The evolution of founder identity as an authenticity work process
تکامل هویت بنیانگذار به عنوان یک فرایند کار اصالت-2020
Research has shown founders identities have a significant impact on their ventures. Yet, the process through which founder identity evolves and takes shape remains relatively unexplained. This paper explores the evolution of founder identity through a qualitative study of first-time sustainable entrepreneurs, and their stakeholders, over a three years period. Our analysis revealed the importance of personal identity, the aspect of the self that defines a person as a unique individual based largely on values and beliefs. We found that first-time founders sought to align their personal identity with their evolving founder identity over time. Based on these findings we theorize a process model of founder authenticity work, defined as the activities founders engage in to feel and seem authentic while engaged in entrepreneurial action. This study thus details the significance of personal identity as a guidepost for founder identity evolution, complementing extant founder identity studies focused on role and social identities. In addition, our analysis enriches the current conceptualization of authenticity in entrepreneurship research by linking it to validation of personal identity and highlighting its negotiated nature in the evolution of authentic founder identities.
Keywords: Founder identity | Personal identity | Authenticity | Sustainable entrepreneurship | Qualitative methods
Neuromarketing as a strategic tool for predicting how Instagramers have an influence on the personal identity of adolescents and young people in Spain
بازار یابی به عنوان ابزاری استراتژیک برای پیش بینی چگونگی تأثیرگذاری اینستاگرام در هویت شخصی نوجوانان و جوانان اسپانیا-2020
Instagram is the fastest growing social network and has an audience that shares lifestyles related to their interest in beauty and fashion. However, the exposure of adolescents to images that promote the slender beauty ideal can lead to body dissatisfaction, as they place a lot of importance on the likes and comments they receive regarding the comparison of their appearance with that of other users. The popularity of influencers and their opinion leadership has resulted in the convergence of a given body image with the promotion of products and brands. Through the use of neuromarketing techniques –attention through eye tracking, and emotion using galvanic skin response–, the objective of this research is to determine the cognitive perception that Spanish adolescents and young people have of the stimuli transmitted by influencers on Instagram, surpassing classic content analysis of social networks and offering the innovative technique of registering unconscious reactions of the audience, both toward the body image as well as toward the brands promoted by influencers who are akin to the audience. The results suggest that adolescents place greater attention and emotional intensity on the nude body appeal of influencers compared to young adults, and show only scarce interest in brands.
Keywords: Psychology | Marketing | Social media | Influencer | Instagram | Neuromarketing | Body image | Personal identity | Brand management | Eye tracking | Galvanic skin response
Social identity and support for counteracting tobacco company marketing that targets vulnerable populations
هویت اجتماعی و حمایت برای مقابله با بازاریابی شرکت دخانیات که اهداف جمعیت آسیب پذیر را هدف قرار می دهد-2017
Rationale: Tobacco companies use advertising to target vulnerable populations, including youth, racial/ ethnic minorities, and sexual minorities. Objective: We sought to examine how personal identity affects support for population-specific antismoking advertisements that could serve as countermeasures to industry marketing practices. Methods: In 2014e2015, we surveyed probability phone samples of adults and adolescents (n ¼ 6,139) and an online convenience sample of adults (n ¼ 4,137) in the United States. We experimentally varied the description of tobacco industry marketing practices (no description, general, or specific to a target group). The four prevention target groups were teens; African Americans; Latinos; and gays, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs). Participants were either members or non-members of their prevention target group. Results: Support was highest for anti-smoking advertisements targeting teens, moderate for Latinos and African Americans, and lowest for GLBs. In-group members expressed higher support than out-group members when anti-smoking advertisements targeted African Americans, Latinos, and GLBs (all p < 0.05). However, when teens were the target prevention group, in-group members expressed lower support than out-group members (p < 0.05). The description of industry marketing practices did not have an effect. Results were similar across the phone and online studies. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the public strongly supports advertisements to prevent smoking among teens, but support for similar efforts among other vulnerable populations is comparatively low. Anti-smoking campaigns for vulnerable populations may benefit from a greater understanding of the role of social identity in shaping public support for such campaigns.
Keywords: Tobacco control | Cigarette smoking | Health disparities | Vulnerable populations | Social identity