Thorough state-of-the-art analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle powertrains: Topologies and integrated energy management strategies
تجزیه و تحلیل دقیق و پیشرفته از موتورهای برقی و هیبریدی خودرو:: توپولوژی و استراتژی های مدیریت انرژی یکپارچه-2020
Hybrid and electric vehicles have been demonstrated as auspicious solutions for ensuring improvements in fuel saving and emission reductions. From the system design perspective, there are numerous indicators affecting the performance of such vehicles, in which the powertrain type, component configuration, and energy management strategy (EMS) play a key role. Achieving an energy-efficient powertrain requires tackling several conflicting control objectives such as the drivability, fuel economy, reduced emissions, and battery state of charge preservation, which make the EMS the most crucial aspect of powertrain system design. Accordingly, in the present study, various powertrain systems and topologies of (plug-in) hybrid electric vehicles and full-electric vehicles are assessed. In addition, EMSs as applied in the literature are systematically surveyed for a qualitative investigation, classification, and comparison of existing approaches in terms of the principles, advantages, and drawbacks through a comprehensive review. Furthermore, potential challenges considering the gaps in research are addressed, and directives paving the way toward further development of powertrains and EMSs in all respects are thoroughly provided.
Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle | Full-electric vehicle | Energy management strategy optimisation | Online EMS | Offline EMS | Optimal control strategy
Reinforcement learning in sustainable energy and electric systems: a survey
یادگیری تقویتی در سیستم های انرژی پایدار و الکتریکی: یک نظرسنجی-2020
The dynamic nature of sustainable energy and electric systems can vary significantly along with the en- vironment and load change, and they represent the features of multivariate, high complexity and uncer- tainty of the nonlinear system. Moreover, the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources and energy consumption behaviours of households introduce more uncertainty into sustainable energy and electric systems. The operation, control and decision-making in such an environment definitely require increasing intelligence and flexibility in the control and optimization to ensure the quality of service of sustainable energy and electric systems. Reinforcement learning is a wide class of optimal control strate- gies that uses estimating value functions from experience, simulation, or search to learn in highly dy- namic, stochastic environment. The interactive context enables reinforcement learning to develop strong learning ability and high adaptability. Reinforcement learning does not require the use of the model of system dynamics, which makes it suitable for sustainable energy and electric systems with complex non- linearity and uncertainty. The use of reinforcement learning in sustainable energy and electric systems will certainly change the traditional energy utilization mode and bring more intelligence into the system. In this survey, an overview of reinforcement learning, the demand for reinforcement learning in sustain- able energy and electric systems, reinforcement learning applications in sustainable energy and electric systems, and future challenges and opportunities will be explicitly addressed.
Keywords: Reinforcement learning | Sustainable energy and electric systems | Deep reinforcement learning | Power system | Integrated energy system
An overview of “Energy þ Internet” in China
مروری بر "انرژی þ اینترنت" در چین-2020
In the current “Internetþ” era, the integration of energy and the Internet is creating crucial opportunities as well as challenges for China. This study aims to provide an overview of “Energy þ Internet” in China, by clarifying its advantages and disadvantages, sorting out its practical business modes, and pointing out the future directions of its management changes. It is found that (1) the traditional energy system dominated by fossil energy has been unable to meet the sustainable development needs of China’s economy. The integration of energy and the Internet has become an important opportunity for the upgrading of China’s energy industry. (2) Compared with traditional single-energy, integrated-energy supply chain management requires more changes. During this process, full coverage of the micro-grid could help realize the coordinated development of integrated-energy supply and demand. (3) In recent years, smart park demonstration pilot projects have gradually been implemented in China, which is driving by policy support and technological innovations. The structure of integrated-energy service plays a key role in the sustainable operation of these smart parks. China’s practices show that the construction of the pilot projects promotes the exploration of energy development paths in areas with different resource endowments. Based on the conclusions, corresponding policy recommendations are provided at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Internetþ | Integrated energy | Business mode | Energy internet
An overview of “Energy þ Internet” in China
مروری بر "انرژی þ اینترنت" در چین-2020
In the current “Internetþ” era, the integration of energy and the Internet is creating crucial opportunities as well as challenges for China. This study aims to provide an overview of “Energy þ Internet” in China, by clarifying its advantages and disadvantages, sorting out its practical business modes, and pointing outthe future directions of its management changes. It is found that (1) the traditional energy system dominated by fossil energy has been unable to meet the sustainable development needs of China’s economy. The integration of energy and the Internet has become an important opportunity for the upgrading of China’s energy industry. (2) Compared with traditional single-energy, integrated-energy supply chain management requires more changes. During this process, full coverage of the micro-grid could help realize the coordinated development of integrated-energy supply and demand. (3) In recent years, smart park demonstration pilot projects have gradually been implemented in China, which is driving by policy support and technological innovations. The structure of integrated-energy service plays a key role in the sustainable operation of these smart parks. China’s practices show that the construction of the pilot projects promotes the exploration of energy development paths in areas with different resource endowments. Based on the conclusions, corresponding policy recommendations are provided at the end of the paper.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Internet þ | Integrated energy | Business mode | Energy internet
Regional integrated energy system energy management in an industrial park considering energy stepped utilization
مدیریت انرژی سیستم انرژی یکپارچه منطقه ای در یک پارک صنعتی با توجه به استفاده پله ای از انرژی -2020
There are multiple energy demands in industrial parks. The industrial park’s energy system includes a variety of energy sources and energy-consuming equipment, with diverse load types and high reliability requirements for power supplies. And the situation of low energy utilization rates, unreasonable energy structures, great peak-to-valley power differences and the environment pollution needs to be improved. The application of multi-energy complementary regional integrated energy systems (RIES) can improve the performance of the industrial parks. Considering reasonable correspondence between the energy supply and demand in RIES, this paper proposes an RIES energy management strategy based on energy stepped utilization to further minimize the daily cost and make full use of the energy. Additionally, the piecewise linear model of gas turbine is established considering a part load ratio. According to the grade demands, the heat loads are divided into high-grade, middle-grade and low-grade heat loads and the load models are respectively established. The scenario reduction method is used to obtain typical scenarios in order to describe the randomness of weather factors. Finally, the simulation analysis shows that the proposed energy management method for the RIES can arrange the combination of gas turbines and output of devices more flexibly, and a more economical scheduling plan can be provided by this method. The high-grade and middle-grade energy are not only supplied to corresponding loads, but also can be converted into low-grade energy. Additionally, the stability and energy efficiency of the system are improved with the application of this strategy.
Keywords: Regional integrated energy system | Stepped utilization of energy | Mixed integer linear programming | Industrial park | Economic dispatching
Design of an integrated energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric bus
طراحی یک استراتژی مدیریت انرژی یکپارچه برای یک اتوبوس برقی هیبریدی پلاگین-2020
The performance of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) depends on the energy management strategy (EMS). An optimal EMS guarantees the maximum use of the energy through electric power grid, coordinates power output of main power sources and exerts comprehensive advantages of both engine and motor. However, the current EMS cannot react to the dynamic driving cycles in the future and thus have a bad real-time performance. In order to solve these problems, a novel EMS based on rule-based energy strategy (RE), dynamic programming algorithm (DP) and equivalent fuel consumption algorithm (ECMS) is proposed. First, DP is used to extract the boundary of mode switching and shift schedule under three typical driving cycles in offline, especially, RE is corrected using the boundary of mode switching. Second, an instantaneous optimization strategy-ECMS is used to replace the Charge-Depleting Mode (CD) of RE for finding the real-time optimal solution in a wider range in online, in this part, owe to the fixed distance of urban public transport, a reference State of Charge (SOC) is formulated, and the Proportion-Integration (PI) algorithm is used to make the actual SOC always follow the reference SOC by adjusting the equivalent factor. Finally, combine all the above efforts, a real-time optimization EMS is proposed and validated through simulation and experiment. The results show that this approach can significantly enhance the vehicle drivability, with overall obvious improvement of the comprehensive performance qualification based on both fuel economy and drivability.
Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) | Energy management | Drivability | Control strategy | Equivalent consumption minimization strategy | (ECMS) Dynamic programming (DP) | PI algorithm
Integrated tech-paradigm based innovative approach towards ecological coal mining
مجتمع تکنولوژی پارادایم بر اساس رویکرد نوآورانه نسبت به معدن زغال سنگ زیست محیطی-2018
Coal mining technology directly affects coal production quantity and quality, which in turn affects global energy supplies, especially in rapidly urbanizing, industrializing economies. In this research, a coal production technological diffusion mathematical model is proposed, the results from which indicated that while total coal production is expected to decline in the following decades, coal will continue to provide a sizable share of global prime energy to meet the expected energy demands. A general data analysis was conducted to fully understand coal mining technological paradigmatic development and future necessary improvements to ensure more efficient, environmentally-friendly coal production. It was found that the coal mining technological paradigm followed a three-stage trajectory; competition, diffusion, and shift; in accordance with the traditional technological paradigm S-curve, and underground coal gasification (UCG) related technologies were identified as the main development direction for coal mining technologies. An integrated energy exploitation approach for ecological coal mining was then designed to deal with current environmental and energy returns on investment problems, to improve performance, and to act as a foundation for future UCG technological developments. Some policy rec ommendations are given to guide the implementation of the proposed ecologically oriented integrated coal mining system.
Keywords: Ecological coal mining ، Literature mining ، Technological paradigm ، Sustainable development ، Coal mining technology
سیستم های انرژی یکپارچه و متراکم برای تولید توزیع شده
سال انتشار: 2013 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 31
سیستم های تولید توزیع شده معمولا شامل منابع محلی انرژی، ذخیره سازی، و بارها هستند. تقریبا همیشه، این کمیت ها دارای مبدل های قدرت خودشان برای واسطه گری شبکه و پردازش انرژی هستند. داشتن مبدل فردی دارای مزایایی مانند کنترل فردی انعطاف پذیرتر و طراحی ساده است اما ادغام قابلیت را تشویق نمی کند. بنابراین کاهش نیمه رساناها برای یک طراحی یکپارچه و متراکم امکان پذیر نیست. با پرداختن به این امر، تعدادی از سیستم های یکپارچه تولید انرژی که از 25% نیمه رسانای کمتر استفاده می کنند ارائه شده است. این سیستم بسته به انواع منابع، ذخیره سازی ها، و بارهای مونتاژ شده می تواند یک یا سه فاز باشد. در مقایسه با راه حل های دیگر که از سوئیچ های بیشتری استفاده می کنند، آنها می توانند در حالت شبکه گره خورده و یا مستقل بدون هیچ مصالحه ای در اجرای مورد نظر عمل کنند. برای تایید عملکرد سیستم های یکپارچه ارائه شده، تست آزمایشی در حال حاضر در دو سیستم نمونه که در آزمایشگاه مونتاژ شده اند انجام شده است.
کلیدواژه ها: تولید توزیع شده (DG) | ذخیره سازی انرژی | سیستم های انرژی | ریز شبکه | عرض مبدل های پالس مدوله
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