No differences between females with and without a history of crimes were found. Conclusions: Results indicate a need for building RF in both traumatized samples, especially in male delinquents, and encourage further research in females.
Keywords: Juvenile offending | Trauma | Attachment | Reflective functioning | Gender
Scenario based examination of institutional leaning using fuzzy cognitive maps
بررسی مبتنی بر سناریو از یادگیری نهادی با استفاده از نقشه های شناختی فازی-2020
Institutionalization refers to systematically carrying out the processes of a company or organization, notwith- standing particular managers or employees. This may be achieved in business operations when an institution’s mission, vision, core values, policies, and strategic aims are converted into action plans with the goal of in- tegrating core values and strategic objectives within institutional structure and culture. When institutions are unable to successfully navigate the institutionalization process, its life cycle may not be sustainable. Thus, to find useful means of evaluating and developing the institutionalization level is a considerable challenge that all organizations must contend with. Though many researchers have examined institutionalization, the in- stitutionalization tendency has generally not been considered on a going-forward basis. In this context, the institutionalization tendency of an organization is a focus of an investigation examining organization using suitable criteria. In this paper, an inclusive model with concepts that affect the institutionalization tendency of organizations is proposed and FCMs method, which is used widely in the analysis of complex systems, is used. First, a model containing concepts that affect institutionalization was created as a result of the literature and expert opinions. Then, the weights of the interactions among the concepts are calculated via expert opinion. Finally, the concepts, which are most important to institutionalization, are revealed with the help of using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs). According to the results of this study, organization should attach great importance to Process Management, Human Recourse Management and Nepotism. Moreover, this study also provides that organizations can have insight about their institutionalization situation with scenarios created hypothetically.
Keywords: Business excellence | Fuzzy Cognitive Maps | Institutionalization | Management | Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM)
Knowledge transfer for occupational health and safety: Cultivating health and safety learning culture in construction firms
انتقال دانش برای بهداشت و ایمنی شغلی: پرورش فرهنگ یادگیری بهداشت و ایمنی در شرکتهای ساختمانی-2020
Within the last decades the incidence of workspace injuries and fatalities in the UK construction industry has declined markedly following the developments in occupational health and safety (OHS) management systems. However, safety statistics have reached a plateau and actions for further improvement of OHS management systems are called for. OHS is a form of organizational expertise that has both tacit and explicit dimensions and is situated in the ongoing practices. There is a need for institutionalization and for the transfer of knowledge across and along construction supply chains to reduce OHS risks and facilitate cultural change. The focus of this article is the factors that facilitate OHS knowledge transfer in and between organizations involved in construction projects. An interpretative methodology is used in this research to embrace tacit aspects of knowledge transfer and application. Thematic analysis is supported by a cognitive mapping technique that allows understanding of interrelationships among the concepts expressed by the respondents. This paper demonstrates inconsistency in OHS practices in construction organizations and highlights the importance of cultivating a positive safety culture to encourage transfer of lessons learnt from good practices, incidents, near misses and failures between projects, from projects to programmes and across supply chains. Governmental health and safety regulations, norms and guidelines do not include all possible safety issues specific to different working environments and tied to work contexts. The OHS system should encourage employees to report near misses, incidents and failures in a ‘no-blame’ context and to take appropriate actions. This research provides foundation for construction project practitioners to adopt more socially oriented approaches towards promoting learning-rich organizational contexts to overcome variation in the OHS and move beyond the current plateau reached in safety statistics..
Keywords: Occupational health and safety | Safety culture | Knowledge transfer | Knowledge management | Organizational learning | Construction industry
Japanese residential care quality and perceived competency in institutionalized adolescents: A preliminary assessment of the dimensionality of care provision
کیفیت مراقبت اقامتی ژاپنی ها و صلاحیت مشاهده شده در نوجوانان پناهگاهی: یک بررسی مقدماتی روی بُعدی بودن تامین مراقبت-2018
Although early institutionalization has been shown to have broad, detrimental effects on child developmental outcomes, there have been few attempts to systematic measure which aspects of the institution and caregiving environment associate with negative psychological outcomes. The current study uses a culturally and contextually modified early adolescent version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (EA-HOME-JP) in Japanese child welfare institutions (CWIs) to provide preliminary data on relevant variables in the caregiving environment that associate with domains of perceived self-competency. Forty-six children and young people (Agemean = 13 years 9 months) and their 35 primary caregivers from 11 CWIs were interviewed using EA-HOME-JP. Children and young people also self-reported on their perceived cognitive, physical, social competencies, and sense of self-worth. Participants within the same residential environments exhibited marked variation across each EA-HOME-JP subscale suggesting that the same rearing environment can be experienced differently by different individuals. Interestingly, EA-HOME-JP scores did not vary with care type (large-ward, middle-ward, and family-like), Instead, CWIs grouped within the same care type showed significant variation to one another on EA-HOME-JP subscales. Importantly, EA-HOME-JP scores, rather than care type, associated with aspects of competency (cognitive competency and sense of self-worth). As these findings are based on a small number of participants, they will require further replication in larger samples ascertained from other regions in Japan. Ultimately, these data may contribute to considerations over optimal packages of residential rearing in Japan.
keywords: HOME Inventory |Adolescent |Rearing environment |Residential care |Japan
Quality management standards, institutionalization and organizational implications: A longitudinal analysis
استانداردهای مدیریت کیفیت، سازمانی سازی و دلالت های سازمانی: یک تحلیل طولی-2018
We explore longitudinally how the institutionalization of quality management standards would lead to paradoxical performance implications. Specifically, we examine the organizational consequences of ISO 9000 adoption when the standard was increasingly institutionalized in the manufacturing industry in the early years. Based on hierarchical linear modeling of panel data of manufacturing firms, we find that the sales revenues of ISO 9000 certified firms increased steadily when the standard is increasingly institutionalized. However, operational efficiency significantly deteriorates at the same time, so as the shareholder value (measured by Tobins q). We further reveal that the institutionalization of ISO 9000 leads to higher CEO compensation, despite deteriorating operational efficiency. We argue that when process systems like ISO 9000 are institutionalized, they lead to certain negative consequences. To make management standards less susceptible to institutional forces, we believe that a fact-based, result-oriented approach in the implementation should be stressed.
keywords: Institutional theory |Quality management |Sales revenue |Operational efficiency |Compensation
Urban pluvial flooding and stormwater management: A contemporary review of China’s challenges and “sponge cities” strategy
مدیریت سیلاب و مدیریت فاضلاب شهری: مرور همزمان چالش های چینی و استراتژی "شهرهای اسپانیایی"-2018
In recent years, urban pluvial flooding caused by extreme rainfall has increasingly occurred across China. This paper reviews the challenges faced by China in addressing urban pluvial flooding and managing urban storm water, with a particular focus on a policy initiative termed sponge cities. The paper first synthetically presents pluvial flood disasters in urbanized areas, and analyses their causes and formation mechanisms. It then in troduces China’s sponge cities initiative and discusses policy implementation in relation to contemporary un derstanding of sustainable urban stormwater management and international experience with innovative prac tices. The initiative, while theoretically well grounded and appropriate by its design principles, is shown subject to diverse implementation challenges, ranging from technological complexity to limited or lack of governance capacity as reflected in management ideology, knowledge and capacity of learning, participatory and integrated governance, investment financing, implementation pathway, planning and organization, and project evaluation. The paper offers some strategies for addressing those challenges, which include: 1) continuous experiment-based deep learning through pilot and institutionalization of knowledge and information management with city-to-city peering learning mechanisms, 2) establishment of institutional mechanisms dedicated to participatory, co ordinated and integrated governance of the policy initiative, 3) increased government role in creating favorable conditions for investments, and 4) appropriate planning and an adaptive approach to policy implementation. The paper concludes that the sponge cities initiative can be an effective approach only if China commits to appropriate technical, governance, financial, and organizational measures to effectively address the challenges for policy implementation.
Keywords: Urban pluvial flooding ، China ، Stormwater management ، Urban planning ، Governance ، Low impact development
Research trajectories of Service-Dominant Logic: Emergent themes of a unifying paradigm in business and management
مدار تحقیقات و خدمات، غالب منطق: تم اورژانسی یک الگوی وحدت بخش در کسب و کار و مدیریت-2017
We describe the research trajectories associated with S-D Logic and the scholarly activity it encompasses across a breadth of disciplines by conducting a bibliometric analysis of a body of literature citing two fundamental S-D Logic publications between 2004–2014. The bibliometric analysis reveals four pertinent research trajectories: Value co-creation, Resources (incl. integration), Brands, and Innovation. These empirical findings are supported by qualitative insights and projections obtained from structured interviews with S-D Logic scholars using the Del phi method, which identifies ten research trajectories: Actors, Context, Innovation, Institutions, Markets, Re sources, Service, Systems, Value co-creation, and Value propositions. The main tenets, relevant literature, and syntheses of research questions for the aforementioned research trajectories are provided. Results indicate that the scientific community is evaluating fundamental ontological and epistemological questions of S-D Logic. Emergent themes (complex and fractal phenomena, generic conceptualizations, technological innovation and democratization processes, and institutionalization practices) are discussed. The results provide insight into the development of paradigms in the managerial sciences. The delineation of the paradigms thematic bound aries, its emergent themes, and identification of central research trajectories informs an advanced understanding of the nature of economic exchange and value creation for both practitioners and the managerial sciences, thus aiding the transdisciplinary production of knowledge.
Keywords: S-D logic | Delphi | Value co-creation | Resources | Innovation | Systems | Institutions | Symbols | Practices | Processes
Disclosing or obscuring? The politics of transparency in global climate governance
افشاگری یا پنهان کاری؟ سیاست شفافیت در حکومت جهانی آب و هوا-2016
Transparency is increasingly evoked within public and private climate governance arrangements as a key means to enhance accountability and improve environmental outcomes. We review assumed links between transparency, accountability and environmental sustainability here, by identifying four rationales underpinning uptake of transparency in governance. We label these democratization, technocratization, marketization and privatization, and assess how they shape the scope and practices of climate disclosure, and to what effect. We find that all four are discernible in climate governance, yet the technocratic and privatization rationales tend to overtake the originally intended (more inclusive, and more public-good oriented) democratization and marketization rationales for transparency, particularly during institutionalization of disclosure systems. This reduces transparency’s potential to enhance accountability or trigger more environmentally sustainable outcomes.
Transplanting Anglo-American accounting oversight boards to a diverse institutional context
پیوند حسابداری انگلیس و آمریکا هیئت نظارت برای چارچوب نهادی گوناگون-2015
The introduction of accounting and auditing oversight boards (OBs) has been promoted on a global scale as a key component of the international financial architecture that has emerged over the past two decades. Such institutions, modeled on the Anglo-American tradition, are domestically organized and embedded within distinctively diverse institutional contexts. Their role is to ease agency problems, improve the quality of financial reporting, and help provide stability in the global financial system. We employ an institutional approach, located within the broader political economy framework of global capitalism, to examine the establishment and operation of the new regulatory regime in Greece. Greece, a member of the European Union, exhibits characteristics of a ‘‘delegative’’ democracy, i.e. a traditionally weak institutionalization, reform (in)capacity problems and a clientelistic political system. Our case study shows that the formation and operation of the newly-established system of oversight is conditioned by local political and economic constraints and, thus, does not automatically translate into concrete benefits for the quality of financial reporting. We also draw attention to the structural mismatch between a progressing globalized financial integration and the fragmented nature of the system of oversight, and illustrate that OBs’ independence from local governments is an important but neglected issue.