Colorimetric point-of-care paper-based sensors for urinary creatinine with smartphone readout
حسگرهای رنگی سنجی مبتنی بر کاغذ برای مراقبت از کراتینین ادراری با بازخوانی گوشی های هوشمند-2021
Creatinine is a clinically significant analyte used to diagnose kidney condition. However, the literature still lacks in creatinine sensors fulfilling point-of-care testing requirements. In this paper, we have developed colorimetric paper-based creatinine sensors adhering to point-of-care testing principles. The signal readout is accomplished with a smartphone modified with 3D-printed elements and processed with a self-written application compromising computer vision algorithm for automatic detection of the colored zone. Two colorimetric methods –routinely used Jaffe method and an alternative one with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid were both tested and compared. Hue channel intensity from HSV color space and green channel from RGB color space was used as the analytical signal in Jaffe and 3,5-dinitrobenzoate method, respectively. For both kinds of sensors the linear range of the response covered the range significant for urinary analysis, with precision, expressed as RSD, below 5%. Limit of quantification for Jaffe method was 1.05 mmol⋅ L—1 whereas it was 0.82 mmol⋅L—1 for 3,5-dinitrobenzoate method. The utility of the developed sensors to selectively quantify creatinine in undiluted urine was proved using artificial urine samples and the obtained recoveries were in the range from 70 to 129 %.
Keywords: Creatinine | Jaffe | 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid | Microfluidic paper-based device | Smartphone | Computer vision