Income inequality and ethnic cleavages in Malaysia: Evidence from distributional national accounts (19842014)
نابرابری درآمد و شکاف های قومی در مالزی: شواهدی از حساب های توزیع ملی (19842014)-2021
In this paper, by combining information obtained from national accounts, household surveys, and fiscal data, we document the evolution of income inequality in Malaysia, not only at the national level (for the period of 1984–2014) but also by ethnic group (for the period of 2002–2014). To our knowledge this is the first attempt to produce inequality measurements of Malaysia, which are fully consistent with the national accounts. Our research shows that despite Malaysia’s exceptional economic growth rate, its growth has been inclusive. For the period of 2002–2014, the real income growth for the bottom 50 % is the highest (5.2 %), followed by the middle 40 % (4.1 %), the top 10 % (2.7 %) and then the top 1 % (1.6 %). However, while average growth rates are positive across all ethnic groups (Bumiputera 4.9 %, Indians 4.8 %, and Chinese 2.7 %), the highest growth of real income per adult accrued to the Bumiputera in the top 1 % (at 8.3 %), which sharply contrasts the much lower growth rate of the Indians (at 3.4 %) and negative income growth rates of the Chinese (at 0.6 %). Despite the negative growth rate, the Chinese still account for the lion’s share in the top 1 %. In 2014, 60 % of the adults in the top 1 % income group are Chinese, while 33 % Bumiputera, and 6 % Indians. We conclude that in this period, Malaysia’s growth features an inclusive redistribution between income classes, but with a twist between racial groups.
keywords: اقدامات مثبت | حساب های ملی توزیع | شکاف های قومی | نابرابری درآمد | مالزی | Afﬁrmative actions | Distributional national accounts | Ethnic cleavages | Income inequality | Malaysia
Urban landfills investigation for leachate assessment using electrical resistivity imaging in Johor, Malaysia
بررسی محل های دفن زباله شهری برای ارزیابی شیرابه با استفاده از تصویربرداری مقاومت الکتریکی در جوهور، مالزی-2021
The use of the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) approach has expanded dramatically in engineering applications over the years due to the efficiency of the technique in terms of time, expense, and data coverage. The assessment was carried out using ERI to assess the landfill leachate’s pollution level at Simpang Renggam, Johor, Malaysia. The ERI survey was carried out in the research region, utilizing the ABEM Terrameter LS 2 equipment using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. Besides, seven (7) parameters of leachate characterization such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Suspended Solid (SS), Power of Hydrogen (pH), Ammonia Hydrogen (NH3-N), Turbidity and Biodegradability Ratio (BOD5/COD) were also performed to identify and evaluate the current leachate condition of the landfill. Furthermore, the study, which involves the measurement of the apparent resistivity of the subsurface materials were able to determine the existence of chemical pollutants in the soil at 1.5 m to 4.0 m depth, with special reference to the chemically apparent resistivity linked with the low resistivity anomalies of 1 – 10 Ωm. Based on the investigations conducted, the physiochemical and microbial analysis of the Simpang Renggam leachate site was found to be 1633 mg/L (Chemical Oxygen Demand), 137.41 mg/L (Biological Oxygen Demand), 359.8 mg/L (Suspended Solid), 7.61 (Power of Hydrogen), 385.29 (Ammonia Hydrogen), 117.65 (Turbidity) and 0.07 (Biodegradability Ratio) which shows that all of the parameter’s value exceeded the value as stated in the local standard which is Environmental Quality Act (1974) except for the pH value which is within the range value as stated in the standard. The leachate from dumps was thought to arise due to system failures in accepting and managing trash, which was exacerbated by the recent high rains. In hindsight, the ERI result was practical for identifying leachate and, therefore, can benefit the authorities in immediate action to halt the extensive water disturbance at the research region.
Keywords: Landfill Leachate | Electrical Resistivity Imaging | Leachate Characterization | Contaminants
Malaysia scenario of biomass supply chain-cogeneration system and optimization modeling development: A review
سناریوی مالزی سیستم تولید همزمان زنجیره تأمین زیست توده و توسعه مدل سازی بهینه سازی: یک مرور-2021
The development of biomass-based cogeneration energy systems in Malaysia is progressing to meet the circular economy concept and sustainability goal. This comprehensive review aims to report recent advancements in biomass-based cogeneration/biomass co-firing technology in Malaysia correlated with the optimization modeling role. First, this work presents the outlook and current scenario of cogeneration systems in Malaysia by observing performance and the challenges confronted by the technologies. Next, investigation of technical issues concerning the key players of the technologies and the biomass supply chain. This work had prepared using quantitative content-based analysis-meta-analysis. The practical implication of this review enables a complex optimization model that integrates biomass-based cogeneration and biomass supply chain considering economic and environmental viability. It will further enhance progress toward the Malaysian “Industry 4.0-driven” energy initiative. A novel optimization model grounded on Industry 4.0 parameters will foster new opportunities for researchers.
Keywords: Biomass-based cogeneration system | Biomass co-firing | Optimization modeling | Renewable energy | Economic and operational viability
Factors contributing to the imbalances of cargo flows in Malaysia large-scale minor ports using a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) approach
عوامل موثر در عدم تعادل جریان های حمل و نقل در بندرهای کوچک مقیاس بزرگ مالزی با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فازی (FAHP)-2020
Malaysian ports have been recording imbalances in cargo flows year after year, whether in the form of a deficit or surplus, and the condition is becoming significant. As such, it has raised concerns among port stakeholders about the impact of such a situation on the sustainability of port operations, as well as questions about the actual reasons behind the occurrence, which is still ambiguous with regard to large-scale minor ports in Malaysia. This study was aimed at identifying the main factors that are contributing to the imbalanced cargo flows at large-scale minor ports in Malaysia by ranking all the possible factors using a systematic decision-making technique known as FAHP. The results showed that “economic factors” are the main contributors to these imbalances, followed by several other factors. This study contributes a clear insight into the main factors that are causing the imbalances in cargo flows at large-scale minor ports in Malaysia. Also, it may assist decision-makers and policymakers in identifying the key factors that are affecting business operations at these ports as well as guide them into using a systematic analytical approach like the FAHP to evaluate other situations with regard to the business, operations and management of ports, where applicable.
Keywords: Imbalances in cargo flows | Malaysian ports | Large-scale minor ports | Decision-making approach | Port operations | Fuzzy AHP
Guest satisfaction & dissatisfaction in luxury hotels: An application of big data
رضایت و نارضایتی مهمان در هتل های لوکس: استفاده از داده های بزرگ-2020
In order to understand the pivotal attributes of luxury hotel service in Malaysia, this study analyses big data in the form of online reviews, as available in TripAdvisor. The content analysis, which was performed using the word frequency analysis has revealed that the main themes of luxury hotel service quality include hotel-related attributes, room-related attributes, staff-related attributes, travel-related attributes, and possible outcomes. The critical incident technique has also been performed to examine the antecedents and outcomes of hotel guests’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In this study, quality of rooms and interaction with employees have been determined as major drivers of customers’ word of mouth and revisit intentions. This study contributes with an empirical analysis of particular features of textual context and discussion of the concept of luxury service in the developing countries has been largely neglected so far.
Keywords: Luxury hotel service | Online review | Service quality | Satisfaction | Dissatisfaction | Post-purchase behavior
The synergy between human factors and risk attitudes of Malaysian contractors’: Moderating effect of government policy
هم افزایی بین عوامل انسانی و نگرش ریسک از پیمانکاران مالزی: اثر تعدیل کننده سیاست دولت-2020
Many critical factors influence the effectiveness of risk management. There is unanimity among project and risk practitioners about the most significant factor responsible for risk management: “human factors”. As human attitude is always reflected in behaviour, there is a high possibility that a contractors behaviour will be by the attitude. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors affecting contractors risk attitudes and then determine the relationship with government policy. A total of 100 copies of questionnaire were randomly distributed to the construction companies in Kuantan Malaysia. Out of the 100 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 69 copies were received indicating 72.6% response rate. Thirteen (13) copies of the questionnaire were found to be unusable due to missing data or errors in the responses to all the questions. Thus, 56 copies of the questionnaire, indicating 58.9% response rate, were usable. Moreover, with quantitative research design following the positivist research paradigm, the methodology was designed to focus on the research questions and the objectives. Organizational Control Theory was used to develop the theoretical framework that investigated G-7 contractors in the Kuantan Pahang, Malaysian construction companies. SPSS 20.0 & SmartPLS 3 for structural equation modelling was utilized in testing the hypotheses developed for the study. Government policy moderates the relationships between the internal factors and contractors risk attitudes among the construction companies operating in Kuantan, Malaysia. This implies that the findings of the study provides more understanding of the personal factors that affect contractors risk attitudes to facilitate contractors decision-making process. It also serves as a useful reference for further studies in the field of construction project management.
Keywords: Contractors risk attitude | Risk attitude | Organizational control theory | Government policies | Personal factors | PLS-SEM
نقش ارزش های مد نظر مشتریان در برندهای تفریحگاه جامع مقصد
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 27
هدف این مقاله بررسی روابط بین ویژگی های برندهای تفریحگاه های جامع و ارزش های مد نظر مشتریان و وفاداری رفتاری است. این مقاله طور ویژه بر مقاصد تفریحی جامعه نوپدید در جنوب شرق آسیا، مالزی می پردازد. مطالعات کیفی و کمیتی در زمینه مقاصد تفریحی جامعه نوپدید وجود دارد. در مطالعه 1، نظریه وسیله –هدف و تکنیک نردبانی برای استخراج زنجیره های انباشتی ارزش (از جمله ارزش های مربوط به برند تفریحگاه جامع) از بین 20 مصاحبه مفصل در مالزی به کار رفتند. در مطالعه 2، تاثیر ارزش چند بعدی مد نظر بر واکنش آنها به برند تفریحگاه جامع با استفاده از نظرسنجی داده های آنلاین بررسی شد. یافته ها نشان می دهد ویژگی های اجتماعی، لذت جوئی و نوع دوستانه در نگرش مشتریان به ویژگی های مختلف برندهای تفریحگاه جامع نمایان است. این مطالعه مفاهیمی برای محققان، تامین کنندگان خدمات و سیاست گذاران در زمینه مدیریت و بازاریابی موفق مقصد در کشورهای در حال توسعه فراهم می کند.
واژگان کلیدی: ارزش مد نظر | ویژگی های برند | نظریه وسیله-هدف | تکنیک نردبانی | بازاریابی مقصد | مدیریت مقصد | تفریحگاه جامع | مالزی
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Call for a collaborative management at Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Malaysia: An assessment from local stakeholders’ view point
فراخوان یک مدیریت مشترک در Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve ، مالزی: ارزیابی از نظر سهامداران محلی-2020
Eﬀective management of a socio-ecological system (SES) requires a good understanding of: (i) ecosystem functionality, (ii) interactions between social and ecological units, and (iii) stakeholder perceptions and activ- ities. Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) covering 40,200 ha in Peninsular Malaysia is under silvicultural management (with a 30-year forest rotation cycle) for charcoal and timber production since 1902.The aim of this study is to assess the perceptions of (select) local stakeholders on the ongoing mangrove management of MMFR. Earlier, Huge et al. (2016), using Q methodology, identiﬁed three main shared per- ceptions, called discourses: (1) Optimization- ‘keep up the good work, but keep improving’, (2) Change for the better- ‘ecotourism & participatory management for sustainability’, and (3) Continuity – ‘business as usual is the way to go’. The current study is a follow-up to Huge et al. (2016) and reports on a survey which assessed the degree of support of the local stakeholders towards those three management discourses. The core statements of each discourse were presented as questions and then ranked by the participants.Based on the ﬁndings of the survey, the local stakeholders were clustered into three main working categories:(i) charcoal and timber workers, (ii) ﬁshermen and (iii) service providers. The interviews held with 114 sta- keholders indicated that discourse (2) ‘change for the better’ is the most popular (supported by 72% of the participants) regardless of the stakeholders’ working category. This discourse voices the involvement of local people in decision making, adopts participatory management, and encourages diverse mangrove-based eco- nomic activities beyond mere charcoal and timber production.Single-use management (focusing only on maximising charcoal and timber yields) was perceived as not equitably beneﬁting all local stakeholders.The insights of this study can guide the managers of Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve to improve the sus- tainability and the local support base for the existing mangrove management regime, e.g. by promoting diverse livelihood options for the local stakeholders.
Keywords: Mangrove management | Local-population perception | Stakeholder involvement | Forest management | Socio-ecological system | Ecosystem services
Key stakeholder values in encouraging green orientation of construction procurement
ارزش های ذینفعان کلیدی در تشویق جهت گیری سبز در ایجاد ساخت و ساز-2020
Poor environmental management of construction projects contributes greatly to environmental degradation. While many changes have been introduced in the global industry, such as the development of green materials and green building certification, limited effort has been done by stakeholders to bring about any improvement in Malaysia. Green procurement was introduced to accelerate practitioners to procure green buildings. This paper examines the interaction between two main constructs – stakeholder values and green procurement – through a questionnaire survey of experienced Malaysian construction stakeholders, extracted from an extensive literature review and validated through expert interviews. The ensuing data is then used to build a structural equation model to measure the constructs through their constituent variables, to verify if stakeholder values have a significant impact on the adoption of green procurement by an organisation or for a project. The study reveals that stakeholder values have a positive influence on shaping the green orientation of a construction procurement. The identified key stakeholder values are stakeholder commitment, technical competencies, awareness and knowledge sharing. The results show the key values needed for their procurement delivery to be on a sustainable path. The study also provides the basis for further research into green procurement for construction projects in Malaysia and beyond.
Keywords: Construction | Green procurement | Stakeholder values | Structural equation model
Using intelligence to tackle the criminal elements of the illegal trade in Indian Star Tortoises Geochelone elegans in Asia
استفاده از هوش برای مقابله با عناصر مجرمانه و تجارت غیرقانونی لاک پشت های ستاره هندی Geochelone elegans در آسیا-2020
Illegal trade continues to be a primary threat to the survival of wild populations of Indian Star Tortoises Geochelone elegans (Sekhar et al., 2004; D’Cruze et al., 2015, 2016). Assessed as being Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (hereafter referred to as the Red List) (D’Cruze et al., 2016), the Indian Star Tortoise is native to India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan and is protected in all three countries. In addition to national legislation in place to protect the species, the Indian Star Tortoise has been listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1975 and elevated to Appendix I in 2019. Yet despite these measures, there continues to be significant levels of poaching and black-market trade to supply the demand for these tortoises as pets. Indian Star Tortoises are smuggled out of their native countries to many parts of the world, and especially to Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand (Shepherd et al., 2004; Nijman and Shepherd, 2007; Nijman and Shepherd, 2014; D’Cruze et al., 2015; Morgan, 2018). India is the main source, and from there the tortoises are often trafficked in large volumes. One recent study found at least 55,000 (mostly juvenile) tortoises had been collected from just one location (comprising 16 villages) from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh over a period of one year (D’Cruze et al., 2015).