Voices from ‘Igbo Bunks’: A qualitative study of the complicity of law-enforcement agents in marijuana use in a Nigerian community
صداهایی از Igbo Bunks : یک مطالعه کیفی از همدستی ماموران اجرای قانون در مصرف ماری جوانا در یک جامعه نیجریه-2020
There exists observable complicity by law enforcement agents in illicit drug networks for financial gain and yet the problem remains under-researched. Thus, this study explored the connection between cannabis use/users and the connivance of narcotic agents in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were employed in selecting a sample of 21, comprising 18 regular ‘Igbo Bunks’ (specially designed marijuana-smoking joints) patronisers and three dealers (Bunk owners/managers). Qualitative thematic method was adopted in analysing the data generated from in-depth oral interviews. Findings revealed that three popular Bunks operate unhidden and were well-known to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and Nigeria Police Force (NPF), but little or no action has been taken to close them down. Although the outcome of the connivance has led to an increase in the price of cannabis due to illegal monetary compensation given to law enforcers to secure their approval, recurring use has also been recorded due to the ostensible comfort and protection these joints offer to customers. Organised marijuana smoking is a fast growing but underexplored ‘lawenforcement problem’ to watch and therefore further empirical studies on the phenomenon is suggested to further direct policy and action. There is urgent need for community responses and partnership with law enforcement agents. Since the most visible part of drug issue takes place in our neighbourhoods, this security synergy is necessary and timely for effective prevention and control of the phenomenon.
Keywords: Complicity | Igbo Bunks | Marijuana use | Law-enforcement agents | Qualitative study
Development of an addiction index and delineation 15-year trends of illicit drugs from the Taiwan national drug enhancement database
توسعه شاخص اعتیاد و تعریف روند 15 ساله مواد مخدر غیرمجاز از پایگاه داده ملی تقویت مواد مخدر تایوان-2020
Illicit drug use contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality. Drug scheduling, a legal measure in drug enforcement, is often structured as a hierarchy based on addiction tendency, abuse trends, and harm, but may lack data-driven evidence when classifying substances. Our study aims to measure addiction tendency and use trends based on real-world data. We used the open access database of National Police Agency, Ministry of the Interior in Taiwan and analyzed all daily criminal cases of illicit drugs from 2013 to 2017 and monthly illicit drug enforcement data from the same database from 2002 to 2017. We hypothesized that repeat and frequent use despite legal consequence may be a reflection of addictive behavior, and empirical mode decomposition was applied in analysis to calculate addiction tendency indices and intrinsic 15-year use trends. Our analysis showed heroin has the highest addiction index, followed by methamphetamine. 3,4-Methyl enedioxy methamphetamine, marijuana, and ketamine had lower addictive propensities. This result is consistent with most drug scheduling hierarchies. 15-year use trends of substances were consistent with previous epidemiological studies.
The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing
تأثیر قوانین دستیابی به حشیش بر تجویز مواد افیونی-2020
While recent research has shown that cannabis access laws can reduce the use of prescrip-tion opioids, the effect of these laws on opioid use is not well understood for all dimensionsof use and for the general United States population. Analyzing a dataset of over 1.5 bil-lion individual opioid prescriptions between 2011 and 2018, which were aggregated to theindividual provider-year level, we find that recreational and medical cannabis access lawsreduce the number of morphine milligram equivalents prescribed each year by 11.8 and 4.2percent, respectively. These laws also reduce the total days’ supply of opioids prescribed,the total number of patients receiving opioids, and the probability a provider prescribesany opioids net of any offsetting effects. Additionally, we find consistent evidence thatcannabis access laws have different effects across types of providers, physician specialties,and payers.
Keywords: Cannabis | Marijuana| Opioids
Covariates of hazardous alcohol use among sexual and gender minorities in Texas: Identifying the most vulnerable
متغیر های کمکی مصرف الکل خطرناک در بین اقلیتهای جنسی و جنسیتی در تگزاس: شناسایی آسیب پذیرترین افراد-2020
Background: Information is limited on the prevalence of hazardous drinking and associated covariates among sexual and gender minority (SGM) persons. These analyses estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking and identified associated covariates. Methods: A total of 1273 SGM adolescents and adults living in Texas completed an online survey between March 2016 and January 2017. Variables associated with hazardous drinking at the bivariate-level (p < 0.10) were entered into multiple logistic regression models to estimate the strength of their association. Results: More than a third (39.1%) of participants meet criteria for hazardous drinking. Compared to non-hazardous drinkers, hazardous drinkers were younger (x = 20.7 [SD = 8.9] vs. x = 26.5 [SD = 13.8]) and more likely to be Hispanic (41.5% vs. 26.2%). Hazardous drinkers were more likely to report using substances in past 12 months, including opioids (15.3% vs. 6.7%), stimulants (26.3% vs. 12.7%), and marijuana (37.6% vs. 21.2%). More hazardous drinkers reported injecting drugs (12.3% vs. 5.8%) and having a history of incarceration (14.1% vs. 7.3%). They were less likely to be diagnosed with depression (50.2% vs. 56.5%). When entered into a multivariate logistic regression model, hazardous drinkers were more likely to be younger (aOR = 0.97 [0.95, 0.98]), Hispanic (aOR = 1.5 [1.2, 2.0]), have a history of incarceration (aOR = 2.4 [1.5, 3.6]), and use a substance, not including marijuana (aOR=1.7 [1.3, 2.3]). They were less likely to be diagnosed with depression (aOR = 0.73 [0.6, 0.9]). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the intersection of race and ethnicity, mental health, criminal justice involvement, and substance use and the need for tailored interventions that address underlying determinants.
Keywords: Alcohol use | Substance use | LGBT health | Hispanics | Criminal justice
What’s drugs got to do with it? Examining the relationship between drug onset and duration with criminal outcomes in an African American cohort
چه داروهایی با آن ارتباط دارند؟ بررسی رابطه بین شروع دارو و مدت زمان با نتایج جنایی در یک گروه آفریقایی آمریکایی-2020
Background: The association of drug use onset and duration with criminal careers has rarely been studied over the life course among African Americans, who are disproportionately impacted by the criminal justice system. Methods: This study uses data from a community cohort of urban African Americans, first assessed at age 6 (n = 1242) and followed into midlife. Data come from both self-reports (n = 1053 in adulthood) and official crime records (n = 1217). Regression analyses among those who used marijuana, cocaine, and/or heroin and had complete arrest data (n = 614) assess the association between adolescent vs. adult initiation, short vs. long duration of use, and their interaction with the outcomes of arrest, incarceration, and criminal career length, as well as meeting criteria for a drug use disorder. Results: Findings show that onset and duration are highly related, but when independent effects of duration and onset are assessed, only duration is a statistically significant predictor of all four crime outcomes, as well as a predictor of meeting criteria for a drug use disorder in adjusted regression models. Associations of duration with arrests held for all crime types (i.e., drug, property, violence). Adolescent vs. adult drug onset only predicted meeting lifetime criteria for a drug use disorder. The interaction of onset and duration was not statistically significant in any models. No appreciable differences were observed in gender specific models. Discussion: Findings suggest that shortening drug use duration may have a greater impact on reducing the association of drug use with crime for African Americans than delaying onset.
Keywords: Drug use trajectory | Drug use initiation | Criminal justice system involvement | Longitudinal data
The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature
استفاده از شاهدانه در پاسخ به بحران مواد مخدر:مروری بر ادبیات-2018
Background: A staggering number of Americans are dying from overdoses attrib uted to prescription opioid medications (POMs). In response, states are creating policies related to POM harm reduction strategies, overdose prevention, and al ternative therapies for pain management, such as cannabis (medical marijuana). However, little is known about how the use of cannabis for pain management may be associated with POM use. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine state medical cannabis (MC) use laws and policies and their potential association with POM use and related harms. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore United States policies related to MC use and the association with POM use and related harms. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify peer reviewed articles published between 2010 and 2017. Using the search criteria, 11,513 records were identified, with 789 abstracts reviewed, and then 134 full-text ar ticles screened for eligibility. Findings: Of 134 articles, 10 articles met inclusion criteria. Four articles were cross sectional online survey studies of MC substitution for POM, six were secondary data analyses exploring state-level POM overdose fatalities, hospitalizations related to MC or POM harms, opioid use disorder admissions, motor vehicle fatalities, and Medicare and Medicaid prescription cost analyses. The literature suggests MC laws could be associated with decreased POM use, fewer POM-related hos pitalizations, lower rates of opioid overdose, and reduced national health care expenditures related to POM overdose and misuse. However, available literature on the topic is sparse and has notable limitations. Conclusions: Review of the current literature suggests states that implement MC policies could reduce POM-associated mortality, improve pain management, and significantly reduce health care costs. However, MC research is constrained by federal policy restrictions, and more research related to MC as a potential alter native to POM for pain management, MC harms, and its impact on POM-related harms and health care costs should be a priority of public health, medical, and nursing research.
Keywords: Opioid ، Opioid use disorder ، Medical marijuana ، Medical cannabis ، Chronic pain ، Integrative pain management
Computer tool to evaluate the cue reactivity of chemically dependent individuals
ابزار رایانه ای برای ارزیابی واکنش پذیری نشانه های وابسته به مواد شیمیایی-2017
Article history:Received 12 February 2016Revised 31 October 2016Accepted 23 November 2016Keywords: Computer tool AnxietyCue reactivity Chemically dependentBackground and objective: Anxiety is one of the major inﬂuences on the dropout of relapse and treat- ment of substance abuse treatment. Chemically dependent individuals need (CDI) to be aware of their emotional state in situations of risk during their treatment. Many patients do not agree with the di- agnosis of the therapist when considering them vulnerable to environmental stimuli related to drugs. This research presents a cue reactivity detection tool based on a device acquiring physiological signals connected to personal computer. Depending on the variations of the emotional state of the drug addict, alteration of the physiological signals will be detected by the computer tool (CT) which will modify the displayed virtual sets without intervention of the therapist.Methods: Developed in 3ds Max® software, the CT is composed of scenarios and objects that are in the habit of marijuana and cocaine dependent individual’s daily life. The interaction with the environment is accomplished using a Human-Computer Interface (HCI) that converts incoming physiological signals indicating anxiety state into commands that change the scenes. Anxiety was characterized by the average variability from cardiac and respiratory rate of 30 volunteers submitted stress environment situations. To evaluate the effectiveness of cue reactivity a total of 50 volunteers who were marijuana, cocaine or both dependent were accompanied.Results: Prior to CT, the results demonstrated a poor correlation between the therapists’ predictions and those of the chemically dependent individuals. After exposure to the CT, there was a signiﬁcant increase of 73% in awareness of the risks of relapse.Conclusion: We conﬁrmed the hypothesis that the CT, controlled only by physiological signals, increases the perception of vulnerability to risk situations of individuals with dependence on marijuana, cocaine or both.© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Computer tool | Anxiety | Cue reactivity | Chemically dependent
کلینیک،، از تجارب جزئی تا چشمگیربرتری در هر دور
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 55 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 90
کلینیک یک شریک مترقی و قابل اعتماد است. از زمانی که در سال 2009 کلینیک را تأسیس کردیم، به یکی از بزرگ ترین و مسئولیت پذیرترین شرکت های ماری جوانا در ایالات متحده تبدیل شد. کلینیک به طور موفقیت آمیزی طراحی و ساخته شده و از چندین کشت، روند پردازش و تسهیلات آپارتمانی در کلرادو، نودا و ایلینوی بهره برداری می کند. با بیش از نه سال سابقه و تجربه ی عملیاتی؛ کلینیک بیش از 130 گونه ی مختلف را به مرحله ی کشت رسانده است و بیش از 3 میلیون ماری جوانا پردازش کرده است و به یکی از ممتازترین شرکت های ماری جوانا در کل کشور تبدیل شده است. کلینیک بیش از 40 مجوز دولتی و محلی دارد و بیش از 10 نفر در آن مشغول به کار هستند. ما مشاورین Cannabis نیستیم. تنها اپراتورهای باتجربه هستیم. تیم باتجربه¬ی کلینیک تمامی شرکا را در روند شکل گیری و رشد کسب و کار را مدیریت می¬کند و هدف اصلی او دستیابی به سودآوری خط پایین، توسعه محصول برتر، رضایت بیمار و پرورش فرهنگ انطباق و سازگاری بالاست.
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