A Markov Decision Process approach for balancing intelligence and interdiction operations in city-level drug trafficking enforcement
یک رویکرد فرآیند تصمیم گیری مارکوف برای توازن اطلاعات و عملیات ممنوعیت در اجرای قاچاق مواد مخدر در سطح شهر-2019
We study a resource allocation problem in which law enforcement aims to balance intelligence and interdiction decisions to fight against illegal city-level drug trafficking. We propose a Markov Decision Process framework, apply a column generation technique, and develop a heuristic to solve this problem. Our approaches provide insights into how law enforcement should prioritize its actions when there are multiple criminals of different types known to them. We prove that when only one action can be implemented, law enforcement will take action (either target or arrest) on the highest known criminal type to them. Our results demonstrate that: (i) it may be valuable to diversify the action taken on the same criminal type when more than one action can be implemented; (ii) the marginal improvement in terms of the value of the criminals interdicted per unit time by increasing available resources decreases as resource level increases; and (iii) there are losses that arise from not holistically planning the actions of all available resources across distinct operations against drug trafficking networks.
Keywords: Markov decision process | Intelligence and interdiction operations | Illegal drug supply chains | Column generation
Chinas campaign-style Internet finance governance: Causes, effects, and lessons learned for new information-based approaches to governance
حاکمیت تأمین مالی اینترنت به سبک تبلیغات در چین: علل ، پیامدها و درسهایی که برای رویکردهای جدید مبتنی بر اطلاعات در مورد حاکمیت کسب شده است-2019
China’s Internet companies and citizens are now world leaders in developing and using the Internet and related information technologies for financial transactions. Accordingly, it is important that China becomes a world leader in identifying challenges posed by Internet finance, and providing law and governance solutions to address these challenges. While the Internet and its associated technologies are now globally available, a core question is whether, and to what extent, regulatory challenges and opportunities are common across different jurisdictions, or whether they reflect local circumstances. In short, an interesting question is what can the world learn from China as it takes the lead in addressing Internet finance challenges, and what can China learn from the world as it seeks to do so? This article first identifies the landscape of China’s burgeoning Internet finance market, including key technologies and services and government and nongovernment players. The article then turns to key regulatory challenges, with a focus on factors especially significant in China. The article then examines the “top down”“campaign style” approach to regulation, which is China government’s initial response to emerging challenges. Following an analysis of the campaign, some suggestions are then made for future possible governance strategies. We explain how emerging “information” based and experiment-based approaches to gov- ernance are drawing on both global and Chinese experiences to harness the capabilities of the Internet and the collective energies of Internet finance enterprises and users to advance the regulation of the China Internet finance system in a way that is conducive to the public interest.
Keywords: Internet finance | Campaign-style law enforcement | Information-based regulation ( xinxi gongkai ) | Experiment-based regulation ( shidian)
Introduction and overview: Transnational organised fisheries crime
مقدمه و مرور: جرم سازمان یافته بین المللی شیلات-2019
This article sets the scene for the contributions in this Special Issue on Transnational Organised Fisheries Crime. It does so by providing insight into the myriad of complex criminal problems currently facing the global fisheries industry and introducing the fisheries crime concept alongside some of the other key legal concepts relevant to seeking solutions to these challenges. The article introduces the core topics under discussion in the subsequent articles and provides a glimpse into some of the solutions proffered to the challenges of fisheries crime, including from a law enforcement perspective. The articles in this Special Issue contribute to the growing pool of academic writing in the field of fisheries crime.
Keywords: Fisheries crime | Organised crime | Law enforcement
Fisheries crime, human rights and small-scale fisheries in South Africa: A case of bigger fish to fry
جرم ماهیگیری ، حقوق بشر و ماهیگیری در مقیاس کوچک در آفریقای جنوبی: مورد ماهی بزرگتر برای سرخ کردن-2019
Marine fisheries plays an important role in ensuring food security and providing livelihoods in South Africa, as in many other developing coastal States. Transnational fisheries crime seriously undermines these goals. Drawing on empirical research this contribution highlights the complexity of law enforcement at the interface between low-level poaching and organised crime in the small-scale fisheries sector with reference to a South African case study. Specifically, this article examines the relationship between a fisheries-crime law enforcement approach and the envisaged management approach of the South African Small-Scale Fisheries Policy
Keywords: Fisheries crime | South Africa | Small-scale fisheries policy | Human rights
The development of the fisheries crime concept and processes to address it in the international arena
توسعه مفهوم جرم و جنایت ماهیگیری و فرآیندهای رسیدگی به آن در عرصه بین المللی-2019
This article traces the emergence of the ‘fisheries crime’ concept from its national Nordic roots through its introduction to, and subsequent acceptance within, the international political arena. The centrality of the associated law enforcement approach is underscored and key international processes aimed at addressing transnational organised crime in the international fishing sector are discussed. The importance of cooperation both domestically, amongst relevant government agencies, and across borders, at a region and global level, in this regard is highlighted.
Keywords: Fisheries crime | Norway | Law enforcement
Stakeholder perspectives on implementing fentanyl drug checking: Results from a multi-site study
یدگاه های ذینفعان در مورد بررسی داروی فنتانیل: نتایج حاصل از یک مطالعه چند سایتی-2019
Background: The opioid epidemic is one of the greatest public health crises of our times, driven increasingly by synthetic opioids such as fentanyl in the heroin supply. The implementation of drug checking in community settings has the potential to reduce the burden of fatal overdose, provide harm reduction education around safer drug consumption, and increase health access among people who use drugs (PWUD). To inform program development, we explored stakeholder opinions on drug checking technologies and implementation considerations. Methods: This study, from the larger FORECAST study, utilized semi-structured in-depth interviews (n=32) with a range of stakeholders in Baltimore, Boston, and Providence, many of whom were service providers. Stakeholders represented various roles and levels in organization types including harm reduction, public health, peer groups, and advocates. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were coded using a priori codes; the coded text was analyzed for key themes. Results: Stakeholders responded positively to drug checking technology, though they shared apprehensions regarding service implementation. Primary topics requiring consideration included: utility in fentanyl endemic areas, trust and rapport between providers and PWUD, legality and policy concerns. Additional considerations included: technology accuracy, cost, ease of distribution, and service delivery setting. Conclusions: Stakeholders overwhelmingly supported the concept of drug checking with the goals of providing needed risk reduction information and resources to PWUD and serving as a point for greater engagement in services. Programs need to be tailored to local circumstances. Law enforcement buy-in and policy change will be critical aspects of providing drug checking services
Keywords: Fentanyl | Drug checking | Implementation
Police staffing and workload assignment in law enforcement using multi-server queueing models
کارکنان پلیس و تخصیص بار کاری در اجرای قانون با استفاده از مدل های صف بندی چند سروری-2019
Criminal activities have been posing threat to human societies. In many countries, police officers have been serving as one major solution in addressing crime. However, some countries suffer from a scarcity of police officers and the unbalanced distribution of police forces. In this research, we study the law enforcement problem to address the aforementioned situation by dividing it into two sub-problems, i.e., the police staffing problem and the workload assignment problem. To improve staffing efficiency and service quality, we propose a double-resource queueing model (DRQM) with referral and a single-resource queueing model (SRQM) with inner classification. We solve the problems of police staffing and workload assignment by optimizing the referral threshold in the DRQM and the inner classification criterion in the SRQM. Results show that the SRQM with inner classification can always achieve higher staffing efficiency than the DRQM with referral. On service quality, dependent on the optimal referral threshold in DRQM or the optimal inner classification criterion in SRQM, either DRQM or SRQM is preferred.
Keywords: Decision support systems | Law enforcement | Police staffing | Workload assignment | Queueing model
The effectiveness of DNA databases in relation to their purpose and content: A systematic review
اثربخشی پایگاه داده های DNA در ارتباط با هدف و محتوای آنها: یک مرور سیستماتیک-2019
Different stakeholders use forensic DNA databases for different purposes; for example, law enforcement agencies use them as an investigative tool to identify suspects, and criminologists use them to study the offending patterns of unidentified suspects. A number of researchers have already studied their effectiveness, but none has performed an overview of the relevant literature. Such an overview could help future researchers and policymakers by evaluating their creation, use and expansion. Using a systematic review, this article synthesizes the most relevant research into the effectiveness of forensic DNA databases published between January 1985 and March 2018. We report the results of the selected studies and look deeper into the evidence by evaluating the relationship between the purpose, content, and effectiveness of DNA databases, three inseparable elements in this type of research. We classify the studies by purposes: (i) detection and clearance; (ii) deterrence; and (iii) criminological scientific knowledge. Each category uses different measurements to evaluate effectiveness. The majority of these studies report positive results, supporting the assumption that DNA databases are an effective tool for the police, society, and criminologists.
Keywords: DNA database | Systematic review | Effectiveness | Police investigation | Criminological research
Deriving ChaCha20 key streams from targeted memory analysis
استخراج جریان کلیدی ChaCha20 از تجزیه و تحلیل حافظه هدف-2019
There can be performance and vulnerability concerns with block ciphers, thus stream ciphers can used as an alternative. Although many symmetric key stream ciphers are fairly resistant to side-channel at- tacks, cryptographic artefacts may exist in memory. This paper identifies a significant vulnerability within OpenSSH and OpenSSL and which involves the discovery of cryptographic artefacts used within the ChaCha20 cipher. This can allow for the cracking of tunneled data using a single targeted memory ex- traction. With this, law enforcement agencies and/or malicious agents could use the vulnerability to take copies of the encryption keys used for each tunnelled connection. The user of a virtual machine would not be alerted to the capturing of the encryption key, as the method runs from an extraction of the running memory. Methods of mitigation include making cryptographic artefacts difficult to discover and limiting memory access.
Keywords: Network traffic | Decryption | Memory analysis | Virtual machine introspection | Secure shell | Transport layer security | Stream ciphers | Chacha20
Employment protection and corporate cash holdings: Evidence from Chinas labor contract law
حفاظت از استخدام و هلدینگ های نقدی شرکتی: شواهدی از قانون قرارداد کارگری چین-2018
Employment protection increases labor adjustment costs and hence the expected costs of financial distress for labor-intensive firms. It follows that these firms are likely to increase their cash holdings to reduce the risk of financial distress when employment protection is strengthened. Consistent with this prediction, we find that labor-intensive firms in China significantly increase their cash holdings following the enactment of Chinas Labor Contract Law; other contemporaneous shocks do not seem to drive the finding. We also find that two events prior to the enactment that increase the likelihood of enacting the law have a similar effect. Further analysis shows that the impact of the law is concentrated on areas with strict law enforcement, state-owned enterprises, and industries that employ large numbers of migrant workers.
keywords: Cash holdings |Employment protection |Labor adjustment costs