Positive psychology and tourist well-being: A systematic literature review
روانشناسی مثبت و تندرستی توریست : بررسی منظم ادبیات-2020
This paper examines the current state of research on well-being from tourism from the lens of positive psychology. A systematic review of 82 peer-reviewed articles published in English-language tourism journals indicate that tourist well-being is predominantly examined as a consequence of travel, rather than linked to tourism marketing and management. This study presents a conceptual framework of the antecedents, episodes and consequences of tourist well-being. Practically, results suggest strategies on how well-being can be used to generate better outcomes for tourism marketers and managers. By mapping what is known in the intersection between positive psychology and tourist well-being, this study identifies existing gaps and opportunities for future research in this area.
Keywords: Positive psychology | Tourist well-being | Tourism marketing and management | Systematic literature review
The Yin and Yang of entrepreneurship: Gender differences in the importance of communal and agentic characteristics for entrepreneurs subjective well-being and performance
یین و یانگ کارآفرینی: تفاوت های جنسیتی در اهمیت خصوصیات جمعی و عامل برای رفاه ذهنی و عملکرد ذهنی کارآفرینان-2019
This research examines gender differences in the relationships of entrepreneurs agentic and communal personality characteristics with measures of subjective well-being and new venture performance. Results from a stratified national (USA) random sample of founding CEOs (N=303) demonstrate the advantages of an agentic characteristic (creativity) for women and a communal characteristic (teamwork) for men, with regard to the respective abilities of such persons to achieve high levels of subjective well-being and new venture performance. These relative advantages for women and men were mediated by perceptions of person-work fit.
Keywords: Character strengths | Person-environment fit | Person-job fit | Positive organizational behavior | Positive psychology | Gender differences | Subjective well-being
Weathering the storms of technology sector job loss: Well-being barriers, buffers, and beacons
شرایط آب و هوای طوفانی از دست دادن شغل بخش فناوری: موانع تندرستی بافرها و چراغ ها -2017
The negative impacts of job loss on well-being are well-documented. However, a more in-depth understanding of how and why job loss impacts well-being is conspicuously absent from the field. Further, the potential positive consequences of job loss have not been fully explored. Using a positive psychology lens, this qualitative case study investigated how 20 technology sector workers from Ottawa, Canada experienced involuntary job loss. This study identified the external factors, conditions, and events that help to explain the relationship between job loss and well-being. Three major themes were identified: (a) systemic factors, (b) interpersonal factors, and (c) chance. This paper further elaborates on these categories, with an emphasis on identifying potential well-being mechanisms. The findings have implications for individuals who lose their jobs and their support networks, as well as for counsellors, policy makers, and employers.
Keywords: job loss | unemployment | job search | well-being | positive psychology | qualitative research
Towards a research program in Kantian positive psychology
به سوی یک برنامه تحقیقاتی در روانشناسی مثبت کانتی-2017
In recent years, Kantians have begun to take up the challenge of responding to philosophical appropriations of empirical psychol ogy that seem to undermine key claims in Kant’s moral theory. In particular, Pauline Kleingeld (2014, 2015) and Patrick Frierson (2010, 2013, forthcoming) have, in different ways, responded to situationist critiques of the possibility of character. While not from a specifically Kantian perspective, Selim Berker (2009) has responded to Joshua Greene’s now famous article entitled “The Secret Joke of Kant’s Soul,” (2008), in which Greene uses contem porary neuroscience to argue that we should prefer our conse quentialist moral reasoning to our deontological moral intuitions. In addition, there has been a steady increase of attention to what Robert Louden famously called “Kant’s Impure Ethics” (Louden 2000). In the context of this focus on empirically informed fea tures of Kant’s philosophy, there has been some attention to working out the ways that Kant saw his empirical science of human behavior e “pragmatic anthropology” e as different both from other eighteenth century approaches to empirical psychology and from other sciences within Kant’s system (see especially Sturm, 2009; Cohen, 2009). So far, however, there has been little recent attention to thinking through what it would mean to carry out a Kantian research program in psychology today. In this paper, I use a brief summary of how Kant might respond to situationist research in psychology as a springboard for discussing problems and pro posals for developing a distinctively Kantian research program in empirical psychology.
Perfectionism and well-being: A positive psychology framework
کمال گرایی و تندرسیتی : چارچوب روانشناسی مثبت-2017
Grounded in the tripartite model of perfectionism and previous empirical support, the current study explored qualitatively different types of perfectionists and their well-being. A total of 276 college students responded to measures of perfectionism, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and well-being. Latent Profile Analysis identified three distinct latent classes of perfectionists: adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Adaptive perfection ists exhibited highest levels of presence of meaning, subjective happiness, and life satisfaction; maladaptive per fectionists showed the highest levels of search for meaning. Findings call attention to the value of exploring the heterogeneity of perfectionists and their well-being.
Keywords: Perfectionism | Meaning in life | Well-being
Kindness in the blood: A randomized controlled trial of the gene regulatory impact of prosocial behavior
مهربانی در خون: مطالعه کنترل شده تصادفی تاثیر نظارتی ژن از رفتار اجتماعی-2017
Context: Prosocial behavior is linked to longevity, but few studies have experimentally manipulated prosocial behavior to identify the causal mechanisms underlying this association. One possible mediating pathway involves changes in gene expression that may subsequently influence disease development or resistance. Design, setting, participants: In the current study, we examined changes in a leukocyte gene expression profile known as the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity (CTRA) in 159 adults who were randomly assigned for 4 weeks to engage in prosocial behavior directed towards specific others, prosocial behavior directed towards the world in general, self-focused kindness, or a neutral control task. Results: Those randomized to prosocial behavior towards specific others demonstrated improvements (i.e., reductions) in leukocyte expression of CTRA indicator genes. No significant changes in CTRA gene expression were observed in the other 3 conditions. Conclusion: These findings suggest that prosocial behavior can causally impact leukocyte gene expression profiles in ways that might potentially help explain the previously observed health advantages associated with social ties.
Keywords: Positive psychology | Health psychology | Psychoneuroimmunology
A good news story: Early-career music teachers accounts of their flourishing professional identities
یک داستان خبری خوب: معلمان موسیقی اولیه در مورد هویت های شغلی شان می گویند-2017
This paper explores early-career teachers perceptions of their professional identities, and factors impacting on their success. Findings reveal that despite discussing experiences of isolation, heavy workload, exhaustion, and lack of work-specific skills, most of the teachers interviewed demonstrated a wide range of professional and personal skills associated with a positive outlook on life and career. This evidence of ‘flourishing’ in the lives of early-career teachers offers a new perspective on ways to approach support and preparation for the early years in the profession.
Keywords: Early-career teachers | Identity | Induction | Music education | Positive psychology | Resilience | Socialisation | Teacher education
Positive psychology interventions for internet addiction treatment
مداخلات روانشناسی مثبت برای درمان اعتیاد به اینترنت-2017
Internet addiction is a new form of dependence on equipment connected to the network. This type of addiction has many negative consequences, particularly in the area of social relations. Although a variety of methods have been presented for the treatment of this problem, they are in their beginning stages and studies are in progress in this field and secondly, they commonly ignore the effects of positive in terventions in the treatment. Positive psychology interventions (PIs) refer to individual/group-based treatment methods that increase positive emotions and can enhance social relationships of in dividual(s). The aim of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy of a group-based PI in treating Internet addiction (IA). For this purpose, PI-based treatment sessions are designed and forty-eight internet addicted university students are randomly assigned to an experiment group (n ¼ 24)/control groups (n ¼ 24). Measures of the severity of Internet use (SI), quality of relationships inventory (QRI), Bells adjustment inventory (BI) and IA rate are assessed at baseline and after intervention. The results indicate that SI and IA rate in the experiment group are lower than those in the control group, while social adjustment and quality of relationships in the experiment group revealed an increase compared to the control group. According to the results, PI is an effective method for treating IA, specifically in mitigating Internet use and improving the quality of social relationships.
Keywords: Positive psychology | Emotion | Internet addiction | Treatment
Rationale and design of the Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) Study: A randomized controlled trial testing the impact of a positive psychology intervention on racial disparities in pain
منطق و طراحی مثبت ماندن با مطالعه آرتریت (SPA) : یک کارآزمایی کنترل شده تصادفی که به بررسی تاثیر مداخله روان شناختی مثبت بر تفاوت های نژادی در درد-2017
Knee osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Existing arthritis treatments yield small to moderate improvements in pain and have not been effective at reducing racial disparities in the management of pain. The biopsychosocial model of pain and evidence from the positive psychology literature suggest that increasing positive psychological skills (e.g., gratitude, kindness) could im prove pain and functioning and reduce disparities in osteoarthritis pain management. Activities to cultivate positive psychological skills have been developed and validated; however, they have not been tested in patients with osteoarthritis, their effects on racial differences in health outcomes have not been examined, and evidence of their effects on health outcomes in patients with other chronic illnesses is of limited quality. In this article we describe the rationale and design of Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) study, a randomized controlled trial in which 180 African American and 180 White primary care patients with chronic pain from knee osteoarthritis will be randomized to a 6-week program of either positive skill-building activities or neutral control activities. The primary outcomes will be self-reported pain and functioning as measured by the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. We will assess these primary outcomes and potential, exploratory psychosocial mediating variables at an in-person baseline visit and by telephone at 1, 3, and 6 months following completion of the assigned program. If effective, the SPA program would be a novel, theoretically-informed psychosocial intervention to improve quality and equity of care in the management of chronic pain from osteoarthritis.
Keywords: Chronic pain | Mind-body therapies | Race disparities | Veterans | Osteoarthritis | Psychology
Examining the relationship of organizational insiders psychological capital with information security threat and coping appraisals
بررسي رابطه سرمايه روان شناختي خودآموزان سازماني با تهديد امنيت اطلاعاتي و ارزيابي مقابله با آن-2017
Practitioners and researchers alike recognize the positive inﬂuence insiders behavior can have on in- formation systems (IS) security. This awareness has resulted in a research stream focused on the per- formance of protective behaviors. We contribute to this research stream by extending an oft-cited theory in the information security literaturedprotection motivation theory (PMT)dto include the relationship of insiders psychological capital (PsyCap) with the mechanisms of PMT.PsyCap is a construct of role-breadth psychological capacities and resources embodying important work-related motivational resources. Therefore, given the varied facets central to PMT, determining the relationship of PsyCap with each distinct PMT mechanism is an important contribution. Furthermore, prior research has established that individuals can develop their PsyCap. Consequently, considering the relationship of role-breadth PsyCap with the PMT mechanisms provides an important and malleable, motivational antecedent that complements PMT and is absent from most assessments of the contem- porary PMT model. We ﬁnd support for PsyCaps relationship with the mechanisms of PMT and suggest opportunities to develop PsyCap in conjunction with other organizational security efforts. We present our ﬁndings, discuss their implications for research and practice, and highlight several opportunities for future research.© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Information security | Psychological capital (PsyCap) | Protection motivation theory (PMT) | Positive psychology | Organizational insiders