Unravelling narratives of water management: Reflections on epistemic uncertainty in the first cycle of implementation of the Water Framework Directive in southern Spain
تفکیک روایات مدیریت آب: بازتاب در عدم قطعیت معرفتی در اولین چرخه اجرای دستورالعمل چارچوب آب در جنوب اسپانیا-2018
The participatory planning model promoted by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) leads to the emergence of new questions on how to define problems, how to know if something is a problem and for whom. We propose the concept of epistemic uncertainty to assess adaptive governance in the context of broadening of narratives about how water should be managed. For this purpose, we analyse how framings of the problem-solution duality with regards to water management evolve throughout the first cycle of implementation of the WFD in a semi-arid river basin in Southern Spain. We identify five narratives on water management: supply-side management, demand-side management, deep ecology, rural livelihoods and knowledge and governance. The paper con tributes to the adaptive governance literature by arguing that epistemic uncertainty cannot be treated as a technical problem, and dealing with pluralism and accommodating evolving narratives are essential to adapt ability in governance. We submit that the implementation of the WFD should take into account stakeholders’ uneven capacities to influence water management and the hindrances to implementation that ensue. With regard to the study area, we find that (i) narrative pluralism is handled through ambiguity and coalition strategies based on large infrastructural investments, traditional in the Spanish context, (ii) unexpected events such as the economic crisis had greater influence on water management than participatory processes, and (iii) little evo lution was observed in the perception of problems after implementation of the plan and mistrust of the water administration rose during the period analysed.
Keywords: Adaptive governance ، Epistemic uncertainty ، Narratives ، Participatory planning ، Pluralism ، Water Framework Directive
Participatory artisanal fisheries management in islands_ Application to the Canary Islands (Spain)
مدیریت مشارکتی ماهیگیری در جزایر. درخواست برای جزایر قناری (اسپانیا)-2017
Socio-economic development of small-island fishing communities is greatly dependent on local coastal and marine resources. However, illegal fishing and aggressive practices in insular ecosystems lead to over exploitation and environmental deterioration. Moreover, a lack of scientific data increases uncertainty and prevents the adequate monitoring of marine resources. This paper focuses on the integration of local fishing communities into decision-making processes with the aim of promoting artisanal fishing on the Island of Tenerife (the Canary Islands), as a way to preserve the marine ecosystem and socio-economic development of traditional cofradias (fishers organisations). A qualitative methodological framework, based on participatory problem solution trees and focus groups, was used to identify the main factors impeding the sustainable development of the artisanal fishing sector on the island and to elaborate collective proposals with policy implications. The fishing community involved identified four main issues that are maintaining an unsustainable island fishery: 1) Over-exploitation; 2) Poor self-management of cofradias and commercialisation problems; 3) Fisher individu alism and low co-management strategies, and 4) Illegal fishing increase vs. artisanal fishing decline. Results show the required policy enhancements to tackle them and the need to adapt regulations to the local situation.
Keywords: Artisanal fishing | Local knowledge | Participatory planning | Small Islands
Introduction: Mapping cultural intangibles
مقدمه: نقشه ناملموس فرهنگی-2016
Cultural mapping is a practical, participatory planning and development tool and an emerging mode of research (Duxbury, Garrett-Petts & MacLennan, 2015). While cultural mapping has come to be closely associated with professional cultural planning practices,1 its recent adoption within a variety of disciplinary areas means that “traditional” approaches are being re-thought and expanded, with cultural mapping practices adopting new methodologies, perspectives, and objectives as they evolve. This growing, widespread interest in cultural mapping reflects the spatial, placed-based turn in cultural and artistic studies, architecture and urban design, geography, sociology, cultural policy and planning, and e-media studies, among other areas.
Keywords: Mapping culture | Making the intangible visible