Complete null agent for games with externalities
عامل پوچ کامل برای بازی با اثرات جانبی-2019
Game theory provides valuable tools to examine expert multi-agent systems. In a cooperative game, col- laboration among agents leads to better outcomes. The most important solution for such games is the Shapley value, that coincides with the expected marginal contribution assuming equiprobability. This as- sumption is not plausible when externalities are present in an expert system. Generalizing the concept of marginal contributions, we propose a new family of Shapley values for situations with externalities. The properties of the Shapley value offer a rationale for its application. This family of values is charac- terized by extensions of Shapley’s axioms: efficiency, additivity, symmetry, and the null player property. The first three axioms have widely accepted generalizations to the framework of games with externali- ties. However, different concepts of null players have been proposed in the literature and we contribute to this debate with a new one. The null player property that we use is weaker than the others. Finally, we present one particular value of the family, new in the literature, and characterize it by two additional properties.
Keywords: Game theory | Multi-agent systems | Externalities | Partition function | Marginal contribution
What makes an Airbnb host a superhost? Empirical evidence from San Francisco and the Bay Area
چه چیزی یک bnb هوایی را یک سوپرهاست می کند؟ شواهد تجربی از سان فرانسیسکو و ناحیه بای-2018
Using data on Airbnb listings from San Francisco and the Bay Area, the present study investigates the relative importance of the four criteria that need to be fulfilled to obtain the Airbnb superhost status. In order to quantify the marginal contributions of the four criteria, different index models of binary response (logit, probit, and IV probit, which allows for the endogeneity of Airbnb demand) are applied. The results, which are consistent across models, show that in San Francisco and the Bay Area obtaining (and maintaining) excellent ratings is, by far, the most important criterion, followed by reliable cancellation behavior of the host, host responsiveness, and sufficient Airbnb demand. Moreover, commercial Airbnb providers are more likely to obtain the superhost status.
keywords: Airbnb |Binary response index models |Revealing preferences |Sharing economy |Superhost
A measure of perceived performance to assess resource allocation
اندازه گیری عملکرد درک شده برای ارزیابی تخصیص منابع-2015
Performance measurement is a key issue when a company is designing new strategies to improve resource allocation. This paper offers a new methodology inspired by classic importance–performance analysis (IPA) that provides a global index of importance versus performance for firms. This index compares two rankings of the same set of features regarding importance and performance, taking into account underperforming features. The marginal contribution of each feature to the proposed global index defines a set of iso-curves that represents an improvement in the IPA diagram. The defined index, together with the new version of the diagram, will enable the assessment of a firm’s overall performance and, therefore, enhance decision making in the allocation of resources. The proposed methodology has been applied to a Taiwanese multi-format retailer and managerial perceptions of performance and importance are compared to assess the firm’s overall performance. Keywords: Performance evaluation | Reasoning under uncertainty | Fuzzy operator | Similarity index