Code as constitution: The negotiation of a uniform accounting code for U:S: railway corporations and the moral justification of stakeholder claims on wealth
کد به عنوان قانون اساسی: مذاکره در مورد یک کد حسابداری یکسان برای شرکت های راه آهن ایالات متحده و توجیه اخلاقی ادعاهای سهامداران در مورد ثروت-2021
Economic historians of the United States identify the railway industry of the nineteenth century as the birthplace of existing institutions of corporate finance, law, and labor relations (Chandler, 1990; Perrow, 2002; Thomas, 2011). This paper shows that the railway industry was also an important arena for the standardization of corporate accounting in the U. S., and that railway accountants played a significant role in the federal government’s earliest attempts to regulate large corporations. The paper describes how railway accountants worked with the first federal regulator of corporations, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), created by act of Congress in 1887, to create a uniform accounting code for the railway industry. This code was designed by the prominent economist and ICC statistician Henry Carter Adams to serve as a mechanism for the administrative supervision of railway corporations: a “cognitive equivalent of a constitution” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) that would promote economic democracy by protecting the property rights of non-controlling stakeholders in the railway system: shippers who used the trains to send goods to markets, long-term investors in railway shares and bonds, consumers of shipped goods, and members of the communities that the railways connected and employed. Railway accountants working with Adams created the rules for answering “potentially divisive questions of fact” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) about who contributed how much to the assets and profits of the railway corporation, and thus provided moral justification for how claims on those assets and profits were distributed.
Paradigm shift to implement SDG 2 (end hunger): A humanistic management lens on the education of future leaders
تغییر پارادایم برای اجرای SDG 2 (پایان گرسنگی): یک لنز مدیریت انسانی در آموزش رهبران آینده-2020
This article argues that new paradigms of leadership, as well as leadership education, are required to more effectively work towards the implementation of SDG 2 – end hunger. It draws on the philosophically rooted concept of Humanistic Management as a lens to examine the relationship between SDG 2, the human right to food and reasons for the persistence of hunger in the world. The status quo and current approaches are presented in detail as dysfunctional, with an emphasis on the role of the WTO regulations, intellectual property rights schemes and negotiation processes. It is suggested that in order to develop future leaders who tackle global issues like this persistence of hunger in more promising and more responsible ways, business schools need to look beyond responsible management education. In this vein, Humanistic Management is also discussed as a platform for the advocated paradigm shift. It is highlighted through which stages business schools could transform their educational approach and provision accordingly.
To what extent do young innovative companies take advantage of policy support to enact innovation appropriation mechanisms?
شرکت های نوآور جوان تا چه اندازه از مزایای سیاست برای استفاده از سازوکارهای اختصاصی نوآوری بهره می گیرند؟-2020
Innovative entrepreneurship is at the heart of economic development in all modern economic systems. However, we observe in several developed countries - especially Europe - a languishing in the capacity to foster creative destruction (i.e. Schumpeter Mark 1, SM1) dynamics and to create young innovative companies (YICs), capable to establish themselves as leaders in markets or become successful innovators. One key issue that is often ad- vocated in this respect is the deficit suffered from YICs in fully protecting their innovations and appropriating (at least in part) returns from them. The usage of formal (e.g., intellectual property rights) and informal (e.g., secrecy, lead time, access to complementary assets) instruments to protect intellectual property assets has the potential to overcome this difficulty. Different types of policy mechanisms have been put in place to help YICs. However, high implicit and explicit costs and barriers prevent YICs’ use of protection strategies, limiting the ability to generate SM1 dynamics or accessing market for ideas, even upon policy support. By relying on the resource-based view of the firm, our paper investigates to what extent a comprehensive set of policy measures recently introduced in the Italian context and focused on alleviating the hurdles suffered by YICs is associated with the choice of YICs to protect their innovations. The econometric analyses based on more than 1,600 Italian YICs show how the use of financial policy measures are associated to both formal and informal instruments, while labour policy measures are only related to formal ones.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship policy | Institutional reform | Young innovative companies | Intellectual property rights | Appropriation mechanisms
Judicial institutions of property rights protection and foreign direct investment inflows
نهادهای قضایی حمایت از حقوق مالکیت و ورود سرمایه گذاری مستقیم خارجی-2020
Despite a growing consensus that host country institutions affect the spatial distribution of foreign direct investment, there is a debate about which institutions drive this relationship. This study contributes to this debate by examining the relationship between foreign direct investment net inflows and three judicial institutions of property rights protection: judicial contract enforcement, judicial independence, and judicial impartiality. I evaluate this relationship by applying the system-GMM estimation approach to a sample of 150 countries covering the period 2000–16. I find robust evidence of positive relationships between FDI net inflows and both judicial independence and judicial impartiality. On the other hand, judicial contract enforcement appears to be weakly related to FDI net inflows. The results are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods, including the instrumental variables approach. While the findings of this study reinforce the notion that host country institutions matter for foreign direct investment, they, more importantly, underscore the merits of unbundling institutions to understand their impact on multinational firm activity.
Keywords: Judicial contract enforcement | Judicial independence | Judicial impartiality | Foreign direct investment | Multinational enterprises | System-GMM estimation
How does liability affect prices? Railroad sparks and timber
بدهی چگونه بر قیمت ها تأثیر می گذارد؟ جرقه و چوب راه آهن-2020
This paper analyzes how judicially-determined liability assignments affect valuations and prices. On two occasions in 2007, a railway company caused a fire to break out in the State of Washington. The two fires burned down some of the neighboring properties’ timber. These two incidents led to two companion court cases that made it all the way to the Washington Supreme Court. The court rulings, both made on May 31, 2012, held that the railway company was not liable for timber damages under Washington’s timber trespass statute, despite having acted negligently. As a consequence of these decisions, economic theory predicts a decrease in the value of timber in those areas associated with higher risk of fire, and an increase in the value of Washington railway companies. Using a triple difference model and an event study, we test and find evidence supporting this prediction.
Keywords: Liability | Property rights | Law and economics | Event study
Big Data Analytics for Venture Capital Application：Towards Innovation Performance Improvement
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ برای برنامه های سرمایه گذاری: به سمت بهبود عملکرد نوآوری-2020
By using the panel date of Chinese enterprises, this paper analyzes the influence of venture capital on innovation performance. In this paper, the number of patent application and the patent quality(invention patent applications, number of effective patents, IPC number of international patent classification, and patent claims) are used to measure the innovation performance of enterprises, and the regression results show that the innovation performance is significantly promoted by the venture capital; for industries with higher dependence on external financing and high technology intensity and areas with better protection of property rights, venture capital promotes innovation performance more significantly. In this paper, it further distinguishes the characteristics of venture capital institutions, and finds that the promotion effect of non-state-owned venture capital on innovation performance is significantly greater than that of state-owned venture capital; the venture capital institutions with high reputation and high network capital play a more significant role in promoting innovation performance.
Keywords: Data panel model | Big data | Innovation performance
From elite-driven to community-based governance mechanisms for the delivery of public goods from land management
از مکانیسم های حاکم بر نخبگان گرفته تا مکانیسم های حاکم بر جامعه برای تحویل کالاهای عمومی از مدیریت زمین-2020
Several non-governmental initiatives have emerged in the Czech Republic in recent years with the aim to organise the provision of public goods or ecosystem services from agriculture and forestry. These initiatives are usually started by activists (elites) and take forms such as foundations or trust funds, but often present themselves as collective actions of communal interests. This paper sets out to present four cases of such efforts and to show their common and contrasting features in light of their relevance to local needs and possible integration in the future CAP framework. A particular focus is on the community-based character of these initiatives for the provision of public goods. This is done by examining the necessary conditions for the success of collectively managed common pool resources. The research shows that elite-driven non-governmental organisations often emerge because of a lack of interest on the part of public bodies and because local communities do not have the capacity to set up a collective action for the provision of environmentally and socially “beneficial outcomes” (ESBO). The investigated NGOs, however, soon came into conflict with non-involved actors. To improve the governance mechanism, an extension towards a community-based collective action is proposed. However, each step of such a transition is a challenge for the initiatives of the presented case studies. The first critical issue is to find a common interest among actors. Similarly, “sharing power” represents a struggle which consequently delays progress in creating effective internal governance. The difficulty in progressing towards community-based collective action is amplified by the uncertainty concerning property rights induced by the activities of the NGOs and unfavourable socioeconomic and institutional conditions. Finding that the private initiatives are far from being able to transform into community-based collective action, we propose to launch a measure of institutional funding for the coordination and management of their projects – similar to LEADER but more concentrated in scope.
Keywords: Public goods | Ecosystem services | Common pool resources | Non-governmental initiatives | Governance mechanism | Community-based collective action
Encouraging domestic innovation by protecting foreign intellectual property
تشویق نوآوری داخلی با حمایت از مالکیت معنوی خارجی-2020
This paper examines the relationship of respect for foreign intellectual property (IP) and domestic innovation. In a global economy, countries may choose to protect the IP of their own citizens, foreigners, or both or neither. We develop a model that shows that countries will have higher levels of innovation when respecting both domestic and foreign intellectual property. We test this prediction and show that domestic innovation is positively related to respect for both foreign and domestic IP. Intuitively, respect for domestic IP encourages innovation. We demonstrate the less intuitive case that protection of foreign IP further incentivizes domestic innovation
Keywords: Intellectual property rights | Innovation | Intellectual property | International trade | Technology policy
Predicting and explaining corruption across countries: A machine learning approach
پیش بینی و توضیح فساد در سراسر کشور: رویکرد یادگیری ماشینی-2020
In the era of Big Data, Analytics, and Data Science, corruption is still ubiquitous and is perceived as one of the major challenges of modern societies. A large body of academic studies has attempted to identify and explain the potential causes and consequences of corruption, at varying levels of granularity, mostly through theoretical lenses by using correlations and regression-based statistical analyses. The present study approaches the phenomenon from the predictive analytics perspective by employing contemporary machine learning techniques to discover the most important corruption perception predictors based on enriched/enhanced nonlinear models with a high level of predictive accuracy. Specifically, within the multiclass classification modeling setting that is employed herein, the Random Forest (an ensemble-type machine learning algorithm) is found to be the most accurate prediction/classification model, followed by Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks. From the practical standpoint, the enhanced predictive power of machine learning algorithms coupled with a multi-source database revealed the most relevant corruption-related information, contributing to the related body of knowledge, generating actionable insights for administrator, scholars, citizens, and politicians. The variable importance results indicated that government integrity, property rights, judicial effectiveness, and education index are the most influential factors in defining the corruption level of significance
Keywords: Corruption perception | Machine learning | Predictive modeling | Random forest | Society policies and regulations |Government integrity | Social development
The digital tokenization of property rights: A comparative perspective
توکنیزاسیون دیجیتال حقوق مالکیت دیدگاه مقایسه ای-2020
Blockchain technology allows virtual disintermediation and automatization of property transactions, which might help to design future platforms, intended to facilitate crossborder transactions within the EU and worldwide. To this end, users of these blockchain based platforms may create the so-called “digital tokens” or “colored coins” that aim to represent rights over different types of “real world” assets. By transferring a digital token, the parties aim to transfer the ownership or other property rights over the asset represented by the token without the intervention of traditional intermediaries, such as real estate conveyancers, land registrars or notaries specializing in real estate. However, this new technological tool raises several questions in the field of private law, such as the legal nature of the token, how the effective transfer of the property rights operates or how ownership rules may be applied in this decentralized environment (e.g. rights and duties of the token holder). Some of the issues at stake have only been tentatively addressed by both lawmakers and academia. In light of this research gap, this paper addresses these controversial issues from both a private law and a comparative perspective, and proposes a model to tokenize the right of usufruct over chattels and real estate, analyzing its legal viability and limitations across six jurisdictions. The paper concludes that private law rules may be adapted to the tokenization of property rights, which may contribute to the establishment of a digital market for the trading of asset-backed tokens worldwide.
Keywords: Asset-backed tokens | Blockchain | Ownership | Tokenization | Smart contracts