دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Policing::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Policing

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 22
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Stance and alignment in police traffic stops: The case of citizen account solicitations
موضع و هماهنگی در ترافیک پلیس متوقف می شود: مورد درخواست های حساب شهروندی-2021
This article demonstrates how the design and positioning of citizens account solicitations in traffic stops (e.g., “What did I do?”) provide resources for citizens to show, and officers to see, their stance toward and willingness to align with the business of the encounter. With design, citizens use ‘self’, ‘other’, ‘neutral’, and ‘self-other’ formulations that allocate responsibility for the stop in ways that support or challenge the stops legitimacy. With positioning, they show their willingness to align or not to the business of the encounter. Stance and alignment work interdependently with the account solicitation as a dispreferred initiating action (Robinson and Bolden, 2010) to enhance, or aggravate, its mitigated or unmitigated character, with consequences for citizens experience of being policed. This research uses the method of conversation analysis and draws from a large collection of police dashboard camera videos from several American policing agencies in addition to several videos posted on Youtube.
keywords: تعامل پلیس و شهروندی | حساب ها | دعوتنامه حساب | حالت | هم ترازی | دوره آموزشی | Police-citizen interaction | Accounts | Account solicitations | Stance | Alignment | Action formation
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Case studies on illegal production of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine within Fujian China
مطالعات موردی در تولید غیرقانونی افدرین / شبه افریدین در فوجیان چین-2020
Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine (EPH) is the most common precursor for the manufacture of methamphetamine and is controlled within China via criminal law and government regulations. Therefore, it is of great significance to systematically study the cases of illicit production of EPH in order to aid timely investigation into the production of precursor drugs. According to the literature, there are no comprehensive case studies on the illicit production of EPH. To address this, 50 cases involving the illicit production of EPH from Fujian Province in China were comprehensively explored and the quantitative data of the 762 collected samples were directly compared. In terms of the timeframe these cases occurred in, the results show that the number of such cases in Fujian Province increased significantly from 2012 to 2013 (10 cases -15 cases), but the number of cases decreased rapidly in 2016 (4 cases). Across the region of interest, the illegal production of EPH was mainly observed in Longyan, accounting for 32 cases (64.0 % of the total cases). Forty-two cases (84.0 % of the total cases) were located in remote mountains, abandoned pig farms, chicken farms and factories. In terms of the synthetic methodology used, initially (up until 2013) only the extraction of EPH from the ephedra plant and from commercially available tablets was observed. The manufacture of EPH via a direct chemical synthesis was only observed in this region after 2013 at which point a significant drop in the extraction methodologies was identified. The quality of the samples and the appearance of semi-finished products was shown to vary significantly across the cases with sample color ranging from light yellow, brown, tan for both seized solids and liquids. This data set gives some insights into the local issues specifically around EPH production in Chinese provinces and goes some way to help inform policing strategies.
Keywords: Case studies | Illegal production | Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine | Seizure samples
مقاله انگلیسی
3 The ineffectiveness of observe and report patrols on crime
بی اثر بودن مشاهده و گزارش گشت ها در مورد جرم-2020
The deterrence effect of police on crime has been well established using modern quasi-experimental micro-econometric methods. Although the results from these studies uniformly suggest that police spending is cost justified, it is worth exploring whether police-like alternatives can deter crime even more cheaply. Unarmed private security personnel that conspicuously patrol a neighborhood have the potential to cheaply leverage the ability of police to be informed of crimes while also providing direct deterrence on their own. In the Fall of 2013, a neighborhood in Oakland, CA mounted a campaign to provide observe and report security patrols to augment the publicly provided policing in the area. While the initial effect of the additional security was a drop in crime, it quickly evaporated, calling into question the value of security forces that do not have the ability to apprehend criminals directly.
Keywords: Crime | Deterrence | Private security | Paul Blart mall cop
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Transition engineering of transport in megacities with case study on commuting in Beijing
مهندسی انتقالی از حمل و نقل در شهرهای بزرگ با مطالعه موردی در مورد رفت و آمد در پکن-2020
Private automobiles have been wildly popular around the world and have transformed the concept of personal mobility for the affluent. However, automobile-oriented development patterns have demonstrably degraded the quality of the city environment. The economic burden of transport infrastructure asset management, plus air pollution, CO2 emissions and congestion are pressing issues for all cities. City planners struggle with the issues of growth in travel demand and the costs of providing traffic management, parking, policing, and emergency services. The future of personal vehicle mobility and goods movements are particularly challenging, and it is difficult to imagine what the sustainable solutions could be for these wicked problems of transport in megacities. This paper explores urban form, transport activity and quality of life in future cities through the emerging discipline, Transition Engineering. The main methodology is the Interdisciplinary Transition Innovation, Management and Engineering (InTIME) approach, the outcome of which are innovative shift projects that directly step down the negative factors and step up in the quality of life while maintaining the access to social and economic activities. One shift project in Beijing is a new “Work Unit Retrofit” property development enterprise. Integrated land use is a popular idea, but the shift projects in this research answer the questions of “how” the transition to the future city occurs. This research demonstrates the new Transition Engineering approach to sustainable city development that results in actionable property and infrastructure development with financial and social benefits that can be clearly communicated to all stakeholders.
Keywords: Energy transition | Transition engineering | Future cities | Work unit | Adaptive capacity | Urban form | Cycling potential | Commute model
مقاله انگلیسی
5 The application of artificial intelligence in police interrogations: An analysis addressing the proposed effect AI has on racial and gender bias, cooperation, and false confessions
کاربرد هوش مصنوعی در بازجویی های پلیس: تحلیلی در مورد تأثیر پیشنهادی هوش مصنوعی بر تعصب نژادی و جنسیتی ، همکاری و اعترافات دروغین-2020
Research presented in this study examines the potentiality of artificial intelligence as an interrogator within a police interrogation to promote a non-biased environment in an effort to mitigate the ongoing racial and gender divide in statistics regarding false confessions. Ideally, artificial intelligence supplementation may help promote the elicitation of non-coerced, voluntary confessions. This study suggests that the racial and gender bias influencing false confessions may be due to the two fold bias occurring within the interrogator-to-suspect dynamic, referenced in this study as “the Bias-Uncooperative Loop.” It argues that applying artificial intelligence within the interrogation room may minimize the two fold bias occurring in the dynamic. It suggests the potential for cooperation between the two parties can be conditioned by programmable similarity; whereby artificial intelligence can mimic the racial, ethnic and/or cultural similarities of the suspect in question. This is reflected in research in different arenas (not inclusive to interrogations) to have an effect on enhanced comfortability and cooperation with AI. This paper assumes similar results within interrogations.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | Bias | Policing | Interrogations | Discrimination | Crime
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Police-related barriers to harm reduction linked to non-fatal overdose amongst sex workers who use drugs: Results of a community-based cohort in Metro Vancouver, Canada
موانع مربوط به پلیس در کاهش آسیب مرتبط با مصرف بیش از حد غیر کشنده در میان کارگران جنسی که مواد مخدر استفاده می کنند: نتایج یک گروه مبتنی در جامعه در مترو ونکوور ، کانادا-2020
Background: High rates of overdose and overdose-related mortality in North America represent a pressing health and social concern. Women sex workers face severe health and social inequities, which have been linked to structural factors including negative police interactions; however, little is known regarding the burden of overdose or how policing impacts overdose risk amongst sex workers who use drugs. Given this, we aimed to explore the independent effects of experiencing police-related barriers to harm reduction on non-fatal overdose amongst women sex workers who use drugs in Metro Vancouver, Canada over a 7.5-year period. Methods: Data were drawn from An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access (AESHA), a community-based open prospective cohort of women sex workers in Metro Vancouver, from 2010 to 2017. Using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we used a confounder modeling approach to identify the independent effect of experiencing police-related barriers to harm reduction strategies on non-fatal overdose amongst sex workers using drugs within the last six months at each study visit. Results: Amongst 624 participants, 7.7% overdosed within the last six months at baseline and 27.6% overdosed during the study period, contributing 287 non-fatal overdose events over the 7.5-year period. 68.6% reported police-related barriers to harm reduction strategies during the study. In a multivariate confounder model, exposure to police-related barriers to harm reduction strategies [AOR: 2.15, CI: 1.60–2.90] was independently associated with higher odds of non-fatal overdose after adjustment for key confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in the context of the current overdose crisis, adversarial policing practices may undermine access to lifesaving overdose prevention services and exacerbate overdose risks for marginalized women. Findings underscore the urgent need to scale-up access and remove barriers to progressive harm reduction strategies for women sex workers.
Keywords: Sex work | Drug overdose | Harm reduction | Women | Policing | Criminalization
مقاله انگلیسی
7 “Its like super structural” – Overdose experiences of youth who use drugs and police in three non-metropolitan cities across British Columbia
"این مانند ساختاری فوق العاده است" - تجربیات بیش از حد مصرف جوانان در سه شهر غیر کلانشهر بریتیش کلمبیا که از مواد مخدر و پلیس استفاده می کنند-2020
Introduction: Youth who use drugs (YWUD) are vulnerable to experience or encounter drug related overdose deaths. Fentanyl has increased the risks, calling greater attention to overdose. In response, there have been increases in harm reduction services and policies such as the Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act (GSDOA) which exempts people who witness an overdose and call 9–1–1 from being charged for possession of drugs. However, fear of police continues to be a barrier to calling 9–1–1. This paper focuses on the experiences of youth with police in overdose situations and their knowledge of GSDOA. Methods: Youth, aged 16–30, who had used drugs at least weekly, and had encountered police in the past year were recruited between May 2017 and June 2018 in three non-metropolitan cities in British Columbia, Canada. 38 participants completed qualitative interviews asking them about their experiences with police, overdose, decisions to call 9–1–1, and their understanding of the GSDOA. Their responses were coded in NVIVO and analyzed using interpretive description. Results: For many YWUD in this study, overdoses are an ever-present part of their lives and fear of fentanyl has left them concerned for themselves and others. Negative experiences occurred when police used their power without benefit to youth or were rough or disrespectful, without care for the person overdosing. Youth saw police in a positive light if they were compassionate, stepping aside for paramedics or reviving someone experiencing an overdose. Youth had very mixed knowledge of the GSDOA and were concerned about criminalization if they called 9–1–1. Conclusions: Collaboration with police and local stakeholders is required to address the concerns of YWUD and to increase awareness and penetration of policies such as the GSDOA. Changes to policing cultures that prioritize health rather than criminalize YWUD may increase youths trust of police and increase calls to 9–1–1.
Keywords: Drug overdose | Youth who use drugs | Police discretion | Naloxone | Harm reduction
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Governing through care: A qualitative assessment of team play between police and nurses for people with mental illness
مراقبت از طریق حاکمیت : ارزیابی کیفی و بازی تیمی بین پلیس و پرستاران برای مبتلایان به بیماری روانی-2020
The nexus between law enforcement and public health represents a new and emerging policy field. Yet, most scholarly work has been devoted to police attitudes and interventions involving people affected by mental illness. This paper draws attention to a law enforcement – public health partnership in Amsterdam, the capital city of the Netherlands. We present a qualitative study based on interviews and some observations. Three major themes emerged from our fieldwork that involved policy makers, community police officers, and district nurses: how these officers and nurses perceive the problem of disorderly and confused people, how they work together in practice, and how they relate to a wider network of many other players. We argue that community police officers and district nurses have developed a kind of informal ‘team play’ consisting of three steps: receiving and analysing a signal, undertaking action, and providing aftercare. These steps offer a preventative approach aimed at avoiding and forestalling crisis situations. Difficulties arise in terms of tracing so-called ‘care avoiders’ (people who do not present a ‘readiness for treatment’), hampered information exchange, and the governance of partners beyond our respondents own organisations. In particular, we argue that todays society is not only governed through crime, but also through care. There is no such thing as a robust ‘punitive complex’ in which policing and criminal justice logics prevail. Rather, we witness a multi-agency network of police, public health, mental health, youth care housing associations and other nodal actors, each with their own bureaucratic logics and working methods tending to clash with, or even undermine, informal team play on the streets.
Keywords: Mental illness | Law enforcement | Public health | Street-level professionals
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Smartphone platforms as privacy regulators
پلتفرم های گوشی های هوشمند به عنوان تنظیم کننده حریم خصوصی-2020
A series of recent developments highlight the increasingly important role of online platforms in impacting data privacy in today’s digital economy. Revelations and parliamentary hearings about privacy violations in Facebook’s app and service partner ecosystem, EU Court of Justice judgments on joint responsibility of platforms and platform users, and the rise of smartphone app ecosystems where app behaviour is governed by app distribution platforms and operating systems, all show that platform policies can make or break the enjoyment of privacy by users. In this article, we examine these developments and explore the question of what can and should be the role of platforms in protecting data privacy of their users. The article first distinguishes the different roles that platforms can have in ensuring respect for data privacy in relevant ecosystems. These roles include governing access to data, design of relevant interfaces and privacy mechanisms, setting of legal and technical standards, policing behaviour of the platform’s (business) users, coordinating responsibility for privacy issues between platform users and the platform, and direct and indirect enforcement of a platform’s data privacy standards on relevant players. At a higher level, platforms can also perform a role by translating different international regulatory requirements into platform policies, thereby facilitating compliance of apps in different regulatory environments. And in all of this, platforms are striking a balance between ensuring the respect for data privacy in data-driven environments on the one hand and optimization of the value and business opportunities connected to the platform and underlying data for users of the platform on the other hand.
After this analysis of platforms’ roles in protecting privacy, the article turns to the question of what should this role be and how to better integrate platforms in the current legal frameworks for data privacy in Europe and the US. The article will argue for a compromise between direct regulation of platforms and mere self-regulation, in arguing that platforms should be required to make official disclosures about their privacy-related policies and practices for their respective ecosystems. These disclosures should include statements about relevant conditions for access to data and the platform, the platform’s standards with respect to privacy and the way in which these standards ensure or facilitate compliance with existing legal frameworks by platform users, and statements with respect to the risks of abuse of different data sources and platform tools and actions taken to prevent or police such abuses. We argue that such integration of platforms in current regulatory frameworks is both feasible and desirable. It would make the role that platforms already have in practice more explicit. This would help to highlight best practices, create more accountability and could save significant regulatory and compliance resources in bringing relevant information together in one place. In addition, it could provide clarity for business users of platforms, who are now sometimes confronted with restrictive decisions by platforms in ways that lack transparency and oversight.
Keywords: Online platforms | Smartphones | Data protection | Privacy | Regulation | Disclosures
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Direct entry: Fairness, resilience and the impact on regular cops
ورود مستقیم: انصاف، انعطاف پذیری و تأثیر بر پلیس های معمولی-2020
The discourse emerging from the professionalization agenda focuses on a drive for new and diverse knowledge. The Direct Entry (DE) scheme in England and Wales is one practice that at- tempts to facilitate this. Controversial debates about operational experience and an over reliance on classroom-based learning, have become routine. By drawing on qualitative data from the Police Federation Pay and Morale Survey which explored perceptions of College of Policing initiatives, this paper reviews officer views on the DE scheme. The paper discusses the negativity surrounding the scheme and the consequences on both the scheme itself and the professional identity of officers. The authors conclude that without further engagement with frontline staff anda shift in what is viewed as credible knowledge, negative perceptions will prevail. Moreover, the article argues that officers’ can distance the new skills bought in through the Direct Entrants and reaffirm their own competence through processes of ‘othering’.
Keywords: Direct entry | Experience | Knowledge | Policing | Organisational justice | Othering
مقاله انگلیسی
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