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نتیجه جستجو - Intellectual Disability

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 10
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Improvements in biometric health measures among individuals with intellectual disabilities: A controlled evaluation of the Fit 5 program
بهبود اقدامات سلامت بیومتریک در افراد دارای معلولیت فکری: ارزیابی کنترل شده از برنامه Fit 5-2021
Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have poorer health statuses compared to the general population. Actions are needed to address
health disparities and promote healthy lifestyles among individuals with ID. Moreover, studies that consider program settings for this population are needed. Objective: The Special Olympics health program, Fit 5, was evaluated to assess effectiveness in improving health measures for individuals with ID. The settings of programs’ implementation were also considered. Methods: Four Special Olympics basketball teams participated as an intervention group, and three teams as a control group, in a study of the Fit 5 program that was implemented during, and as part of, a regular 8-week basketball season. Resting heart rate (RHR) and blood pressure, and height and weight to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI), were measured before and after the program. Differences in pre- and post-measures were compared between the two groups with paired samples t-tests and ANCOVA. Results: Participants in the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p ¼ 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) and RHR (p ¼ 0.003). BMI increased for both groups; however, the increase in the intervention group was significantly less (p ¼ 0.006). The Special Olympics setting was considered familiar and supportive and effectively reached individuals with ID.
Conclusion: The Fit 5 program positively impacts RHR and blood pressure, and could help reduce extents of BMI increases, in individuals with ID when implemented in a common setting. Further investigation of the impact of Fit 5 and similar programs in additional settings is warranted.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Intellectual disability | Health promotion | Physical activity | Health risk factors | Program settings
مقاله انگلیسی
2 A descriptive analysis of sentencing decisions by the Canadian criminal justice system of people with intellectual disabilities convicted with sexual offences
تجزیه و تحلیل توصیفی از تصمیمات مجازات توسط سیستم عدالت کیفری کانادا برای افراد دارای ناتوانی ذهنی محکوم به جرایم جنسی-2020
This study reviews sentencing decisions of people diagnosed with intellectual disabilities who have been convicted of sexual offences by judges in Canada. Given the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities managed within the criminal justice system (CJS), courts have increasingly been faced with issues concerning appropriate sentencing. In addition, many people with intellectual disabilities have complex social and medical backgrounds that require multidisciplinary perspectives to account for each person’s legal and moral culpability, which in turn influences sentencing decisions, including placement in prisons versus rehabilitation programs. The legal databases Canlii and LexisNexis Quicklaw were used to search full text judgements from Canadian courts for adults (over the age of 18) diagnosed with an intellectual disability and charged with a sexual offence. In total, 61 cases were included within the full-text review. These cases were analyzed based on the accuseds demographics, past social history, past medical history, current diagnoses, past criminal record, current charges, mitigating/aggravating factors, use of a Gladue report, sentence, and other pertinent information that contrib- uted to the final judgement. Recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the CJS in trying and sentencing people with intellectual disabilities are made based on the findings of this study.
Keywords: Psychiatry | Law | Intellectual Disability | Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder | Sexual offences | riminal justice system | Sentencing
مقاله انگلیسی
3 A scoping review of case law relating to support and treatment for people with Prader-Willi Syndrome
مروری بر حوزه حقوقی مربوط به حمایت و درمان برای افراد مبتلا به سندرم پرادر-ویلی-2020
Background: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem genetic disorder associated with several challenges for people with PWS themselves, and for their families and care givers. Support around access to food is a particular issue due to impaired satiety and, because of this, people with PWS eat excessive amounts of food (hyperphagia). Together with other aspects of the PWS phenotype including, in many cases, a reduced sensitivity to pain, hyperphagia results in life-threatening obesity and life-shortening complications for some people with PWS. Restrictions to liberty and/or access to food raise important legal and ethical considerations in the clinical management of children and adults with PWS. Particularly where disagreements arise and, in the absence of comprehensive guidance for care providers, the courts may be called upon to resolve these difficult issues. Aims: 1) To review case-law from English-speaking common law jurisdictions concerning support arrangements for people with PWS with a view to identifying issues that have required the intervention of the courts. 2) To identify principles on which to base clinical guidelines relating to the issues identified, ensuring that such guidelines are consistent with ethical and human rights imperatives. Methods: Westlaw, Westlaw AU, and Lexis Nexis were searched for case law concerning the treatment or support of a person with PWS. Results: Fifteen cases from jurisdictions in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America met inclusion criteria. Areas requiring judicial decision making included a) detention in psychiatric hospital; b) support in least restrictive environments c) eligibility for support services; d) guardianship; e) access to special education. Judicial decisions are discussed in the context of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Keywords: Prader Willi Syndrome | PWS | Intellectual disability | United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilities | Coercion | Capacity
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Intellectual disability rates among male prison inmates
میزان ناتوانی ذهنی در بین زندانیان مرد در زندان -2020
While only a small percentage of people with intellectual disabilities are responsible for criminal behaviors, the literature points to their overrepresentation in prisons, although not enough attention has been paid to intellectual disability data for inmates. We retrieved studies – in English, Spanish, Italian or French and indexed in Medline between 2000 and 2018 – that provided intellectual disability data for prisons collected by the administration of validated tests to male inmates. Identified were 13 studies involving more than 15,000 inmates referring to intellectual disability and borderline intellectual disability. The general findings of our review corroborate the overrepresentation of people with ID in prisons, although prevalence rates range widely, from as low as 1% to as high as 69.9% (p<0.000001), reflecting to differences in methodology, in local, social and cultural factors and in judicial procedures. Published studies clearly underline the overrepresentation of people with intellectual disabilities in prisons, differences between countries, the vulnerabilities of persons with intellectual disabilities and the need for proper assessment and management policies in prisons worldwide.
Keywords: Intellectual disabilities | Learning disabilities | Developmental disabilities | Prisoners | Prisons | Prevalence
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Experiences of people with intellectual disabilities encountering law enforcement officials as the suspects of crime : A narrative systematic review
تجربه افراد دارای معلولیت فکری که با مأمورین اجرای قانون به عنوان مظنونان جرم روبرو می شوند: یک بررسی نظام مند روایتی-2020
It is well established internationally that there is a high prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) among people in police custody. Some people with ID may face particular challenges in negotiating the forensic formalities adopted by police at the pre-trial stage of the criminal process. These challenges need to be acknowledged and mitigated through appropriate procedural safeguards in order to, at once, preserve the fact-finding accuracy of criminal investigations and minimise the risk of securing a wrongful conviction. And yet, despite the formative role which pre-trial procedures exert over the trajectory of proceedings, little is known about the experiences of people with ID during their initial interaction with law enforcement officers. In an attempt to address this research lacuna, we reviewed six databases systematically to identify studies that explore such experiences. Seven studies with a total of 1199 participants were identified. Frequently, participants with ID describe challenges in police custody, experiencing particular difficulties in understanding and communicating information. They report a paucity of appropriate supports generally in this setting and an unmet need for the provision of procedural and emotional supports. Consistent implementation of legal safeguards is necessary, along with consistent availability of accessible practical measures to support people with ID within the criminal justice system.
Keywords: Intellectual disabilities | Police | Law enforcement official | United Nations convention on the rights of | persons with disabilities
مقاله انگلیسی
6 The experience of law enforcement officers interfacing with suspects who have an intellectual disability : A systematic review
تجربه مامورین اجرای قانون با مظنونینی که ناتوانی ذهنی دارند: بررسی منظم-2020
There is a high prevalence of people with intellectual disability (ID) among those in police custody. Consequently, law enforcement officers (LEOs) at the frontline of the criminal justice system are commonly required to interact with people who have ID. Notwithstanding the frequency of these interactions, research indicates that police exchanges with persons with ID frequently take place against a backdrop of tenuouslyresourced disability awareness training. At the time of writing, a paucity of research data exists with respect to the experiences of LEOs operating within this training vacuum at an international level. A better understanding of their experiences could meaningfully inform research, training and improve support programmes for LEOs. We systematically reviewed six databases to identify studies published up to 1st December 2019 reporting the experience of LEOs interfacing with suspects who have an ID. Following a review of 670 abstracts, 16 studies were identified from five countries involving 983 LEOs. LEOs identified 1) a need for specialised training; 2) challenges in identifying people with ID; 3) a need to improve safeguards and 4) challenges in supporting/ communicating with individuals who have ID through the investigation process.
Keywords: Intellectual disabilities | Police | Law enforcement officer | Vulnerability | United Nations convention on the rights of | persons with disabilities
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Severe developmental disability and the transition to adulthood
ناتوانی رشد شدید و انتقال به بزرگسالی-2020
Background: Developmental disabilities are serious and long-lasting. There are few studies of developmental disability in the transition to adulthood, when the programs that provided support in childhood may no longer be available. Objective: We studied associations of long-lasting developmental disabilities with health, behaviors, and well-being in adulthood. Methods: We used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968e2017), its Child Development Supplement (CDS, 1997, 2002, 2007), and its Transition into Adulthood Supplement (TAS, every-other year, 2005 e2017) (n ¼ 2702) following a national sample from childhood through age 28, defining serious developmental disabilities using diagnoses and reports from parents, teachers, schools, children, and young adults. We tested differences in proportions using Chi-square tests, estimated differences in least squares means, and used logistic regression to compare results for those with and without developmental disabilities. We adjusted results for age, sex, race, immigrant status, family income, region, metropolitan statistical area, educational attainment, and employment status, accounting for sampling weights and survey design. Results: At ages 18e21, 8.2% had serious developmental disability (95% confidence interval, CI 6.6e9.8). They were more likely to report: no high school graduation (19.3% vs. 4.3%), being assaulted physically (32.1% vs. 20.4%) or sexually (14.4% vs. 6.6%), serious criminal arrests (25.7% vs. 13.2%), smoking (30.8% vs. 12.8%), sedentariness (5.8% vs. 1.1%), obesity (39.2% vs. 23.4%), diabetes (9.1% vs. 2.1%), and work disability (18.7% vs. 4.3%) (all p < 0.01) compared to peers without developmental disability. Conclusions: Results indicate opportunities to promote education, self-direction, safety, and well-being for people transitioning to adulthood with serious developmental disabilities.
Keywords: Disability | Disparities | Developmental disability | Intellectual disability | Panel study of income dynamics
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Distinct Pathogenic Genes Causing Intellectual Disability and Autism Exhibit a Common Neuronal Network Hyperactivity Phenotype
ژنهای پاتوژن مشخص متمایز کننده ناتوانی ذهنی و اوتیسم از فنوتیپ بیش فعالی شبکه عصبی مشترک-2020
Pathogenic mutations in either one of the epigenetic modifiers EHMT1, MBD5, MLL3, or SMARCB1 have been identified to be causative for Kleefstra syndrome spectrum (KSS), a neurodevelopmental disorder with clinical features of both intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand how these variants lead to the phenotypic convergence in KSS, we employ a loss-of-function approach to assess neuronal network development at the molecular, single-cell, and network activity level. KSS-gene-deficient neuronal networks all develop into hyperactive networks with altered network organization and excitatory-inhibitory balance. Interestingly, even though transcriptional data reveal distinct regulatory mechanisms, KSS target genes share similar functions in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic function, several of which are associated with ID and ASD. Our results show that KSS genes mainly converge at the level of neuronal network communication, providing insights into the pathophysiology of KSS and phenotypically congruent disorders.
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Older offenders deemed criminally irresponsible in Flanders (Belgium): Descriptive results from a retrospective case note study
تلقی جرم جنایی غیر مسئولانه مجرمان قدیمی تر در فلاندر (بلژیک) : نتایج توصیفی از یک مطالعه گذشته نگر یادداشتی موردی-2016
Introduction: In Belgium, offenders who are deemed criminally irresponsible for their criminal actions because of mental illness or intellectual disability are subject to a specific safety measure with the dual objective of protecting society and providing mandated care to the offender. While Belgian law requires that offenders who are deemed criminally irresponsible should be in a hospital, clinic or other appropriate institution outside of prison, in practice, about one-third of all such offenders still reside in prison. Whether imprisoned or living in settings outside prison, there is a dearth of knowledge on the characteristics of the aging population among the criminally irresponsible offenders.
Objective: This paper aimed to explore the characteristics of older offenders categorized as criminally irresponsible in Flanders (northern Belgium) with a focus on the differences between imprisoned older offenders deemed criminally irresponsible and their peers who are residing outside prison.
Method: A retrospective case note study of all offenders deemed criminally irresponsible, N60 years of age (n = 174), was conducted in the four Commissions of Social Defense, which implement the procedure in the case of those deemed criminally irresponsible in Flanders. The files were screened for (1) demographic characteristics, (2) criminal history as well as (3) mental and physical health issues.
Results: One-fourth of the population were N70 years of age. A total of 30.5% were in prison. Compared to their non-imprisoned peers, the imprisoned offenders had a history of having committed more serious violent crimes towards persons, such as homicides and sexual crimes. In addition, imprisoned older offenders categorized as criminally irresponsible are characterized more explicitly by personality traits that are likely to reduce their chances of being transferred to more appropriate settings in the community.
Implications: A comprehensive and systematic screening of all older offenders deemed criminally irresponsible with regard to health needs and social functioning, including age-related deterioration, alcoholism, and other causes of social disadvantages, is warranted to detect potentially hidden problems.
Keywords: Older | Elderly | Prisoners | Offenders | Criminally irresponsible
مقاله انگلیسی
10 تفاوت های موجود در مشخصات فکری کودکانی با ناتوانی فکری در مقابل کودکانی که ناتوانی یادگیری دارند
سال انتشار: 2014 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 19
WISC-IV برای مقایسه مشخصات فکری دو گروه از کودکان یعنی کودکانی با اختلالات یادگیری خاص (SLDs)، و کودکانی با معلولیت های ذهنی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است (ID)،به منظور شناسایی چهار شاخص و عامل اصلی و دو شاخص اضافی جهت یافتن تمایز بین گروه ها مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است . ما ا اطلاعات به دست امده از نمرات WISC-IV برای 267 کودک (Mage = 10.61 [SD = 2.51]، محدوده 6-16 سال، زن = 99) با تشخیص هم SLD و یا ID جمع آوری کردیم. کودکانی که SLD داشتند عملکرد بهتری از ID ها داشتند .تنها کودکان SLD، و نه کودکان ID , تفاوت قابل توجهی را در چهار شاخص اصلی نشان دادند و نمرات انها در شاخص توانایی عمومی افزوده بالاتر از شاخص تسلط شناختی (CPI) بود .مقیاس بهره ی هوشی کودکانی که SLD داشتند (FSIQ) <85 بود که الگوی مشابه ای را نشان میداد. یافته های ما این فرضیه که کودکان SLD به طور کلی نمره بالاتری در GAI داشتند را تایید میکند ، اما کاستی هایی نیز در زمینه ی حافظه و سرعت پردازش کار دارد , در حالی که کودکان ID دارای نوعی اختلال و آسیب عقلانی هستند . این یافته ها پیامدهای مهم تشخیصی و بالینی به همراه دارد و باید هنگام تصمیم گیری و تشخیص در نظر گرفته شوند.
کلمات کلیدی: ناتوانی در یادگیری خاص | توان ذهنی | WISC-IV | شاخص قابلیت عمومی | بهره هوشی مقیاس کامل
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