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نتیجه جستجو - Pricing

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 223
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Developing a two-stage model for a sustainable closed-loop supply chain with pricing and advertising decisions
در حال توسعه یک مدل دو مرحله ای برای یک زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته پایدار با تصمیمات قیمت گذاری و تبلیغات-2021
Closed-Loop Supply Chain (CLSC) has become a critical problem due to its effects on various factors including economic motivations, environmental concerns, and social impacts. Moreover, there are coordination tools, such as pricing and advertising, which impact its performance. In this paper, we offer a two-stage approach to model and solve a sustainable CLSC, taking into account pricing, green quality, and advertising. In the first stage, optimal decisions on pricing, greening, and advertising are made, while in the second stage, a fuzzy multi- objective Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model is used to maximize the total profit, reduce CO2 emissions, and improve social impacts. Suitable solution methods are introduced according to the scale of the problem. For small-scale instances, an augmented ϵ-constraint method is used to solve the problem. For large-scale instances, approximations are required, and a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm solves the problem in polynomial time. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated through various numerical examples. The results illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the model, while confirming significant improvements in sustainable objectives under optimal pricing, green quality, and advertising. Besides, the proposed Lagrangian relaxation method significantly reduces the computational time for large-scale instances, with only a 2.308% deviation from the optimal results.
Keywords: Sustainable closed-loop supply chain | Multi-objective programming | Supply chain pricing | Augmented ϵ-constraint | Lagrangian relaxation | CO2 emissions
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Inventory model for sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain: Role of a third-party refurbisher
مدل موجودی برای عملیات پایدار یک زنجیره تأمین حلقه بسته: نقش یک مرمت کننده شخص ثالث-2021
Journal Pre-proof This paper investigates the joint decision on inventory and refurbishing strategies in a closed-loop supply chain, consisting of a manufacturer responsible for the production and first-market sales and a third-party refurbisher responsible for the refurbishment and second market. Based on a game-theoretic model, we investigate the effects of supply chain structures on the production operations, sales price of a refurbished product, profits and environmental performance. Through numerical analyses, we reveal that the integrated system yields higher first-market sales and a larger production lot size, while the decentralized one shows higher second-market sales and a larger refurbishing lot. Interestingly, the integrated system sets the higher price for the refurbished item due to channel conflict issues. Efforts to increase the second-market sales can harm the over- all supply chain profit by leading to the decrease in the higher-margin first-market sales. We also show that the difference in pricing decisions and inventory holding cost components allows a better operational performance of the third-party refurbishers process in the decentralized system. Then, it leads to the better environmental performance in the decentralized system, enhancing the refurbishing rate and sales of refurbished items while reducing scrap costs. By investigating the overall performance of integrated and decentralized supply chains, we offer important implications to practicing supply chain managers by revealing how the third-party refurbisher can help the sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain. We also contribute to the body of knowledge by incorporating pricing and lot sizing issues into the context of closed-loop supply chain management.
Keywords: inventory | closed-loop supply chain | sales return | refurbishment
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Pricing decisions in a decentralized biofuel supply chain with RIN mechanism considering environmental impacts
تصمیمات قیمت گذاری در زنجیره تأمین سوخت زیستی غیرمتمرکز با مکانیسم RIN با در نظر گرفتن تأثیرات زیست محیطی-2021
This study develops pricing models in a decentralized biofuel supply chain focusing on both economic and environmental aspects. Environmental impacts are used as a measure to reflect the environmental objective function calculated based on ReCiPe method. A bi-level multi-objective stackelberg game model considering farmers and biorefineries as followers and the blender as leader is proposed. An ε-constraint method is utilized to convert the multi-objective model to a single-objective one. The bi-level model is then transformed to a solvable integrated model. Finally, a real case study of switchgrass bioethanol is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed model. Results show that focusing on environmental goals results in the increasement of selling prices and profits of farmers and biorefineries and decreasment of about %7 in economic profit of the blender. Therefore, tradeoff analyses are performed for objective functions leading to 10 Pareto optimal solutions which give managerial insights to the blender. Moreover, sensitivity analyses are provided with respects to price elasticity and final fuel’s price and results show logical trends in selling prices.
Keywords: Biofuel supply chain | Pricing | Decentralized decision making | Environmental impacts | Multi-objective optimization
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Accounting-based downside risk and expected stock returns: Evidence from China
ریسک نزولی مبتنی بر حسابداری و بازده سهام مورد انتظار: شواهدی از چین-2021
We document that earnings downside risk contains information on firms’ future operating performance and is positively associated with expected stock returns in Chinese stock markets, and the return predictability of earning downside risk mainly comes from its accrual downside risk component. The pricing of earnings downside risk is especially evident among firms with more transparent information environment and stronger governance efficacy, such as large firms, non-high-tech firms, old firms, and firms with high analyst coverage. Lastly, we show that aggregated earnings downside risk and its components at the market level are all significantly and positively associated with subsequent stock market returns, which is consistent with the notion that the accounting-based downside risk measures contain information about future macroeconomic conditions.
keywords: ریسک نزولی مبتنی بر حسابداری | محیط اطلاعات | بازده سهام | بازارهای سهام چینی | Accounting-based downside risk | Information environment | Stock returns | Chinese stock markets
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Optimal generic and brand advertising efforts in a decentralized supply chain considering customer surplus
تلاش بهینه تبلیغات عمومی و تجاری در یک زنجیره تأمین غیرمتمرکز با توجه به مازاد مشتری-2021
While the previous researches of advertising efforts decisions focus on only the firms’ profit target, no literatureintroduces corporation social responsibility target into advertising efforts decisions of a supply chain (SC). To fill this gap, we consider a two-stage SC with a manufacturer and a retailer where the SC members consider the customer surplus. Both the retailer and the manufacturer can invest in generic advertising efforts to influence and increase the products’ sales volumes. This paper investigates the following four scenarios: (1) The retailer cares the customer surplus (Model I); (2) The manufacturer cares the customer surplus (Model II); (3) Both the retailer and the manufacturer care the customer surplus (Model III); (4) We then extend the model III to the case that the manufacturer invests in both the generic and brand advertising efforts (Model IV). The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal retail price, the optimal advertising efforts, and the optimal profits of SC members, and find the influence of customer concern level on the SC performance. Finally, numerical examples are conducted to investigate the influence of the customer concern levels of the retailer or the manufacturer on the profits of the SC members and the entire SC. We also study the joint impacts of the customer concern levels of the retailer and the manufacturer on the SC performance. We find that the SC obtains the highest profits when the retailer’s customer concern level and the manufacturer’s customer concern level are relatively high, and the best cooperative strategy for the retailer and the manufacturer is that they improve customer concern level simultaneously.
Keywords: Supply chain management | Advertising efforts | Pricing strategies | Consumer surplus
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Joint service, pricing and advertising strategies with tourists’ green tourism experience in a tourism supply chain
استراتژی های خدمات مشترک ، قیمت گذاری و تبلیغاتی با تجربه گردشگری سبز گردشگران در یک زنجیره تامین گردشگری-2021
We consider the supply chain in the tourism industry, in which tourists are susceptible to the tourists’ green tourism experience when they make purchase decisions for a green tourism product. Our research considers a green tourism supply chain (GTSC) consisting of one scenic spot (SS) and one travel agency (TA), and studies the joint green tourism service, pricing and advertising problem of the SS and the TA. We establish Stackelberg differential game models between the SS and the TA in the centralized, decentralized and revenue-sharing scenarios, and apply Pontryagin’s maximum principle to obtain the dynamic equilibrium solutions of the GTSC members. Based on the three different scenarios, we analyze influences of the tourists’ green tourism experience concern level, the wholesale ticket price and the sharing ratio on the optimal decisions and performances of the GTSC. This paper is the first quantitative research to study the green tourism service effort, pricing and advertising strategies of the GTSC members and design GTSC improvement contract with considering the green tourism experience. Our results provide management insights for the SS and the TA to manage GTSC under the green tourism preferences and the green tourism experience of tourists.
Keywords: Tourism supply chain | Green tourism service | Pricing | Advertising | Green tourism experience
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Price and quality decisions in a vertically-differentiated supply chain with an “Online-to-Store” channel
تصمیمات قیمت و کیفیت در یک زنجیره تأمین کاملاً متمایز با کانال «فروشگاه از طریق فروشگاه»-2021
Because of the prevalence of “Online-to-Store (OS)” channel, customers can purchase differentiated products online and pick up in-store. We develop a Stackelberg game-theoretic model to study the impact of an OS channel on quality levels, demands, prices, and profits of a manufacturer and a retailer in a supply chain. We assume that the retailer acts as a Stackelberg leader, and the manufacturer acts as a Stackelberg follower. The manufacturer produces and sells two products with vertically-differentiated quality levels to the retailer who in turn sells the products to customers through a Store channel, an Online channel, or an OS channel. The retailer incurs a handing cost if the OS channel is available, and consumers bear a shipping cost and a transaction cost when the products are purchased from the Online and Store channels, respectively. We find that the manufacturer should reduce both products’ quality levels and wholesale prices, whereas the retailer can increase the selling prices for a relatively small shipping cost and a not too small handling cost. When the products are available both online and in-store, however, the quality levels, wholesale prices and selling prices might increase for a small shipping cost and a not too small handling cost. Compared to the case in which both products are available online only with the OS channel, adding the Store channel is always beneficial for both parties. The intuition behind these results hinges on the trade-off between the handling cost and the increased market demand for the retailer. Moreover, the quality levels, the wholesale prices of both products, and the selling price of the low-quality product would decrease, while the selling price of the high-quality product increases for a sufficiently low transaction cost and a not too small shipping cost.
Keywords: Game theory | Online-to-store | Vertically-differentiated supply chain | Pricing | Quality
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Predicting stock returns from the pricing and mispricing of accounting fundamentals
پیش بینی بازده سهام از قیمت گذاری و سوء تفاهم از مبانی حسابداری-2021
This paper examines Nichols et al.’s (2017) fundamentals-based valuation model that links share prices to accounting fundamentals in European equity markets. The model explains, on average, 69 % of the cross-sectional share price variation among European firms. Deviations of share prices from the model’s fundamental value estimates hold unique information about subsequent stock returns that goes beyond established determinants of the cross-section. Firms identified as undervalued outperform firms perceived as overvalued by more than 0.54 % per month after controlling for firm size, book-to-market, operating profitability, investment, and momentum. Hence, the market seems to incorporate fundamental information only gradually.
keywords: پیش بینی قابل پیش بینی | تجزیه و تحلیل بنیادی | بدبختی | بازده سهام | بازارهای اروپایی | Return predictability | Fundamental analysis | Mispricing | Stock returns | European markets
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Distribution channel and licensing strategy choice considering consumer online reviews in a closed-loop supply chain
کانال توزیع و انتخاب استراتژی صدور مجوز با در نظر گرفتن بررسی های آنلاین مصرف کنندگان در یک زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته-2021
This research builds two-period game models to address the choice issues of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)’s licensing strategy and the Independent Remanufacturer (IR)’s distribution channel, considering consumer online reviews in a closed-loop supply chain. In both periods, the OEM sells new products by the direct distribution channel. In period 2, the OEM determines the licensing strategy (the fixed or royalty fee) to authourize the IR to remanufacture, and then the IR chooses the distribution channel (direct or indirect) for remanufactured products. Interestingly, our results show that the IR prefers the direct channel when the remanufacturing cost is smaller. And the obtained willingness-to-pay (WTP) from consumer online reviews has a positive impact on the threshold value of the remanufacturing cost. Moreover, we find that the OEM’s licensing strategy choice depends on the sizes of the fixed licensing fee and the obtained WTP. The OEM will choose the royalty licensing strategy to the IR who has chosen the direct channel, when the fixed fee and the obtained WTP are smaller. Finally, we find the optimal royalty fee, numerically examine the impact of the interaction among these factors on consumer surplus and social welfare, and relax the basic assumption to show the robustness of our model.
Keywords: Remanufacturing | Distribution Channel | Licensing strategy | Consumer online reviews |Pricing
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Accounting-based downside risk and stock price crash risk: Evidence from China
ریسک نزولی مبتنی بر حسابداری و خطر سقوط قیمت سهام: شواهدی از چین-2021
In the past 15 years, an emerging literature has extensively studied individual stock price crash risk, which refers to the likelihood of an abrupt and large-scale drop in stock prices (e.g., Chen et al., 2001; Hutton et al., 2009; Jin and Myers 2006; Kim et al., 2011a, Li and Zhang 2011b; Kim and Zhang 2016). An important strand of this literature focuses on the Chinese emerging markets where, arguably, the extent of “bad news hoarding” is severer compared to developed markets due to China’s less effective corporate governance environment (Wang et al., 2020). In this paper, we examine the relationship between accounting-based downside risk and stock price crash risk using a large sample of Chinese listed firms. The contribution of this study lies in a recently developed indicator of earnings fundamentals that is, arguably, more consistent with “bad news hoarding”: accounting-based downside risk, hereafter denoted as ABDR. Studies have shown that investors care more about downside losses than upside gain potentials and are therefore more sensitive to losses than to gains (e.g., Gul 1991; Kahneman and Tversky 1979). Accordingly, Koonce et al. (2005) show that economic agents judge negative and positive expectations differently in risk management, placing more emphasis on potential loss outcomes. However, earnings volatility and other existing accounting-based downside risk measures consist of both downside and upside variabilities with equal weights and little research has examined the downside risk of accounting-based measures. Konchitchki et al. (2016) are the first to construct measures of accounting-based downside risk and examine its pricing implications in U.S. markets. In particular, this study uses the relative root lower partial moment as a mathematical foundation to capture exposure to downside risk rather than the overall volatility. Accounting-based downside risk measures focus on the below-expectation variability in firm performance measures, particularly return-on-assets (ROA). We extend Konchitchki et al. (2016) by performing an investigation in the Chinese markets. Furthermore, we examine the variation
keywords: Accounting-based downside risk | Stock price crash risk | Bad-news hoarding, China | ریسک نزولی مبتنی بر حسابداری | ریسک سقوط قیمت سهام | احتکار اخبار بد، چین
مقاله انگلیسی
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