Unsupervised by any other name: Hidden layers of knowledge production in artificial intelligence on social media
بدون نظارت با هر نام دیگری: لایه های پنهان تولید دانش در هوش مصنوعی در رسانه های اجتماعی-2019
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the form of different machine learning models is applied to Big Data as a way to turn data into valuable knowledge. The rhetoric is that ensuing predictions work well—with a high degree of autonomy and automation. We argue that we need to analyze the process of applying machine learning in depth and highlight at what point human knowledge production takes place in seemingly autonomous work. This article reintroduces classification theory as an important framework for understanding such seemingly invisible knowledge production in the machine learning development and design processes. We suggest a framework for studying such classification closely tied to different steps in the work process and exemplify the framework on two experiments with machine learning applied to Facebook data from one of our labs. By doing so we demonstrate ways in which classification and potential discrimination take place in even seemingly unsupervised and autonomous models. Moving away from concepts of non-supervision and autonomy enable us to understand the underlying classificatory dispositifs in the work process and that this form of analysis constitutes a first step towards governance of artificial intelligence.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | machine learning | classification | social media| Facebook | discrimination | bias
تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب شهری در کمپ های پناهندگی اروپا: مورد لسووس، یونان
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 18
از سال 2015 جزیره لسووس (یونان) یک مکان ورودی کلیدی برای افرادی بوده است که به دنبال پناهندگی در اروپا هستند. این مقاله اطلاعاتی را درباره تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری در موریا و قارا تپه که مکان های پذیرش پناهنده ها هستند برای دوره زمانی بین می 216 تا آوریل 2017 ارائه می کند. برطبق نتایج به دست آمده، تولید سالانه ضایعات و فاضلاب شهری جامد در کمپ های پناهندگی به ترتیب برابر با 1464 تن و 95550 مترمکعب بوده است. با درنظر گرفتن میزان تولید انجام شده، میانگین سرانه روزانه تولید ضایعات جامد شهری به ازای هر پناهنده در هر روز برابر با 88/0 کیلوگرم بوده است که به صورت قابل توجهی پایین تر از میزان محاسبه شده برای جمعیت دائمی همین دوره زمانی می باشد (39/1 کیلوگرم به ازای هر ساکن در روز). تولید روزانه فاضلاب به ازای هر پناهنده در هر روز برابر با 54 لیتر بوده است درحالیکه مقدار متناظر با آن برای جمعیت دائمی برابر با 211 لیتر به ازای هر ساکن در هر روز می باشد. مقدار کل انتشار متان از تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری در کمپ های پناهندگی مطالعه شده برابر با 6/178 تن به ازای هر سال یا 5/35 کیلوگرم متان به ازای هر پناهنده در هر سال تخمین زده می شود. به منظور تضمین طراحی و عملکرد ماندگار این مکان ها، بررسی بیشتری برای شناسایی مشخصات ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری تولید شده نیاز است.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Non-interest income and bank lending
درآمد غیر بهره ای و وام دهی بانک-2018
This paper examines the influence of non-interest activities on bank lending in terms of loan quality and interest spread. We also investigate the possible existence of profit complementarities between non-interest activities and lending. Using quarterly data on 6921 U.S. commercial banks between 2007:Q3 to 2016:Q3 we find that non-interest activities have no adverse influence on bank credit risk. This is the case for banks of different asset size (including systemically important banks) as well as for distressed banks. There is evidence that banks with assets between $100 million and $1 billion that have a greater share of fiduciary income have lower credit risk. They also have lower interest rates on loans secured by real estate, and higher franchise values, particularly post-crisis. Moreover, banks in the aforementioned size range benefit from synergies in joint production of non-interest income and lending, whereas other banks, in particular smaller banks (below $100 million in assets) suffer from diseconomies of joint production. Larger banks exhibit cross-subsidization between several non-interest activities and lending business.
keywords: Non-interest income |Fiduciary |Credit risk |Spread |Profit complementarities
Bridging data-capacity gap in big data storage
شکاف ظرفیت داده ها در ذخیره سازی داده های بزرگ-2018
Big data is aggressive in its production, and with the merger of Cloud computing and IoT, the huge volumes of data generated are increasingly challenging the storage capacity of data centres. This has led to a growing data-capacity gap in big data storage. Unfortunately, the limitations faced by current storage technologies have severely handicapped their potential to meet the storage demand of big data. Consequently, storage technologies with higher storage density, throughput and lifetime have been researched to overcome this gap. In this paper, we first introduce the working principles of three such emerging storage technologies, and justify their inclusion in the study based on the tremendous advances received by them in the recent past. These storage technologies include Optical data storage, DNA data storage & Holographic data storage. We then evaluate the recent advances received in storage density, throughput and lifetime of these emerging storage technologies, and compare them with the trends and advances in prevailing storage technologies. We finally discuss the implications of their adoption, evaluate their prospects, and highlight the challenges faced by them to bridge the data-capacity gap in big data storage.
Keywords: Big data ، Data-capacity gap ، Optical storage ، DNA storage ، Holographic storage ، Magnetic storage
Corrigendum and a complement “A simple heuristic for vehicle routing – A variant of Clarke and Wrights saving method” [Int: J: Prod: Econ: 157 (2014) 74–79]
اصلاحیه و مکملی برای "یک اکتشاف ساده برای مسیریابی وسیله نقلیه - یک گونه دیگری از روش ذخیره سازی کلارک و رایت" [Int: J: Prod: Econ: 157 (2014) 74–79]-2018
A simple heuristic for vehicle routing - A variant of Clarke and Wrights saving method (International journal of Production Economics, 157 (2014), 74–79) contains a mistake that must be corrected. But the mistake also allows for a possible improvement of the search procedure which is demonstrated. We emphasise that the chosen sequence of the distribution, clockwise or anti-clockwise, can highly influence the vehicles fuel consumptions.
keywords: Vehicle routing |Transport |Scheduling |Heuristics |Inventories
The productivity of Chinese patents: The role of business area and ownership type
بهره وری ثبت اختراعات چینی: نقش حوزه تجاری و نوع مالکیت-2018
Chinas unrivalled growth in patent filings and grants, enhanced by government policy, reflects a strategic shift in transforming a labour-intensive economy to an innovation-driven incentives system. This study employs a patent dataset from SIPO to examine the productivity of Chinese patents in improving public firm financial performance. Evidence suggest an overall positive performance elasticity to patent production particularly among firms with efficiency-driven and customer-focused operating activities. Patents are found to have no impact or even negative impact on financial performance in other business areas. Patents generally exhibit a constant return to scale and appear as a complementary input to physical assets but a substitute to labour. Non-state owned public firms have performed consistently well throughout, regardless the policy changes. The productivity of granted patents of state owned firms has improved following the introduction of government reforms specifically aimed at promoting innovation.
keywords: China |Patents |Firm performance |Government policy
Failure mapping for occupational safety management in the film and television industry
نقشه نگاری ناکام برای مدیریت امنیت شغلی در صنعت فیلم و تلویزیون-2018
In the film and television industry, a wide range of risks in processes of launching new products (series, soap operas or films) can cause accidents and affect the health and safety of crews. Besides potential personal injuries, as a business, the whole production process in under risk, since if a key player (e.g.: the main actor/actress) gets severely injured or dies, he/she cannot be replaced and the project can be paralyzed, causing difficulties to the company. This article purposes to identify the most critical process in relation to the occurrence of accidents, evaluating the failures of the activities of this critical process, and understanding their causes, to enable formulating treatment plans. We performed a case study of a large film and television producer in Brazil: A committee of experts identified filming as the most critical process. We mapped the activities of this process, the potential failures and their causes through a FMEA, identifying 15 modes of failure in the process and 32 potential elements that cause these failures. Combining and ranking those elements, 12 causes were considered critical and FTA was applied to identify their root causes. The result was a procedure to analyze process failures tailored to the film and television industry, as well as complete and objective visualization of the possible faults in this process, enabling the company to correct them and providing elements for other researchers to investigate this rich but as yet little explored theme.
keywords: Occupational safety and health risk management |Risk analysis |Film and television industry |FMEA |FTA |Process mapping
Evaluation of solution approaches for a stochastic lot-sizing and sequencing problem
بررسی دیدگاههای راه حل برای یک مسئله اندازه گذاری بزرگ و ترتیب بندی تصادفی -2018
A stochastic multi-product lot-sizing and sequencing problem is studied. Two kinds of uncertainties are integrated into the model: defective items due to the process imperfections and random lead times because of randomly arising machine breakdowns and uncertain repair times. There are also sequence-dependent set-up times between two items of different types. The objective is to find a sequence of lots and lot sizes maximizing the probability of demand satisfaction for all products. A decomposition approach has been proposed in the literature to reduce this problem to a sequence of known optimization problems with different algorithms available for each of them. However, a proper evaluation of the practical performance of the whole method has never been presented. The goal of this paper is to analyze and compare the behavior of different solution frameworks (with and without decomposition) and techniques for the considered problem.
keywords: Stochastic production lines |Lot-sizing |Sequencing |Decomposition |Dynamic programming |Genetic algorithms
Polynomial algorithm of inventory model with complete backordering and correlated demand caused by cross-selling
الگوریتم چند جمله ای مدل انبارداری با سفارش تاخیر شده کامل و تقاضای همبسته ایجاد شده توسط فروش تقاطعی-2018
In a paper published in the International Journal of Production Economics (IJPE) [Zhang, R., Kaku, I., Xiao, Y., 2012. Model and heuristic algorithm of the joint replenishment problem with complete backordering and correlated demand. International Journal of Production Economics 139 (1), 33–41], the authors proposed a joint replenishment problem (JRP) model with complete backordering and correlated demand caused by cross-selling. The model was transformed into minimizing a function with respect to multiples of a major items order cycle, and a heuristic algorithm was developed for near-optimal solutions. In this paper, we reinvestigate the problem and analyze the mathematical property of the model to develop an exact algorithm. The algorithm can obtain global optima and exhibits polynomial complexity.
keywords: Inventory |Joint replenishment problem |Polynomial algorithm |Complete backordering |Cross-selling
Graph grammars according to the type of input and manipulated data: A survey
گرامر نمودار با توجه به نوع ورودی و دستکاری شده است داده ها: یک مرور-2018
Graph grammars which generate graphs are a generalization of Chomsky grammars that generate strings. During the last decades there has been a remarkable development of graph grammars. Due to their wide diversity of applications, graph grammars have received a particular attention from many scientists and researchers. There has been applications of graph grammars in several areas such as pattern recognition, data base systems, biological developments in organisms, semantics of programming languages, compiler construction, software development environments, etc. In the literature, in some surveys, graph grammars have been studied and classified according to some criteria such as: parallel or sequential applicability of rules, embedding mechanism, type of generated graphs, etc. In addition to this, as data play an important role more and more in different domains, we survey in this paper the vast field of graph grammars by classifying them according to three criteria: the number of manipulated data (single or multiple types), the nature of data (structured or unstructured), and finally the kind of data (images, graphs, patterns, etc.). In particular, we consider that a graph grammar is well defined by five components instead of four, namely: type of generated graphs (TG), a start graph (Z), a set of production rules (P), a set of additional specifications of the rules (A), and the criterion that we additionally consider which is the type of input and manipulated data (TD). This proposed formalism, especially with the added fifth component, may serve to overcome some issues related to Big Data and Cloud Computing domains.
Keywords: Graph grammar ، Type of input and manipulated data ، Type of generated graph ، Big Data ، Cloud computing ، Application