Price and quality decisions in a vertically-differentiated supply chain with an “Online-to-Store” channel
تصمیمات قیمت و کیفیت در یک زنجیره تأمین کاملاً متمایز با کانال «فروشگاه از طریق فروشگاه»-2021
Because of the prevalence of “Online-to-Store (OS)” channel, customers can purchase differentiated products online and pick up in-store. We develop a Stackelberg game-theoretic model to study the impact of an OS channel on quality levels, demands, prices, and profits of a manufacturer and a retailer in a supply chain. We assume that the retailer acts as a Stackelberg leader, and the manufacturer acts as a Stackelberg follower. The manufacturer produces and sells two products with vertically-differentiated quality levels to the retailer who in turn sells the products to customers through a Store channel, an Online channel, or an OS channel. The retailer incurs a handing cost if the OS channel is available, and consumers bear a shipping cost and a transaction cost when the products are purchased from the Online and Store channels, respectively. We find that the manufacturer should reduce both products’ quality levels and wholesale prices, whereas the retailer can increase the selling prices for a relatively small shipping cost and a not too small handling cost. When the products are available both online and in-store, however, the quality levels, wholesale prices and selling prices might increase for a small shipping cost and a not too small handling cost. Compared to the case in which both products are available online only with the OS channel, adding the Store channel is always beneficial for both parties. The intuition behind these results hinges on the trade-off between the handling cost and the increased market demand for the retailer. Moreover, the quality levels, the wholesale prices of both products, and the selling price of the low-quality product would decrease, while the selling price of the high-quality product increases for a sufficiently low transaction cost and a not too small shipping cost.
Keywords: Game theory | Online-to-store | Vertically-differentiated supply chain | Pricing | Quality
Time-sensitive supply chain disruption recovery and resource sharing incentive strategy
استراتژی تشویقی برای بهبود اختلال در زنجیره تأمین حساس به زمان-2021
Market demand is becoming increasingly time-sensitive in competitive environments. Hence, supply disruptions will have a more serious impact on the proﬁts of supply chains. This study applies a Stackelberg competition between a single supplier and a single manufacturer in a time-sensitive supply chain in a cloud manufacturing environment. We aim to address the supplier’s production capacity recovery issues and the manufacturer’s incentive decision issues after supply disruption. We ﬁnd that the supplier is in a weak position when the information is symmetrical. The manufacturer can encourage the supplier to shorten the recovery time by raising the unit wholesale price. When the supplier’s unit production cost remains unchanged but the unit wholesale price increases, the proﬁt of the supplier ﬁrst increases and then decreases. In addition, under the centralized decision-making setting, the optimal recovery time of the supplier is shorter and the optimal unit market price of the product is lower than that under decentralized decision-making. We further ﬁnd that resource sharing can shorten the optimal recovery time, but it does not necessarily play an incentivizing role.© 2021 China Science Publishing & Media Ltd. Publishing Services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co. Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Supply chain | Time-sensitive | Supply disruption | Resource sharing
The yield rate paradox in closed-loop supply chains
The yield rate paradox in closed-loop supply chains-2021
We investigate the dynamics of a closed-loop make-to-stock supply chain consisting of a remanufacturer and a manufacturer with a first-order vector auto-regressive demand and return process. Remanufactured products, considered as-good-as-new, partially satisfy market demand; newly manufactured products fill the remainder. The manufacturer and the remanufacturer cooperate to minimize the sum of the 1) capacity costs at the remanufacturing and manufacturing processes, 2) finished goods inventory holding and backlog cost, 3) cost to dispose of returned items not re-manufactured and 4) collection cost. The remanufacturer inspects returned products in a triage process. Only a predetermined fraction (the triage yield rate) of the returns are re- manufactured. We investigate the impact of the triage yield on the system-wide cost. In a cost-sensitive setting, when the unit cost of remanufacturing is lower than the unit cost of manufacturing, it seems reason- able to conjecture that higher triage yields lead to lower system-wide costs. We show the system-wide cost is always convex in the triage yield rate, suggesting system-wide costs could actually increase in the triage yield rate, even when the unit remanufacturing cost is lower than the manufacturing cost. This yield rate paradox originates from the increased yields creating additional variability in the manufacturing activities. By investi- gating boundary conditions we find the minimal disposal penalty required to entice the remanufacturer to process all returns.
Keywords: Supply chain management | Closed-loop supply chain | Vector auto-regressive process | Order-up-to policy
Optimizing strategies for e-waste supply chains under four operation scenarios
بهینه سازی استراتژی های زنجیره تامین زباله الکترونیکی تحت چهار سناریو عملیاتی-2021
Online recycling has become an increasingly popular research hotspot. However, few studies have focused on its potential service functions such as online promotion and offline recycling. In this study, considering such service functions, four models, namely, the manufacturer recycling channel (Model A), recycler recycling channel (Model B), online channel recycling (Model C) and manufacturer’s self built platform + recycling channel (Model D), are established, and derived the corresponding profit functions of supply chain members. Game theory was utilized to optimize service quality control strategies and supply chain member profits within the different models. Using numerical simulation, we examined the influence of both the upper recycling incentive limit and market demand on the optimal recycling channel strategies and profits. When the upper limit of the recovery incentive amount k 2 ð0; 3Þ, the actual price and service quality to consumers under the manufacturer’s self-built platform + recycling channel (Model D) are better than other channels, and the optimal manufacturer and online platform profits initially increased and then decreased with increases in the recycling incentive upper limit. We also found that the optimal recycler profit increased as the upper limit of the recycling incentive increased, and that optimal supply chain member profits increased when market size D0 2 ð0; 100Þ.
Keywords: E-waste | Closed-loop supply chain | Online recycling platform | Recycling incentive upper limit | Market scale
Emission reduction decision of agricultural supply chain considering carbon tax and investment cooperation
تصمیم کاهش انتشار زنجیره تأمین کشاورزی با توجه به مالیات کربن و همکاری در سرمایه گذاری-2021
As the core of civilian production and an indispensable part of the national economy, the agricultural industry plays a role in many aspects, but it also generates a large amount of carbon emissions that are harmful to the environment. A game model is established to compare the optimal decisions and proﬁts of retailers under three situations: whether to invest in emission reduction for manufacturers or not, and whether to invest in emission reduction under decentralized decision-making or centralized decision- making. The results show that when manufacturers cooperate with retailers, with the increase of in- vestment proportion, carbon emission reduction, market demand, manufacturer’s proﬁt and retail price show an upward trend, while retailer’s proﬁt decreases. However, when manufacturers and retailers form a centralized supply chain, the overall proﬁt of the supply chain can be improved. Therefore, when manufacturers and retailers cooperate to form a centralized supply chain, the supply chain can be optimized to achieve the dual objectives of protecting the environment and increasing proﬁts.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Carbon tax | Investment cooperation | Agricultural supply chain | Carbon emission reduction
Website and e-shop Development as an e business Teaching Programme Innovation in Management Education
توسعه وب سایت و فروشگاه الکترونیکی به عنوان یک برنامه آموزش کسب و کار الکترونیکی نوآوری در آموزش مدیریت-2020
The article points out the need to introduce practical e-business learning in management education in Poland in order to adapt it to the labour market demand for new professionals such as digital manager, e commerce manager or e-commerce front-end developer. It also presents both the results of a research on the curricula of business studies and the conclusions of a survey conducted among students of the Faculty of Management, UTP University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, Poland, who attended the e-business/e-commerce classes. It follows that the practical implementation of this subject is not popular in major economics and management courses, while among the public universities studied only UTP conduct classes using WordPress. According to the respondents, this area of knowledge is necessary, and the course itself is attractive and will be useful in the future. Therefore, research results indicate an innovative character of the presented teaching approach.© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the KES International.
Keywords: e-business education | e-commerce education | managers education | higher education | WordPress;
foxBMS - free and open BMS platform focused on functional safety and AI
foxBMS - پلت فرم رایگان و باز BMS با تمرکز بر ایمنی عملکردی و هوش مصنوعی-2020
The last years have shown a strong market demand for lithium-ion battery systems with higher energy densities, longer lifetimes, and lower costs, but at the same time without compromising safety. To help developers, engineers and researchers worldwide, Fraunhofer IISB has established the free and open source Battery Management System (BMS) development platform ”foxBMS”. The foxBMS platform consists of a modular hardware and software architecture and a complete software development toolchain. Based on the experience providing foxBMS-based solutions to customers and the research community, the next generation of foxBMS is strongly focused on functional safety standards. The hardware architecture and the hardware components themselves help to ensure that functional safety standards are met. Additionally, foxBMS supports a workflow for implementing Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based battery state estimators for the BMS. Using foxBMS as a data generator within this workflow a Neural Network (NN) based on a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is trained offline to estimate the state of charge (SOC) based on the current and voltage measurement input. The simulation results, obtained with the trained NN running online on the device, are shown in this paper.
How do hotels adapt their pricing strategies to macroeconomic factors?
چگونه هتل ها استراتژی های قیمت گذاری خود را با عوامل اقتصاد کلان تطبیق می دهند؟-2020
The hospitality industry is naturally highly sensitive to subtle changes in the external environment, and its performance is aﬀected by various external factors. Therefore, hoteliers should carefully monitor the various macroeconomic indicators aﬀecting the market, when making important strategic management decisions. In particular, hotels’ pricing decisions are important because they play a crucial role in the determination of hotel revenue and in the process of proﬁt maximization. In this paper we classify hotels by business model (i.e., chain management, franchise and independent) and analyze how these diﬀerent types of hotels in Switzerland adapt their pricing strategies to macroeconomic factors (i.e., exchange rate, room supply and market demand). We ﬁnd that hotels adopting diﬀerent business models react diﬀerently to the same macro shock. Implications of our ﬁndings and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Room supply | Pricing strategy | Exchange rate | Macro-economic factor | Market demand
Valuable but vulnerable: Over-fishing and under-management continue to threaten groupers so what now?
ارزشمند اما آسیب پذیر: ماهیگیری بیش از حد و کم مدیریتی همچنان تهدیدی برای هم گروه ها انجام می دهد ، حالا چه می شود؟-2020
Among threats to marine species, overfishing has often been highlighted as a major contributor to population declines and yet fishing effort has increased globally over the past decade. This paper discusses the decadal reassessment of groupers (family Epinephelidae), an important and valuable group of marine fishes subjected to high market demand and intense fishing effort, based on IUCN criteria. Allowing for uncertainty in the status of species listed as Data Deficient, 19 species (11.4%) are currently assigned to a “threatened” category. This first reassessment for a large marine fish taxon permits an evaluation of changes following the original assessments, provides a profile of the current conservation condition of species, identifies the challenges of assessing conservation status, and highlights current and emerging threats. Measures needed to reduce threats and lessons learned from conservation efforts are highlighted. Present threats include intensifying fishing effort in the face of absent or insufficient fishery management or monitoring, growing pressures from international trade, and an inadequate coverage in effectively managed, sized, or located protected areas. Emerging threats involve expansion of fishing effort into deeper waters and more remote locations, shifts to previously non-targeted species, increases in the capture, marketing and use of juveniles, growing demands for domestic and international trade, and, potentially, climate change. Those species most threatened are larger-bodied, longer-lived groupers, most of which reproduce in spawning aggregations
Keywords: Epinephelidae | Extinction risk | IUCN | Overfishing | Sustainability
Coordinating manufacturers innovation and retailers promotion and replenishment using a compensation-based wholesale price contract
هماهنگ سازی نوآوری سازنده و تبلیغ و تجدید تدارکات خرده فروش با استفاده از یک قرارداد قیمت عمده فروشی مبتنی بر غرامت-2018
In this paper, coordination of a manufacturer-retailer chain is investigated where the manufacturer innovates in manufacturing process and the retailer applies promotional efforts. The market demand is assumed to be stochastic dependent on the retailers promotional and the manufacturers innovation efforts. The retailer uses a periodic review inventory system for replenishing items and decides on order-up-to level, review period and promotional efforts level. On the other hand, it is possible for the manufacturer to boost the market demand by innovation in manufacturing process. The retailers promotional and manufacturers innovation efforts not only affect their profits, but also impress their mutual profits and the supply chain performance in an indirect manner. Firstly, we develop the decentralized and centralized decision-making models along with solution procedures and concavity analysis to solve the models. Although the centralized model improves the profitability of the whole supply chain, it may reduce the profitability of either the retailer or the manufacturer. Therefore, we propose a new compensation-based wholesale price contract for encouraging actors to take part in the joint decision-making scheme. Moreover, a profit sharing strategy based on the bargaining power of members is proposed for distributing the surplus profit between members. Finally, the results of the decentralized, centralized and coordination models are compared using test problems and some sensitivity analyses are presented.
keywords: Supply chain coordination |Promotional and innovation |Periodic review |Inventory system |Compensation |Wholesale price contract |Profit sharing