Qualitative and quantitative analysis of patent data in nanomedicine for bridging the gap between research activities and practical applications
تجزیه و تحلیل کمی و کمی از داده های ثبت اختراع در نانو پزشکی برای پر کردن شکاف بین فعالیت های تحقیقاتی و کاربردهای عملی-2020
Nanomedicines have made a great breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease, but there are still significant challenges to make a leap from the scientific discovery to the practical and clinical success. Herein, we contribute to establish effective strategies that can bridge the gaps by an integrated and balanced analysis of patent literatures on the nanomedicine. Since most of successful commercialization of technologies stems from patents, it is important to comprehensively analyze the patent information. Unfortunately, many previous studies of patent analyses for technological trends and strategies are dependent on only quantitative analyses using structured data such as keyword networks and indicators, thus, these studies are difficult to offer detailed technological key components and trends on scientific perspectives. To address these problems, the present study performs qualitative and quantitative analysis using both structured and unstructured patent data, and provides evolving detailed trends in nanomedicine fields from a scientific point of view. Furthermore, upcoming advances in strategies regarding clinical needs, commercial events and strategies of potential leading groups in nanomedicine could be catalogued. Our analytical method and the results of several meaningful patterns and trends were applied to forecast the future practical issue of nanomedicines.
Keywords: Patent analysis | Structured and unstructured data | Nanotechnology | Nanomedicine | Material science | Surface chemistry | Pharmaceutics | Medical science | Patent indicator
Big Data Analytics for Venture Capital Application：Towards Innovation Performance Improvement
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ برای برنامه های سرمایه گذاری: به سمت بهبود عملکرد نوآوری-2020
By using the panel date of Chinese enterprises, this paper analyzes the influence of venture capital on innovation performance. In this paper, the number of patent application and the patent quality(invention patent applications, number of effective patents, IPC number of international patent classification, and patent claims) are used to measure the innovation performance of enterprises, and the regression results show that the innovation performance is significantly promoted by the venture capital; for industries with higher dependence on external financing and high technology intensity and areas with better protection of property rights, venture capital promotes innovation performance more significantly. In this paper, it further distinguishes the characteristics of venture capital institutions, and finds that the promotion effect of non-state-owned venture capital on innovation performance is significantly greater than that of state-owned venture capital; the venture capital institutions with high reputation and high network capital play a more significant role in promoting innovation performance.
Keywords: Data panel model | Big data | Innovation performance
The AI techno-economic complex System: Worldwide landscape, thematic subdomains and technological collaborations
سیستم پیچیده فنی اقتصادی هوش مصنوعی : چشم انداز جهانی ، زیر دامنه های موضوعی و همکاری های فناوری-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is playing a major role in the new paradigm shift occurring across the technological landscape. After a series of alternate seasons starting in the 60s, AI is now experiencing a new spring. Nevertheless, although it is spreading throughout our economies and societies in multiple ways, the absence of standardised classifications prevents us from obtaining a measure of its pervasiveness. In addition, AI cannot be identified as part of a specific sector, but rather as a transversal technology because the fields in which it is applied do not have precise boundaries. In this work, we address the need for a deeper understanding of this complex phenomenon by investigating economic agents’ involvement in industrial activities aimed to supply AI-related goods and services, and AI-related R&D processes in the form of patents and publications. In order to conduct this extensive analysis, we use a complex systems approach through the agent-artifact space model, which identifies the core dimensions that should be considered. Therefore, by considering the geographic location of the involved agents and their organisation types (i.e., firms, governmental institutions, and research institutes), we (i) provide an overview of the worldwide presence of agents, (ii) investigate the patterns in which AI technological subdomains subsist and scatter in different parts of the system, and (iii) reveal the size, composition, and topology of the AI R&D collaboration network. Based on a unique data collection of multiple micro-based data sources and supported by a methodological framework for the analysis of techno-economic segments (TES), we capture the state of AI in the worldwide landscape in the period 2009–2018. As expected, we find that major roles are played by the US, China, and the EU28. Nevertheless, by measuring the system, we unveil elements that provide new, crucial information to support more conscious discussions in the process of policy design and implementation.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | Complex systems | Agent-artifact space | Natural language processing | Semantic analysis | Network analysis
Challenges of 3D printing technology for manufacturing biomedical products: A case study of Malaysian manufacturing firms
چالش های فن آوری چاپ سه بعدی برای تولید محصولات زیست پزشکی: یک مطالعه موردی از شرکت های تولید مالزی-2020
Additive manufacturing has attracted increasing attention worldwide, especially in the healthcare, biomedical, aerospace, and construction industries. In Malaysia, insufficient acceptance of this technology by local industries has resulted in a call for government and local practitioners to promulgate the development of this technology for various industries, particularly for biomedical products. The current study intends to frame the challenges endured by biomedical industries who use 3D printing technology for their manufacturing processes. Qualitative methods, particularly in-depth interviews, were used to identify the challenges faced by manufacturing firms when producing 3D printed biomedical products. This work was able to identify twelve key challenges when deploying additive manufacturing in biomedical products and these include issues related to binder selection, poor mechanical properties, low-dimensional accuracy, high levels of powder agglomeration, nozzle size, distribution size, limited choice of materials, texture and colour, lifespan of materials, customization of fit and design, layer height, and, lastly, build-failure. Furthermore, there also are six challenges in the management of manufacturing biomedical products using 3D printing technology, and these include staff re-education, product pricing, limited guidelines, cyber-security issues, marketing, and patents and copyright. This study discusses the reality faced by 3D printing players when producing biomedical products in Malaysia, and presents a primary reference for practitioners in other developing countries.
Keywords: Business | Biomedical products | Additive manufacturing | 3D printing technology
The copycat conundrum: The double-edged sword of crowdfunding
معمای کپی برداری: شمشیر دو لبه سرمایه گذاری جمعی-2020
Crowdfunding has proliferated over the past decade, creating various platforms on which new entrepreneurs signal their value to potential backers in order to attract funding. The boons of crowdfunding have blinded both practitioners and scholars alike, leaving potential negative unintended consequences underexplored. Copycats, for example, are a potential problem for crowdfunding ventures. In this article, we examine the consequences of signaling to these ill-intentioned, opportunistic audiences on crowdfunding platforms and propose a solution to aid novice entrepreneurs in making a more informed decision on platform selection. Specifically, we provide guidance on when to select an open, semi-open, or closed crowdfunding platform to reduce the impact of copycats. We conclude with prescriptive advice to novice entrepreneurs.
KEYWORDS : Crowdfunding | Entrepreneurship | Copycats | Patents | Speed to market | Inimitability
Patent enforcement across 51 countries – Patent enforcement index 1998–2017
اجرای حق ثبت اختراع در 51 کشور - شاخص اجرای ثبت اختراع 1998–2017-2020
Indices are central for comparing the strength of patent systems across countries in international business re- search, intellectual property management and policymaking. However, existing approaches rely on book laws while most variance across countries emerges from enforcement. We address this weakness and present the Patent Enforcement Index which tracks diﬀerences in patent enforcement for 51 countries between 1998 and 2017. We utilize novel ﬁrm-level enforcement data and extend the conceptual framework of the patent systems strength index provided by Papageorgiadis et al. (2014). The new index reveals previously uncaptured volatility in patent enforcement and can be decomposed into three topical sub-indices.
Keywords: Patents | Patent enforcement | National patent systems index | Intellectual property | Patent system development
The productivity of Chinese patents: The role of business area and ownership type
بهره وری ثبت اختراعات چینی: نقش حوزه تجاری و نوع مالکیت-2018
Chinas unrivalled growth in patent filings and grants, enhanced by government policy, reflects a strategic shift in transforming a labour-intensive economy to an innovation-driven incentives system. This study employs a patent dataset from SIPO to examine the productivity of Chinese patents in improving public firm financial performance. Evidence suggest an overall positive performance elasticity to patent production particularly among firms with efficiency-driven and customer-focused operating activities. Patents are found to have no impact or even negative impact on financial performance in other business areas. Patents generally exhibit a constant return to scale and appear as a complementary input to physical assets but a substitute to labour. Non-state owned public firms have performed consistently well throughout, regardless the policy changes. The productivity of granted patents of state owned firms has improved following the introduction of government reforms specifically aimed at promoting innovation.
keywords: China |Patents |Firm performance |Government policy
Innovation externalities and the customer/supplier link
خارجی بودن نوآوری و ارتباط با مشتری/ تامین کننده-2018
This paper proposes a novel channel through which innovation externalities can affect firm performance. I find cross-sectional evidence that the positive innovation outputs of customer firms increase their supplier profitability as measured by firm ROE. This result is robust to the inclusion of industry fixed effect, a control for both supplier and customer characteristics, such as ROE, advertisement expenditure, capital expenditure, firm age, industry concentration, institutional ownership, dividend yield, and a control for industry spillover or geographical spillover. To identify the causal effect of customer innovation outputs on supplier performance, I study an exogenous shock—State Street Bank and Trust Company v. Signature Financial Group, Inc.—and find that an increase in granted customer patents causes an improvement in future supplier performance. This effect is mainly driven by the demand channel and the knowledge diffusion channel from customers to suppliers.
keywords: Innovation| Patent| Spillover| Customer/supplier link
Innovative efficiency and stock returns: Should we care about nonlinearity?
کارآمدی نوآروانه و برگشت های سهام: ما باید به غیرخطی بودن توجه داشته باشیم؟-2018
Recent research suggests that a firm’s innovative efficiency (IE) is a strong positive predictor of future stock returns. Using a panel of 3084 international firms over the 1999–2015 period, this study attests to the predictive power of IE for subsequent returns, but disputes the linearity of the underlying relationship. Specifically, portfolio analyses and Fama and MacBeth (1973) regressions demonstrate that IE shares a robust U-shaped relationship with future stock returns, market valuations, and operating performance. This evidence is new to the literature and bears important implications for investment and security analysis, innovative-intensive firms, policy-making, and academic research as well.
keywords: Innovative efficiency| Patents| Research and development| Nonlinearity
What Can Big Data on Academic Interest Reveal about a Drug? Reflections in Three Major US Databases
چه چیزی می تواند داده های بزرگ در مورد علاقه ی علمی به دارو نشان دهد؟ بازتاب در سه پایگاه داده اصلی ایالات متحده-2018
The different stages of the life cycle of a drug – ‘prenatal’ stage, birth of a drug, rapid growth, maturity and stability, decline, and status before ‘death’ – are reflected in the three following databases: journal articles (PubMed— www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed); patents (US Patent Office—http://partfl1. uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htlm); and approved drugs (FDA – www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index/cfm). These data bases are huge, from authoritative sources, correctly classified, and they properly link different datasets. Analysis of such data can uncover hidden patterns important for the assessment of drug status and may also yield some predictions regarding its future prospects. Drug-related, publication-based academic bibliographic records are especially numerous and support the development of various scientometric indices. In combination with information from other types of databases, they can outline various trends in pharmacol ogy. Scientometric indices can be classified into those indicating a change in the status of a drug, and those assessing the chances for success, or even drug discontinuation. Here, we present big data analytics on publication-based academic interest in two segments: (i) description of scientometric indices and (ii) their applications for the assessment of the status of a drug.