دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با International law::صفحه 1
تبریک روز مهندس
نتیجه جستجو - International law

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 14
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Human trafficking as a fisheries crime? An application of the concept to the New Zealand context
قاچاق انسان به عنوان یک جرم ماهیگیری؟ کاربرد مفهوم در زمینه نیوزلند-2019
Beginning in 2011, Indonesian fishermen from several South Korean foreign charter vessels (FCVs) operating in New Zealands waters walked off their vessels citing labour and human rights abuses, as well as illegal fishing practices. This article argues that the level of these abuses meets the criteria for human trafficking for forced labour under domestic and international law. The article further argues that the human trafficking and illegal fishing practices that occurred on board many of these vessels are intrinsically linked. This connection forms a nexus between the criminal offence of human trafficking for forced labour, and the wider category of unlawful practices termed ‘fisheries crime’. Fisheries crime is an emerging paradigm for conceptualising the range of illegal activities taking place at sea, including illegal fishing activities, document fraud and human trafficking.
Keywords: Human trafficking | New Zealand | Foreign charter vessels | Illegal fishing | Fisheries crime
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Canada, cannabis and the relationship between UN child rights and drug control treaties
کانادا ، حشیش و رابطه بین حقوق کودک سازمان ملل و معاهدات کنترل مواد مخدر-2019
Article 33 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States to take appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drugs ‘as defined in the relevant international treaties’. Those treaties are the UN drugs conventions. Following cannabis legalisation, then, can Canada remain in compliance with the CRC while breaching treaties to which Article 33 expressly refers? This article investigates this question with reference to the drafting of the CRC and the drugs conventions, how the relationship between the two systems has been approached, and the practice of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child from 1993-2015. While the CRC could offer an alternative framework through which to critically assess drug laws and policies, by and large it has operated so as to reinforce the drug control system. An interpretation of Article 33 in the light of Canadas cannabis reforms is proposed. Based on the text of the provision, the pacta tertiis rule, and the object and purpose of the provision, it decouples the CRC from the normative requirements of the drugs conventions.
Keywords: Single convention | Convention on the rights of the child | International law | Cannabis | Human rights
مقاله انگلیسی
3 اصول کلی قوانین بین المللی حاکم بر قوانین رسانه
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 19
مطالعه تاریخ مبتنی بر خودمختاری ملتهاست. خود این فرآیند امروزه مبتنی بر مکانیزم های دموکراتیک است که عمدتا به شکل انتخابات و سیستم های مبتنی بر رای گیری نمود پیدا می کند. رای مردم نیز مبتنی بر اطلاعاتی است که از رسانه ها دریافت می کنند. بنابراین می توان گفت که دنیا تحت کنترل رسانه هاست. از طرف دیگر، هیچ چیز قدرتمند از رسانه در مدیریت ملت ها و جوامع نیست. به همین دلیل رسانه با گستره قدرت خود، منطقاً می تواند توسط دولتهای مختلف مورد سوءاستفاده قرار بگیرد. همانطور که تسلیحات مدرن منجر به تصاحب مستعمرات جدید شده، رسانه نیز به ما نشان داده چطور می تواند اذهان عمومی را تحت الشعاع قرار داده و آنها را به سمت منافع مد نظر استعمارگران سوق دهد. این مقاله با استفاده از روش توصیفی، تلاش می کند مهمترین اصول کلی قوانین بین المللی را بررسی کند که مرتبط با موضوع رسانه بوده و نشان می دهد ارتباط قطعی بین این اصول حقوق بین الملل و جوامع به چه صورت است. بر همین اساس، دولتها دارای اصول حاکمیت و استقلال خاص خود بوده، کیفیت این حکمرانی را بر اساس استفاده از زور یا عدم استفاده از آن به شکل یک سیستم قانونی بین المللی اِعمال می کنند، اصولی که حاکم بر ارتباطات مختلف است. اخلاقیات اطلاعاتی، تروریسم اطلاعاتی، آزادی اطلاعات، نژادپرستی، توهین به مقدسات، بیگانه هراسی و رسانه های اجتماعی موضوعاتی اند که در این مقاله به آنها پرداخته می شود.
واژگان کلیدی: قوانین بین المللی | ارتباطات | رسانه | حاکمیت | استقلال | عدالت | استفاده از قدرت
مقاله ترجمه شده
4 Cyberspace: A new branch of international customary law?
فضای سایبری: شاخه جدیدی از قوانین عرفی بین المللی؟-2017
International relations between countries increasingly take place in cyberspace. From con cerns about cyber security and Internet surveillance to privacy to harmful speech – state and non-state actors developed practices and normative conceptions that could be re garded as international customary law in statu nascendi. The aim of this contribution is to present arguments supporting the thesis that research concerning international law should be broadened to include cyberspace. Due to lack of treaty law in this area, one shall resort to a second source of international law, namely custom especially, as one eminent re searcher has noted: ‘there are still numerous branches of international law regulated by customary law, and still more important, new rules of that law are raising’. The article pres ents the theory of custom as a source of international law and methods of evidencing it in the context of cyberspace and then outlines areas where such norms could have devel oped and therefore could be used to settle disputes between states.
Keywords: Cyberspace law | International customary law | Opinio juris | Evidence of custom | Spam | Security | Privacy | Harmful speech | Accessibility
مقاله انگلیسی
5 El derecho humano a la educación superior en México
حقوق بشر در آموزش عالی در مکزیک-2017
This article seeks to resolve the debate over the existence or not of a human right to higher education, by appealing to the perspective of the International Law of Human Rights. The legislation provides the main arguments substantiating this right and establishes its minimum content, the details of which are discussed in this text. The article also links those arguments to recent decisions by the federal courts in Mexico, in order to show that the country’s judiciary, with its relevant resolutions, is effectively recognizing the human right to higher education.
Keywords: Human rights | Right to higher education | International law of human rights | Mexico
مقاله انگلیسی
6 از "پرداخت های آلوده" به "پرداخت های آلوده ای که آلوده نمی کند"
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 4 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 13
قراردادهای بدون نقض، ضمانت های اجرایی کوچک به شکل اجبار به پرداخت و تقلب و ریاکاری، واکنش های سیاسی معمول دربرابر زیان های محیطی بوده است. علاوه بر این، بسیاری از گونه های موجود قانون درمورد قانون و نظارت بین المللی محیطی بر مبنای نیت خوب و قرارداد داوطلبانه هستند و اثبات شده است که محدود یا غیرموثر هستند. این مقاله در شرایط فعلی بحران آب و هوایی، بحث می کند که هیچ اتاق فکر و گفتگو و پیشنهاد بیشتری وجود ندارد که منجر به راه حل های غلط شود. باتوجه به این، راه حل های قانونی درباره مشکلات محیطی نیازمند فرمول سازی های جدیدی است که یک درک بهتری از طبیعت و ساکنان غیر انسانی آن ایجاد کند؛ این مقاله بحث می کند که یک قانون بین المللی درباره تخریب محیط این توانایی را دارد که یک ابزار قدرتمند برای تغییر دادن ساختارهایی شود که باعث آسیب محیطی و جرائم آب و هوایی می شوند.
کلیدواژه ها: آسیب به محیط | تغییرات آب و هوایی | جرائم در برابر صلح | تخریب محیطی | قانون بین المللی | عدالت زیست محیطی
مقاله ترجمه شده
7 From ‘polluter pays’ to ‘polluter does not pollute’
از پرداخت آلوده به آلوده سالم-2016
Non-binding agreements, minor sanctions in the form of payment obligations and shaming have been the usual policy responses against environmental harms. In addition to this, many existing pieces of legisla- tion on international environmental law and governance are based on good intent and voluntary agree- ment and they have proven to be limited or ineffective. This article argues that, at the current state of the climate crisis, there is no more room for negotiations and proposals which lead to false solutions. Acknowledging that, legal solutions to environmental problems require new formulations which incorpo- rate a different understanding of nature and its non-human inhabitants; this article suggests that an international law of ecocide has the potential to become a very powerful tool to transform structures which cause environmental damage and climate crimes.© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ecocide | Climate change | Crimes against peace | Environmental degradation | International law | Ecological justice
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Digital citizenship and the right to digital identity under international law
شهروند دیجیتال و حق هویت دیجیتال تحت قوانین بین المللی-2016
Australia has formally recognized the importance of digital identity and has raised the issue of reciprocal rights and duties between the government and its citizens. Australia is the first country to articulate digital citizenship in these terms. This paper considers the respective rights and duties of government and citizens that could be included in a digital citizenship charter, and the likely legal implications. The paper explores these aspects in relation to digital identity because of its increasing commercial and legal importance. The author argues that considering the consequences for individuals, the right to identity, as an international fundamental human right, should now be recognized and protected in relation to digital identity. The argument is presented that recognition and protection of this right is an essential component of a model of accountable and responsible digital citizenship. While the paper uses the Australian concept of digital citizenship as the basis for the discussion, the issues are relevant to all jurisdictions implementing e-government initiatives that require an individual to use digital identity for transactions.
Keywords: Digital identity | Digital citizenship | Right to identity | Right to privacy
مقاله انگلیسی
9 The EU restrictive trade measures against IUU fishing
اقدامات تجارت محدود اتحادیه اروپا علیه ماهیگیری IUU-2016
The opportunities for operators to increase their revenue when illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing catches are converted to currency through the market encourage the persistence and growth of this activity. It is often the same market that is targeted for the legal trade of fish. Thus, paradoxically, the market demand creates and incites it, at least from an economic point of view. To deter IUU fishing activities, some fish and fishery products importing countries have started to enact or implement ad- ditional regulatory measures, the goal of which is to tackle the problem from a new trade-related per- spective. This contribution provides an analysis of various aspects of the market state competence. Within the framework of the European Union (rights and markets) the study analyses the emergence of regional trade-related measures and explore how they are linked to the international trade law regime especially the World Trade Organization rules. Finally, the paper draws implications for the market state measures and considers their limits and potential in combatting IUU fishing.& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: IUU Fishing | WTO | European Union | Common Fisheries Policy | Trade and environment policy | International law
مقاله انگلیسی
10 International trade law compatibility of market-related measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing
سازگاری قانون تجارت بین المللی از تدابیر مربوط به بازار برای مبارزه با غیر قانونی، ماهیگیری گزارش نشده و نامنظم (IUU)-2016
Measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing increasingly seek to constrain access to markets. These measures include enhanced seafood traceability and catch documentation schemes, the blocking of port access and landings, the identification and assessment of vessels engaged in IUU fishing and the prohibition on imports, transhipments or trade of fish products. It is important that such measures are in accordance with international law, including the agreements of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). This article evaluates a range of market-related measures for compatibility with international trade law, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. The law requires measures to be non-discriminatory and, for certain technical regulations, not more trade-restrictive than necessary to achieve a legitimate objective. However, there are exceptions to these rules, including for measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources or for measures necessary for the protection of animal life or health, public morals, or to secure compliance with certain laws or regulations. While the design of current unilateral measures to combat IUU fishing appears to accord with trade law requirements, this article argues that there is scope for a wider and more collective approach. In this vein, new provisions in the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are identified. The article concludes with recommendations for governments, international organisations, private actors and the global community wishing to take ac- tion in this area.& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Illegal fishing | Catch documentation | Seafood traceability | EU importbans | World Trade Organisation | GATT and Technical BarrierstoTrade | Trans-Pacific Partnership(TPP)
مقاله انگلیسی
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