دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با National security::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - National security

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 21
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Localized Monitoring Mobile Application for Automatic Identification System (AIS) for Sea Vessels
برنامه موبایل مانیتورینگ محلی برای سیستم شناسایی خودکار (AIS) برای کشتی های دریایی-2020
Smartphones are being used on a daily basis by most people. It assists every persons’ needs and wants in terms of communication, entertainment, news, and many more. As times passes by, it provided more ways to help people on their everyday life. The project aims to provide a way for sea vessel’s watch-standing officers to monitor the marine traffic, and to provide information to avoid collision within Philippine maritime area of responsibility. The developed systems was also conceptualized to consider monitoring unidentified ship intruders within local territory that can possibly serve as a threat to national security. This research is to create an Automatic Identification System (AIS) localized monitoring application using mobile phone. An AIS monitoring system is used to simulate actual maritime data to check the location and movement of vessels or ships within the surrounding maritime area. After actual data simulation is done in the system, results show that accurate sea vessels information are being tracked using the AIS mobile app.
Keywords: automatic identification system | sea vessels |smartphones | maritime monitoring
مقاله انگلیسی
2 International law and mental health evaluations at Guantanamo: Is medical repatriation a solution for most detainees?
ارزیابی حقوق بین‌الملل و سلامت روان در گوانتانامو: آیا بازگشت پزشکی راه‌حلی برای اکثر زندانیان است؟-2020
This article analyzes the ruling in al-Qahtani v. Trump which establishes a new legal mechanism for Guantanamo detainees being held in indefinite detention to receive independent psychiatric evaluations from mixed medical commissions in order to determine eligibility for repatriation on humanitarian grounds. The article first reviews how the U.S. government created a legal framework for Global War on Terror detainees that differs from established conventions under international humanitarian law to protect prisoners of war. It discusses the circumstances of a Guantanamo detainee named Mohammed al-Qahtani who was tortured in U.S. custody, ac-cording to Guantanamo’s top official. The U.S. government has declined to refer legal charges against him but also refused to release him since he has been considered a threat to U.S. national security. The article analyzes how al-Qahtani’s attorneys challenged the legality of his detention and referred to an independent psychiatric evaluation played to establish the legal basis for “irreparable harm.” al-Qahtani’s independent psychiatric evaluation asserted that he displayed symptoms consistent with those exhibited by survivors of torture. Legally, the ruling establishes a precedent for Guantanamo detainees who are being held in indefinite detention to compel the U.S. government to clarify their legal status or arrange an examination by a mixed medical commission. Twenty-two other detainees out of the forty still at Guantanamo fall in this legal category, so the precedent has far-reaching consequences. Finally, the prospect of mixed medical commissions composed of international experts who are collaborating to render a medical opinion raises questions about how independent psychiatric evaluations would be conducted in practice.
Keywords: Forensic psychiatry | Forensic mental health | War on terror | Guantanamo | Geneva convention | Medical repatriation | Culture
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Design of fluorescent sensors based on azaheterocyclic push-pull systems towards nitroaromatic explosives and related compounds: A review
طراحی سنسورهای فلورسنت مبتنی بر سیستمهای فشار کششی azaheterocyclic به سمت مواد منفجره نیتروارماتیک و ترکیبات مرتبط: بررسی-2020
Highly sensitive and selective detection of nitro containing high energy organic compounds such as picric acid (PA), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) has become a challenging task due to concerns over national security, criminal investigations and environment protections. Among various known detection methods, fluorescence sensors have gained special attention in recent time. The family of fluorescent sensors based on push-pull systems that incorporate nitrogen heterocycles as an electron-withdrawing group have a growing interest due to their high sensitivity, selectivity and easy tuning. The fluorescent sensors discussed in this review are classified and organized according to used azaheterocyclic scaffold, their functionality and their ability to detect of nitroaromatics by fluorescence quenching.
Keywords: Nitroaromatic explosives | Fluorescence quenching | Pyridines | Pyrimidines | Pyrazines | Triazines
مقاله انگلیسی
4 The two judgments of the European Court of Justice in the four cases of Privacy International, La Quadrature du Net and Others, French Data Network and Others and Ordre des Barreaux francophones et germanophone and Others: The Grand Chamber is trying hard to square the circle of data retention
دو رای دیوان دادگستری اروپا در چهار پرونده Privacy International، La Quadrature du Net and Others، French Data Network and Others و Ordre des Barreaux francophones et germanophone و دیگران: اتاق بزرگ به شدت تلاش می کند دایره ای را مربع کند: نگهداری داده ها-2020
On 6 October 2020, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Justice rendered two land- mark judgments in Privacy International, La Quadrature du Net and Others, French Data Network and Others as well as Ordre des barreaux francophones et germanophone and Others. The Grand Chamber confirmed that EU law precludes national legislation which requires a provider of electronic communications services to carry out the general and indiscriminate trans- mission or retention of traffic data and location data for the purpose of combating crime in general or of safeguarding national security.In situations where a Member State is facing a serious threat to national security which proves to be genuine and present or foreseeable, such State may however derogate from the obligation to ensure the confidentiality of data relating to electronic communications by requiring, by way of legislative measures, the general and indiscriminate retention of this data for a period which is limited in time to what is strictly necessary but which may be extended if the threat persists.1 In respect of combating serious crime and preventing serious threats to public security, a Member State may also provide for the targeted retention of this data and its expedited retention. Such an interference with fundamental rights must be accompanied by effective safeguards and be reviewed by a court or by an independent administrative authority. It is likewise open to a Member State to carry out a general and✩ © 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.‌E-mail address: xtracol@eurojust.europa.eu1 Joined Cases 511/18, C-512/18 and 520/18 La Quadrature du Net and Others [2020] paras 168 and 177.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2021.105540 0267-3649indiscriminate retention of IP addresses assigned to the source of a communication where the retention period is limited to what is strictly necessary or even to carry out a general and indiscriminate retention of data relating to the civil identity of users of means of electronic communication. In the latter case, the retention is not subject to a specific time limit.
Keywords: European Court of Justice | Privacy International | La Quadrature du Net | Metadata | Retention of personal data | Access to personal data | National security | Article 4(2) of the treaty on EU | Articles 1(3), 3, 5, 15(1) of the | e-privacy directive | Articles 6, 7, 8, 11 and 52(1) of the | Charter of Fundamental Rights | UK | Brexit | Adequacy decision
مقاله انگلیسی
5 The uncertain future of data retention laws in the EU: Is a legislative reset possible?
آینده نامشخص قوانین حفظ داده ها در اتحادیه اروپا: آیا بازنشانی قانونی امکان پذیر است؟-2020
The article discusses the CJEU’s most important case law, including interpretations presented in recent cases relating to data retention for both national security purposes (Privacy International, La Quadrature du Net) and the fight against serious crime (H.K). The analysis is a starting point for discussing the draft e-Privacy Regulation, in particular a controversial proposal introduced by the EU Council that may limit the Court’s jurisdiction in cases involving data retention rules that cover state security. Negotiated over the past five years, the draft e-Privacy Regulation fleshes out EU data protection rules governing electronic communication services. As a result, the way in which obligations under the Regulation are defined is critical in setting a standard for retention rules consistent with CJEU case law for decades to come. At the same time, succumbing to pressure from Member States may have the opposite result – the emergence of new ambiguities concerning not only the admissibility of data retention but also the competence of EU institutions to regulate this area of the telecommunications sector.© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Keywords: General obligation to retain data | e-privacy regulation | Data protection | National security
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Port states, coastal states and national security: A law of the sea perspective on the 2017 Qatar-Gulf crisis
ایالت بندری ، ایالت های ساحلی و امنیت ملی: قانونی از منظر دریا درباره بحران سال 2017 قطر و خلیج فارس-2020
In June 2017 a wide-ranging and protracted dispute between several members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) simmered over into the public sphere with the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain and Saudi Arabia all severing diplomatic ties with Qatar. This diplomatic dispute is accompanied by a number of port state and coastal state measures which includes the denial of the use of ports and the denial of innocent passage to vessels either linked to Qatar or carrying cargo linked to Qatar. This paper will use the current law of the sea framework to analyse the legality of the UAE’s, Bahrain’s and Saudi Arabia’s Qatar-related restrictions upon international shipping. This paper concludes that in both cases the three GCC states have a valid jurisdictional basis to adopt such measures, but the limitations of customary international law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) are arguably not being followed. The conclusion also touches upon whether the compulsory dispute settlement procedure found in Part XV of UNCLOS presents another avenue for flag states to challenge the restrictions on innocent passage imposed by Saudi Arabia and Bahrain as parties to UNCLOS.
مقاله انگلیسی
7 اخبار جعلی، اطلاعات نادرست، و جعل های عمیق: نوسازی فن‌آوری‌های دفترکل توزیع‌ شده و بلاکچین برای مبارزه با فریب دیجیتال و واقعیت جعلی
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 14
ظهور جعل های عمیق همه جا، اطلاعات نادرست، اطلاعات دروغ، و غلط پس از حقیقت، که اغلب به عنوان اخبار جعلی شناخته می‌شوند، نگرانی‌ها را در مورد نقش اینترنت و رسانه‌های اجتماعی در جوامع دموکراتیک مدرن افزایش می‌دهد. با توجه به انتشار سریع و گسترده آن، فریب دیجیتال نه تنها هزینه فردی یا اجتماعی دارد، بلکه می‌تواند منجر به زیان‌های اقتصادی قابل‌توجه یا خطراتی برای امنیت ملی شود. زنجیره قفل و دیگر تکنولوژی‌های دفترکل توزیع‌شده (‏DLET) ‏با ارایه یک رکورد شفاف، تغییر ناپذیر و قابل تایید از تراکنش ها در حین ایجاد یک بس‌تر امن نظیر به نظیر برای ذخیره‌سازی و تبادل اطلاعات، منشا و قابلیت ردیابی داده‌ها را تضمین می‌کنند هدف این مرور بررسی پتانسیل DLT ها برای مبارزه با فریب دیجیتال، توصیف مرتبط‌ترین کاربردها و شناسایی چالش‌های آشکار اصلی آن‌ها است. علاوه بر این، برخی توصیه‌ها برای راهنمایی محققان آینده در مورد مسائلی که باید برای تقویت مقاومت در برابر تهدیدهای سایبری در رسانه‌های آنلاین امروز به آن‌ها پرداخته شود، احصا شده‌اند.
مقاله ترجمه شده
8 Bridging the gap: Contributions of academics and national security practitioners to counterterrorism in Indonesia
پر کردن شکاف: مشارکت دانشگاهیان و متخصصان امنیت ملی در مبارزه با تروریسم در اندونزی-2020
The revision of the Anti-Terrorism Law in Indonesia stimulates ongoing discussions about collaboration of all instruments of counterterrorism, coordination, and the important role of both academics and practitioners in the field. This study aims to identify variety of contributions of academics and national security practitioners to counterterrorism in Indonesia. Participants from government agencies and universities working on terrorism were involved in the study. More- over, the study administered systematic review and qualitative text analysis to documents of CVE (Counter Violent Extremism). The findings demonstrate that there are fifteen aspects addressed in counterterrorism in which academics and practitioners are working simultaneously. Moreover, there are similarities and differences of contributions by academics and national security practitioners in each of these fifteen aspects of counterterrorism.
Keywords: Terrorism | Cooperation | Collaboration | Coordination | Contribution | Academics | Practitioners
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Assessing the quantum-resistant cryptographic agility of routing and switching IT network infrastructure in a large-size financial organization
ارزیابی چابکی رمزنگاری مقاوم به کوانتومی در مسیریابی و تعویض زیرساخت های شبکه IT در یک سازمان مالی با اندازه بزرگ-2019
This paper provides exploratory research by determining the impact of quantum computing threat on modern routing and switching infrastructure components of IT network infrastructure in a large-size fi- nancial organization. We determine whether common routing and switching IT network infrastructure, including its hardware and software components, have enough cryptographic agility to accommodate the change of cryptographic algorithms to the ones that do not exhibit vulnerability to quantum computing and to the ones that are compliant with National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B set of protocols. We pinpoint upstream or downstream impacts of a change in the encryption algorithms across various IT network infrastructure components in terms of effort required to accomplish this transition. This study is among the first studies that investigate quantum-resistance cryptographic from the hard- ware perspectives of routing and switching technologies using diffusion of innovation theory. The study integrates enterprise governance to meet the challenges presented by quantum-computing with a focus on cryptographic agility. We offer an enterprise architecture framework for assessing the dependencies, costs, and benefits of IT infrastructure migration plan to meet the future challenges of quantum-resistant cryptographic. The analysis in this research can be used by IT managers to pre-plan for an upgrade of routing and switching infrastructure, assist in estimating the effort s required to perform these upgrades, and assist in selecting a vendor of routing and switching equipment from the perspective of cryptographic agility. With today’s supercomputers, a computational task involved in breaking modern asymmetric cryptographic algorithms would be infeasible due to the required computational complexity. However, with progress in the devel- opment of quantum computing technology, firms are facing an increasing risk of potential security threats to existing encrypted data and secured transmission channels as the processing power of quantum com- puters continue to increase.
Keywords: Quantum-resistance | Cryptography | Routing and switching | Enterprise architecture | IT governance
مقاله انگلیسی
10 An intelligent blockchain-based system for safe vaccine supply and supervision
یک سیستم مبتنی بر بلاکچین برای تهیه و نظارت بر واکسن های ایمن-2019
Immunization is an indispensable mechanism for preventing infectious diseases in modern society, and vaccine safety is closely related to public health and national security. However, issues such as vaccine expiration and vaccine record fraud are still widespread in vaccine supply chains. Therefore, an effective management system for the supervision of vaccine supply chains is urgently required. As the next generation of core technology after the Internet, blockchain is designed to build trust mechanisms that can change current information management methods. Meanwhile, the development of machine learning technologies provides additional ways to analyze the data in information management systems. The main objective of this study is to develop a “vaccine blockchain” system based on blockchain and machine learning technologies. This vaccine blockchain system is designed to support vaccine traceability and smart contract functions, and can be used to address the problems of vaccine expiration and vaccine record fraud. Additionally, the use of machine learning models can provide valuable recommendations to immunization practitioners and recipients, allowing them to choose better immunization methods and vaccines.
Keywords: Vaccine safety | Vaccine blockchain | Vaccine traceability | Smart contract | Machine learning
مقاله انگلیسی
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