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نتیجه جستجو - Outcome

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 915
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Efficient and sustainable closed-loop supply chain network design: A two-stage stochastic formulation with a hybrid solution methodology
طراحی شبکه زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته کارآمد و پایدار: یک فرمول تصادفی دو مرحله ای با روش راه حل ترکیبی-2021
In recent years, consumers and legislators have pushed companies to design their supply chain networks to consider environmental and social impacts as an important performance outcome. Due to the role of resource utilization as a key component of logistics network design, another primary goal of design is ensuring available scarce resources are used as efficiently as possible across all facilities. To address efficiency issues in a sustainable closed-loop supply chain network, a stochastic integrated multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is developed in this paper, in which sustainability outcomes as well as efficiency of facility resource utilization are considered in the design of a sustainable supply chain network. In doing so, efficiency is assessed using a bi-objective output-oriented data envelopment analysis model. A hybrid three-step solution methodology is presented that creates a linear form of the original mixed integer nonlinear programming problem using piecewise McCormick envelopes approach. In the second step, an aggregated single objective programming model is derived by exploiting the multi-choice goal programming. Finally, a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to effectively solve the latter stochastic single objective mixed integer linear programming problem. The application of the proposed approach is investigated with data drawn from a case study in the electronics industry. This case study illustrates how firms may balance sustainability and efficiency in the supply chain network design problem. Further, it demonstrates the integration of efficiency results in improving economic aspects of sustainability as well as social responsibility outcomes, but also highlights the trade-offs that exist between efficiency and environmental impacts.
Keywords: Closed-loop supply chain network | Sustainability | Data envelopment analysis | Stochastic programming | Multi-choice goal programming | Lagrangian relaxation
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Bargaining power as moderator of the “delay costs effect” in supply chain negotiations
قدرت چانه زنی به عنوان تعدیل کننده "اثر هزینه تأخیر" در مذاکرات زنجیره تامین-2021
This paper explores the extent to which bargaining power asymmetries among supply chain members moderate the effect that the delay costs of the setting exert on negotiation outcomes. First, we propose that the influence of delay costs on the initial gap between the bargaining demands of sellers and buyers (i.e., initial bargaining gap) decreases when buyers have a bargaining power advantage over sellers. Second, we posit that this moderation effect reduces the indirect effect that the delay costs have on negotiation outcomes (via the initial bargaining gap). To test these notions, we conduct a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment with undergraduate students from a large European university in which we manipulate the relative bargaining power and delay costs of the setting. We conduct our analysis with 292 observations. Our findings support our theoretical predictions. Specifically, results indicate that bargaining power moderates (i.e., reduces) the effect of the delay costs on negotiation processes by reducing their influence on the initial bargaining gap. Likewise, our analysis shows that because more powerful buyers are less likely to modify their behavior as a result of the delay costs, they face a higher risk of obtaining suboptimal bargaining profits.
Keywords: Relative bargaining power | Delay costs | Initial bargaining gap | Supply chain negotiations
مقاله انگلیسی
3 شیوع، همبستگی‌های اجتماعی-جمعیتی و دانشگاهی اختلال وسواسی جبری در دانشجویان دانشکده علوم پزشکی کاربردی دانشگاه ام القرا
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 21
مقدمه: مطالعاتی که شیوع وسواس جبری را در منطقه عربستان سعودی نشان می‌دهد بسیار اندک است و بیشتر در نمونه جمعیتی دانشجویان پزشکی و پیراپزشکی وجود دارد. هدف از این مطالعه برآورد شیوع علائم وسواس اجباری در یک نمونه جامعه دانشجویان علوم پزشکی کاربردی بود. علاوه بر این، ارتباط بین علائم وسواسی جبری و متغیرهای اجتماعی-جمعیتی و چندین جنبه از زندگی دانشگاهی بررسی شد.
روشها: در این مطالعه مقطعی 404 دانشجوی دانشگاه متعلق به چهار بخش به کار گرفته شدند. ابزارهایی که در این مطالعه استفاده شد، شامل معیارهای ارزیابی وسواس جبری (OCI - R) ، DSM - IV برای تشخیص مقیاس درجه بندی شدت OCD و Y - BOCS بود. نتیجه اصلی اختلال وسواس جبری احتمالی است (امتیاز OCI - R> 21). دانشجویان با نمره بیشتر از 21 بیشتر از نظر وجود اختلال وسواس جبری با استفاده از معیارهای DSM - IV و Y - BOCS ارزیابی شدند.
یافته ها: شیوع OCS با ابزار غربالگری OCI-R 20% بود [95% CI(19.902-20.098)]. شیوع واقعی OCD تأیید شده 5.06٪ بود [95% CI(4.39-6.12)]. وجود OCD احتمالی در دانشجویان گروه آزمایشگاه پزشکی بسیار زیاد بود [002/0 = p و95% CI(31.3-3.33) [. ارتباط مهمی بین حضور OCS و عدم رضایت از انتخاب دوره [001/0 = p ، 95٪ CI (1.38 - 3.92)] ، احساس طرد شدن [0.004 = p ، 95٪ CI (1.39 - 5.88]) و علائم افسردگی [0001/0 = p و CI (8/1 - 89/1)] وجود داشت. نمونه ما به زنان در سن دانشگاه محدود بود، بنابراین تفسیر شیوع قابل تعمیم نیست.
نتیجه گیری: وجود چنین اختلالی احتمالاً بر عملکرد تحصیلی ، کیفیت زندگی و روابط بین فردی تأثیر می گذارد ، شناسایی و درمان در زمان مناسب به بهبود عملکرد تحصیلی و کیفیت زندگی کمک می کند.
کلمات کلیدی: وسواس جبری | علائم وسواسی جبری | دانشجویان پزشکی و پیراپزشکی | اختلال روانی
مقاله ترجمه شده
4 Biomass supply chain coordination for remote communities: A game-theoretic modeling and analysis approach
هماهنگی زنجیره تأمین زیست توده برای جوامع از راه دور: رویکرد مدل سازی و تحلیل نظری بازی-2021
Biomass, as one of the most available renewable energies, could reduce dependency on fossil fuels and the consequent environmental impacts. There is a need for biomass supply chain management, which is managing bioenergy production from harvesting feedstock to energy conversion facilities. In case of remote communities, bioenergy adoption requires dealing with dispersed geographies of suppliers and places of consumption with small scales of energy demand. As such, coordination plays a key role in increasing the efficiency of the biomass supply chain network through bundling of demand and thus improving the economy of scale. This paper employs a game-theoretic approach to formulate a coordinated biomass supply chain with three echelons including suppliers, hubs, and energy convertors. To investigate the strategic interactions of participants, three decision making structure scenarios have been considered under Stackelberg game providing insights into the impact of power distribution, the role of side payments in enforcing the flow of decisions, and the resulting efficiency and performance improvements. In doing so, a case study bioenergy supply chain for three northern Canadian communities is explored to demonstrate the application of the proposed formulation, solution methods, and the practicality and significance of the adopted approach and outcomes for remote communities.
Keywords: Bioenergy | Supply chains | Coordination | Remote communities | Game theory | Mathematical Program with Equilibrium | Constraints (MPEC)
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Barriers to sustainability in humanitarian medical supply chains
موانع پایداری در زنجیره های تأمین پزشکی بشردوستانه-2021
Medical and pharmaceutical products (MPP) are critical elements in humanitarian relief efforts. Relief operations are often burdened with inappropriate and unusable MPP, which leads to the wastage of resources and causes harm to the environment. This study investigates MPP management and facilitates the adoption of sustainability practices in the humanitarian medical supply chain. The study identifies 20 potential barriers for sustainability and categorises them into six different issues (material, operational, logistics, human, funding, and exogenous). Fuzzy best-worst method and analytic network process methodologies were adopted to prioritise barriers according to their degree of influence. Findings from the study suggest that stakeholders should focus attention on the material, operations, and logistical issues. Poor compliance with the World Health Organisation guidelines is reported as the most significant barrier to sustainability. Long-term collaboration and promotion of cash-based donation are suggested as suitable alternatives to product donation. The key recommendations of the study are to sensitise donors and media regarding donation practices and disaster relief victim requirements, build local capacity, design coordination mechanisms, and develop a performance measurement system incorporating the triple bottom line of sustainability. The study outcome reveals connections between barriers to sustainability and sheds light on the socioenvironmental aspect of donations. The study lays a foundation for future research, exploring how to better enable sustainability in the relief supply chain.
Keywords: Humanitarian medical supply chain | Fuzzy best-worst method | Analytic network process | Barrier | Sustainability | Pharmaceuticals
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Production decisions of a closed-loop supply chain considering remanufacturing and refurbishing under government subsidy
تصمیمات تولید یک زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته با توجه به بازسازی و نوسازی تحت یارانه دولت-2021
Remanufacturing and refurbishing, as two essential strategies in the sector of reverse logistics, play a vital role in the area of sustainable development. With the increasing concerns on the environment friendly supply chain by the general public, we construct two remanufacturing models dominated by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the independent remanufacturer (IR) based on the auto parts market which provides new products, remanufactured products and refurbished products. Considering the remanufacturing subsidy and the market environment parameters, we analyze the full-remanufacturing and partial-remanufacturing using the Stackelberg and Cournot duopoly game models. We then obtain the equilibrium strategies for each of these scenarios. We further carry out sensitivity analysis for the two remanufacturing models and investigate the impact of the remanufacturing subsidy on these two models. The findings in this paper enable us to compare the remanufacturing modes and show how the equilibrium outcome depends on the key model parameters. In the comparison and numerical analysis, they are revealed that (i) the improvement on the quality level of the refurbished products is always unfavorable to the quality level and the production quantity of both the new and the remanufactured products, especially in the OEM remanufacturing model; (ii) subsidy is ineffective in the IR remanufacturing mode when the remanufacturing cost is low; (iii) the IR remanufacturing outperforms the OEM remanufacturing in both economic benefits and social welfare, when the cost of remanufacturing and the customer willingness to pay for remanufacturing products are low, and the quality of refurbished products is high. These findings have potential implications for enterprise remanufacturing production and government policy-making in complex market environments.
Keywords: Remanufacturing | refurbishing | quality level | government subsidy | game model
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Gestational diabetes and fetal growth in twin compared with singleton pregnancies
دیابت بارداری و رشد جنین در دوقلوها در مقایسه با بارداری های تک قلویی-2021
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated fetal growth in singleton pregnancies but may affect twin pregnancies differently because of the slower growth of twin fetuses during the third trimester of pregnancy and their greater predisposition to fetal growth restriction.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association of gestational diabetes mellitus with longitudinal fetal growth in twin pregnancies and to compare this association with that observed in singleton pregnancies.
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of all women with a singleton or twin pregnancy who were followed up at a single tertiary referral center between January 2011 and April 2020. Data on estimated fetal weight and individual fetal biometric indices were extracted from ultrasound examinations of eligible women. Generalized linear models were used to model and compare the change in fetal weight and individual biometric indices as a function of gestational age between women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus in twin pregnancies and between women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus in singleton pregnancies. The primary outcome was estimated fetal weight as a function of gestational age. The secondary outcomes were longitudinal growth of individual fetal biometric indices and the rate of small for gestational age and large for gestational age at birth.
RESULTS: A total of 26,651 women (94,437 ultrasound examinations) were included in the analysis: 1881 with a twin pregnancy and 24,770 with a singleton pregnancy. The rate of gestational diabetes mellitus in the twin and singleton groups was 9.6% (n¼180) and 7.6% (n¼1893), respectively. The estimated fetal weight in singleton pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than that in pregnancies without gestational diabetes mellitus (P<.001) starting at approximately 30 weeks of gestation. The differences remained similar after adjusting for maternal age, chronic hypertension, nulliparity, and neonatal sex (P<.001). In twin pregnancies, fetal growth was similar between pregnancies with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (P¼.105 and P¼.483 for unadjusted and adjusted models, respectively). The findings were similar to the association of gestational diabetes mellitus with the risk of large for gestational fetuses and the growth of each biometric index. When stratified by type of gestational diabetes mellitus treatment, twin pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with accelerated fetal growth only in the subgroup of women with medically treated gestational diabetes mellitus (P<.001), which represented 12% (n¼21) of the twin pregnancy group with gestational diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: In contrast to singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus is less likely to be associated with accelerated fetal growth. This finding has raised the question of whether the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus and the blood glucose targets in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus should be individualized for twin pregnancies.
Key words: gestational diabetes mellitus | growth | macrosomia | large for gestational age | multifetal pregnancy | twin pregnancy
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Message personalization and real-time adaptation as next innovations in sport sponsorship management? How run-of-play and team affiliation affect viewer response
شخصی سازی پیام و سازگاری در زمان واقعی به عنوان نوآوری های بعدی در مدیریت حمایت ورزشی؟ نحوه اجرای بازی و وابستگی به تیم چگونه بر پاسخ بینندگان تأثیر می گذارد-2021
The digitization of sports content and technological innovations in sports media offer disruptive new ways to adapt sponsor messages to real-time events during live broadcasts. To date, sponsorship management mostly ignores the run-of-play and viewers’ team affiliation. This paper seeks to demonstrate how a dynamic management approach can contribute to greater sponsor message efficiency. For this purpose, real-time data were collected during live broadcasts of the 2018 soccer World Cup. Arousal was captured using changes in heart rate, attention to sponsor brands was measured via eye tracking, and in-play betting odds were continuously obtained from a sports betting website. Mixed models predict viewer arousal and sponsor brand attention from biometric and betting data. Evidence is provided for how run-of-play and viewer characteristics affect sponsor message communication outcomes. The applicability of the models for distinctive sponsor exposure tactics is demonstrated, and the theoretical and managerial implications are outlined.
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Negotiation-sequence, pricing, and ordering decisions in a three-echelon supply chain: A coopetitive-game analysis
توالی مذاکره ، قیمت گذاری و تصمیمات سفارش در یک زنجیره تأمین سه پله ای: تجزیه و تحلیل بازی مشارکتی-2021
We investigate a three-echelon supply chain in which a distributor at the middle echelon negotiates two wholesale price contracts with his upstream manufacturer and downstream retailer. In the first stage, the distributor decides on whether to first negotiate with the manufacturer or with the retailer; in the second (combined, noncooperative-cooperative, game) stage, the two negotiations are conducted sequentially. We find that the supply chain can be coordinated if the distributor first negotiates with the retailer. The distributor should choose the negotiation sequence for supply chain coordination, if he has a sufficiently large (small) relative bargaining power in the negotiation with the manufacturer (the retailer). We also extend our analysis to the cases in which the distributor and the manufacturer negotiate a buyback or two-part tariff contract, and draw similar outcomes when the distributor first negotiates with the retailer. In addition, under the two-part tariff contract, the distributor prefers to first negotiate with the retailer if the manufacturer has a sufficiently high disagreement payoff whereas, under the buyback contract, the distributor always prefers to first negotiate with the firm with a stronger bargaining power. Moreover, the two-part tariff (buyback) contract cannot (can) always coordinate the supply chain.
Keywords: Supply chain management | Negotiation sequence | Pricing | Coopetitive game | Generalized Nash bargaining solution
مقاله انگلیسی
10 افزایش هوشمندی به منظور بهره وری ، زیست پذیری و پایداری
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 11
این کتاب به دنبال توسعه چارچوبی برای بررسی تجربیات شهرهای هوشمند در حوزه های قضایی مختلف در سراسر آسیا اقیانوسیه ، قاره آمریکا ، اروپا و انگلستان ، خاورمیانه و آفریقا است. این چارچوب ، که در فصل 2 شرح داده شده ، برای درک محرک ها ، هنرمندان و نتایج سیاست ها و همچنین سیستم عامل های فناوری است که پایه و اساس نوآوری هایی است که باعث افزایش بهره وری ، پایداری و زیست پذیری شده اند. در حالی که مقیاس ابتکارات شهرهای هوشمند در زمینه های مختلف جغرافیایی متفاوت است ، این مسئله که چگونه مردم به سوی نوآوری روی بیاورند و چگونه آن را در کل شهر قابل استفاده کرد؛ اهمیت به سزایی دارد. این کتاب عوامل اصلی عملکردهای فعلی شهرهای هوشمند را در چندین مکان مشخص بیان می کند. همچنین به شرح عوامل اصلی و نقش های آنها - دولت ها ، صنایع خصوصی ، شرکت های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) ، شهروندان و کاربران نهایی در هر زمینه می پردازد. شناسایی محرکها ، هنرمندان و نتایج کلیدی به صورت سازمان یافته، بینش مهمی در سایر حوزه های قضایی در مورد چگونگی بازنگری یا تدوین بهتر سیاستها و برنامه¬های فعلی و آینده¬ی جنبش¬های نوآوری در زمینه فناوری و اجتماعی فراهم می کند.
مقاله ترجمه شده
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