Improved optical and electrical properties for heterojunction solar cell using Al2O3/ITO double-layer anti-reflective coating
بهبود خواص نوری و الکتریکی برای سلول های خورشیدی ناهمگون با استفاده از پوشش ضد انعکاس دو لایه Al2O3/ITO-2021
Silicon heterojunction solar cells have been gaining remarkable attention in the photovoltaic industry in recent years owing to their low temperature coefficient and high efficiency. This study aimed to maximize the short circuit current density (Jsc), which is directly correlated with the absorbance of the solar cells. An advanced ray tracking model and hall effect measurement was used to improve the optical properties of Al2O3/ITO as a double layered anti-reflection coating (DLARC) on the solar cell. RF/DC power sputtering system was used to deposit ITO layer, while atomic layer deposition was used to deposit Al2O3 on ITO to create a DLARC. An average decrease in reflection from 9.33% to 4.74% and enhancement in EQE from 76.89% to 84.34% were observed for the DLARC in the wavelength spectrum at 300–1100 nm. It also exhibited a higher Jsc value of 41.13 mA/cm2 and maximum conversion efficiency of 21.6%. The findings of both simulation and experiments showed that the Al2O3/ITO DLARC has better anti-reflection properties than a single-layer ITO coating.
Keywords: Silicon heterojunction solar cell | Double layered anti-reflection coating | Optical Properties | Electrical Properties
The effect of contract methods on the lead time of a two-level photovoltaic supply chain: revenue-sharing vs: cost-sharing
تأثیر روش های قرارداد بر زمان سربازی یک زنجیره تأمین فتوولتائیک دو سطح: تقسیم درآمد در مقابل تقسیم هزینه-2021
In the photovoltaic industry, a large number of photovoltaic power plants are not delivered according to construction schedules, resulting in considerable impacts on various stakeholders. Lead time has been identiﬁed as one of the key issues that urgently needs to be resolved. In this paper, we study a two-level photovoltaic supply chain consisting of the customer, the assembler, and the module manufacturer. The basic model, revenue-sharing model, and cost-sharing model are established to analyze the lead time of the module manufacturer and the assembler considering the decline of government subsidies. The results indicate that the cost-sharing contract can effectively control the lead time of the module manufacturer, but the revenue-sharing contract cannot exert this control. Furthermore, if the government subsidy drops from 0.0553 USD/kWh to 0.01195 USD/kWh, the production capacity will be reduced by approximately 37% due to the reduction in installed capacity, and the lead time will decrease by about 27%. For the module manufacturer, when the non-production capacity costs drop by 20%, the proﬁt increases by about 58%. However, when the production capacity costs are reduced by 20%, the proﬁt increases by only about 6%.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Photovoltaic industry | Lead time | Supply chain | Revenue-sharing | Cost-sharing