Unsuccessful life style in middle-aged official and self-reported types of offenders
سبک زندگی ناموفق در مقام میانسال و انواع خود گزارش مجرمان-2019
Purpose: This research investigates how types of convicted offenders (C-types: life-course-persistent; adolescence- limited; late-onset; non-offenders) compare with the corresponding types of self-reported offenders (SRtypes: SR-LCP; SR-AL; SR-LO; SR-NO) in life adjustment. Methods: In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 London males have been followed up from age 8 to age 48 in face-to-face interviews, and from age 8 to 61 in criminal records. This article focuses on the unsuccessful life style scale based on interviews at ages 32 and 48. Results: Both convicted and self-reported offenders manifested a more unsuccessful life style in comparison with C-NO and SR-NO. Physical fights, and high alcohol and drug abuse featured in the lives of C-LCP and C-AL at age 32, and in the lives of all C-type offenders at age 48. SR-LCP and SR-AL reported higher levels of alcohol and drug use in comparison with SR-NO, while SR-LO reported a higher level of drug use. Conclusions: Criminality is one aspect, and not the most important one, that impinges upon the quality of life. Other dimensions contribute to altering life-adjustment. Addressing these issues might promote an improvement in the quality of life in adult offenders, and foster criminal desistance.
Keywords: Criminal careers | Official offenders | Self-reported offenders | Unsuccessful life style | Adult life adjustment
Mobile banking use: A comparative study with Brazilian and U:S: participants
استفاده از بانکداری همراه: یک مطالعه مقایسه ای با شرکت کنندگان برزیل و ایالات متحده-2019
As we can see in recent studies on mobile banking, there is an increasing number of papers addressing this new technology. Mobile banking contributes to the quality of life of people living in both developed countries, and also in emerging economies. In this context, we develop this paper in order to compare the determinants of mobile banking use between respondents from two countries with different levels of development: Brazil and the United States. Our theoretical model includes six variables as determinant factors of mobile banking use. In order to analyze path coefficients and test the six hypotheses, we employed a structural equation model. We also employed a quantitative test (multi-group analysis) to analyze the difference of path coefficients between the models of the two countries. The main results indicate similarities among the perceptions of the respondents that participated in the survey, but differences in coefficient magnitude
Keywords: Mobile banking | Emerging economy | Trust | Social influence | Structural equation model
Towards an accessible use of smartphone-based social networks through brain-computer interfaces
به سمت استفاده در دسترس از شبکه های اجتماعی مبتنی بر تلفن های هوشمند از طریق رابط های مغز و کامپیوتر-2019
This study presents an asynchronous P300-based Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) system for controlling social networking features of a smartphone. There are very few BCI studies based on these mobile devices and, to the best of our knowledge, none of them supports networking applications or are focused on an assistive context, failing to test their systems with motor-disabled users. Therefore, the aim of the present study is twofold: (i) to design and develop an asynchronous P300-based BCI system that allows users to control Twitter and Telegram in an Android device; and (ii) to test the usefulness of the developed system with a motor-disabled population in order to meet their daily communication needs. Row-col paradigm (RCP) is used in order to elicitate the P300 potentials in the scalp of the user, which are immediately processed for decoding the user’s intentions. The expert system integrates a decision-making stage that analyzes the attention of the user in real-time, providing a comprehensive and asynchronous control. These intentions are then translated into application commands and sent via Bluetooth to the mobile de- vice, which interprets them and provides visual feedback to the user. During the assessment, both quali- tative and quantitative metrics were obtained, and a comparison among other state-ofthe-art studies was performed as well. The system was tested with 10 healthy control subjects and 18 motor-disabled sub- jects, reaching average online accuracies of 92.3% and 80.6%, respectively. Results suggest that the system allows users to successfully control two socializing features of a smartphone, bridging the accessibility gap in these trending devices. Our proposal could become a useful tool within households, rehabilitation centers or even companies, opening up new ways to support the integration of motor-disabled people, and making an impact in their quality of life by improving personal autonomy and self-dependence.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface (BCI) | Smartphones | Asynchronous control | Social networks | P300 Event-related potentials | Electroencephalography (EEG)
Privacy preserving data by conceptualizing smart cities using MIDR Angelization
حفظ حریم شخصی داده ها با مفهوم سازی شهرهای هوشمند با استفاده از MIDR Enhancing-2018
Smart City and IoT improves the performance of health, transportation, energy and reduce the consumption of resources. Among the smart city services, Big Data analytics is one of the imperative technologies that have a vast perspective to reach sustainability, enhanced resilience, effective quality of life and quick management of resources. This paper focuses on the privacy of big data in the context of smart health to support smart cities. Furthermore, the trade-off between the data privacy and utility in big data analytics is the foremost concern for the stakeholders of a smart city. The majority of smart city application databases focus on preserving the privacy of individuals with different disease data. In this paper, we propose a trust-based hybrid data privacy approach named as “MIDR-Angelization” to assure privacy and utility in big data analytics when sharing same disease data of patients in IoT industry. Above all, this study suggests that privacy-preserving policies and practices to share disease and health information of patients having the same disease should consider detailed disease information to enhance data utility. An extensive experimental study performed on a real-world dataset to measure instance disclosure risk which shows that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterpart in terms of data utility and privacy.
Keywords: Big data ، IoT data management ، Disclosure risk ، HIPAA ، Patient privacy ، Re-identification risk ، Smart city
ICT for socio-economic development: A citizens’ perspective
ICT برای توسعه اجتماعی - اقتصادی: یک دیدگاه شهروندی-2018
There is a widespread belief that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play a significant role in the socio-economic development of a developing country. ICT has the potential to affect many aspects of economic and societal activities such as GDP growth, employment, productivity, poverty alleviation, quality of life, education, and healthcare. While the literature provides a myriad of definitions and elements of socio-economic development, the focus tends to be on theoretical conceptualizations from various disciplines and impacts from isolated individual projects. In particular, the impact of ICT on socio-economic development has not been carefully examined from the viewpoint of the ultimate stakeholder, the citizens of a country, who are the final consumers of the technology. This study fills this gap by focusing on the citizens’ view in describing ICT-driven socio-economic development in a developing country. A theoretical framework influenced by the “capabilities approach” was developed to guide this research, and the interpretive stance was used to conduct the study. More specifically, the narrative research method, which is seldom used in IS research but is appropriate for this study, was used. Narratives allow deeper and profound insights into social representations and participants beliefs about the role of ICT in socio-economic development. Using this methodology, a model of the impact dimensions of socio-economic development is presented.
keywords: Socio-economic development| ICT for development| Capabilities approach| Functionalities| Impacts| Narrative research
Privacy-aware Big Data Analytics as a service for public health policies in smart cities
تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات خصوصی به عنوان یک سرویس برای سیاست های بهداشت عمومی در شهرهای هوشمند-2018
Smart cities make use of a variety of technologies, protocols, and devices to support and improve the quality of everyday activities of their inhabitants. An important aspect for the development of smart cities are innovative public policies, represented by requirements, actions, and plans aimed at reaching a specific goal for improving the societys welfare. With the advent of Big Data, the definition of such policies could be improved and reach an unprecedented effectiveness on several dimensions, e.g., social or economic. On the other hand, however, the safeguard of the privacy of its citizens is part of the quality of life of a smart city. In this paper, we focus on balancing quality of life and privacy protection in smart cities by providing a new Big Data-assisted public policy making process implementing privacy-by-design. The proposed approach is based on a Big Data Analytics as a Service approach, which is driven by a Privacy Compliance Assessment derived from the European Unions GDPR, and discussed in the context of a public health policy making process.
Keywords: Big Data , Privacy , Public policy making
The IoT for smart sustainable cities of the future: An analytical framework for sensor-based big data applications for environmental sustainability
اینترنت اشیا برای شهرهای پایدار هوشمند از آینده: یک چارچوب تحلیلی برای کاربردهای داده های بزرگ مبتنی بر حسگر برای سازگاری با محیط زیست-2018
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the key components of the ICT infrastructure of smart sustainable cities as an emerging urban development approach due to its great potential to advance environmental sustainability. As one of the prevalent ICT visions or computing paradigms, the IoT is associated with big data analytics, which is clearly on a penetrative path across many urban domains for optimizing energy efficiency and mitigating en vironmental effects. This pertains mainly to the effective utilization of natural resources, the intelligent man agement of infrastructures and facilities, and the enhanced delivery of services in support of the environment. As such, the IoT and related big data applications can play a key role in catalyzing and improving the process of environmentally sustainable development. However, topical studies tend to deal largely with the IoT and related big data applications in connection with economic growth and the quality of life in the realm of smart cities, and largely ignore their role in improving environmental sustainability in the context of smart sustainable cities of the future. In addition, several advanced technologies are being used in smart cities without making any con tribution to environmental sustainability, and the strategies through which sustainable cities can be achieved fall short in considering advanced technologies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review and synthesize the relevant literature with the objective of identifying and discussing the state-of-the-art sensor-based big data applications enabled by the IoT for environmental sustainability and related data processing platforms and computing models in the context of smart sustainable cities of the future. Also, this paper identifies the key challenges pertaining to the IoT and big data analytics, as well as discusses some of the associated open issues. Furthermore, it explores the opportunity of augmenting the informational landscape of smart sustainable cities with big data applications to achieve the required level of environmental sustainability. In doing so, it proposes a framework which brings together a large number of previous studies on smart cities and sustainable cities, including research directed at a more conceptual, analytical, and overarching level, as well as research on specific technologies and their novel applications. The goal of this study suits a mix of two research approaches: topical literature review and thematic analysis. In terms of originality, no study has been conducted on the IoT and related big data applications in the context of smart sustainable cities, and this paper provides a basis for urban researchers to draw on this analytical framework in future research. The proposed framework, which can be replicated, tested, and evaluated in empirical research, will add additional depth to studies in the field of smart sustainable cities. This paper serves to inform urban planners, scholars, ICT experts, and other city sta keholders about the environmental benefits that can be gained from implementing smart sustainable city in itiatives and projects on the basis of the IoT and related big data applications.
Keywords: Smart sustainable cities , The IoT , Big data analytics , Sensor technology , Data processing platforms , Environmental sustainability , Big data applications , Cloud computing , Fog/edge computing
The user experiences and clinical outcomes of an online personal health record to support self-management of bipolar disorder: A pretest-posttest pilot study
تجارب کاربر و نتایج بالینی یک پرونده سلامت شخصی آنلاین برای حمایت از خود مدیریت اختلال دوقطبی: یک مطالعه خلبان قبل و پس از آزمایش-2018
Background: Self-management comprises knowledge, behavior, activities and resources providing people with bipolar disorder (BD) control over fluctuating mood and activity-patterns. The ‘Self-management and Dialogue in Bipolar Disorder’ project entailed the tailoring of an online personal health record (PHR) originally designed for the chronically ill to monitor condition and share information with their clinician to people with BD (PHR BD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, utility and user-experiences of participants with BD, relatives, and healthcare professionals who worked with the PHR-BD. Methods: Post-test online closed- and open ended questionnaires were used to collect information on utility, and user-experiences with PHR-BD. A pre-posttest design to evaluate clinical effects on quality of life, empowerment, symptom reduction, changes in mood and activity, and illness burden and severity at baseline and at 12-months follow-up. Results: Sixty-six participants with BD logged in at baseline. At study endpoint thirty-nine participants with BD, eleven professionals and one family caregiver filled out the evaluations. No significant differences in the clinical outcomes from baseline were found. Qualitative evaluations showed a frequent utility of the mood chart modules, improved communication between clinician and participant with BD and, increased insight in influ encing factors of mood fluctuations. Limitations: Small convenience sample, no controls. Conclusions: The option to alternate the interface from a prospective to a retrospective mood chart , and in tegration with the personal crisis plan was considered to be of added value in self-managing BD. The findings of this study will guide the future implementation of the PHR-BD.
Keywords: Self-management ، Mood-monitoring ، Bipolar disorder ، e-Health
Discussing Conservative Management With Older Patients With CKD: An Interview Study of Nephrologists
بحث در مورد مدیریت محافظه کار با بیماران سالمند مبتلا به بیماری مزمن کلیه: یک مطالعه مصاحبه با نفرولوژیست ها-2018
BACKGROUND: Although dialysis may not provide a large survival benefit for older patients with kidney failure, few are informed about conservative management. Barriers and facilitators to discussions about conservative management and nephrologists decisions to present the option of conservative management may vary within the nephrology provider community. STUDY DESIGN: Interview study of nephrologists. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: National sample of US nephrologists sampled based on sex, years in practice, practice type, and region. METHODOLOGY: Qualitative semistructured interviews continued until thematic saturation. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Thematic and narrative analysis of recorded and transcribed interviews. RESULTS: Among 35 semistructured interviews with nephrologists from 18 practices, 37% described routinely discussing conservative management ("early adopters"). 5 themes and related subthemes reflected issues that influence nephrologists decisions to discuss conservative management and their approaches to these discussions: struggling to define nephrologists roles (determining treatment, instilling hope, and improving patient symptoms), circumventing end-of-life conversations (contending with prognostic uncertainty, fearing emotional backlash, jeopardizing relationships, and tailoring information), confronting institutional barriers (time constraints, care coordination, incentives for dialysis, and discomfort with varied conservative management approaches), conservative management as "no care," and moral distress. Nephrologists approaches to conservative management discussions were shaped by perceptions of their roles and by a common view of conservative management as no care. Their willingness to pursue conservative management was influenced by provider- and institutional-level barriers and experiences with older patients who regretted or had been harmed by dialysis (moral distress). Early adopters routinely discussed conservative management as a way of relieving moral distress, whereas others who were more selective in discussing conservative management experienced greater distress. LIMITATIONS: Participants views are likely most transferable to large academic medical centers, due to oversampling of academic clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clarify how moral distress serves as a catalyst for conservative management discussion and highlight points of intervention and mechanisms potentially underlying low conservative management use in the United States.
KEYWORDS: Geriatric nephrology; advanced CKD; chronic kidney disease (CKD); conservative management; dialysis; elderly; end-of-life planning; palliative care; patient-centered outcomes; qualitatitive study; qualitative methods; quality of life; semi-structured interviews; shared decision-making
Connecting quality of life, tourism specialization, and economic growth in small island destinations: The case of Malta
ایجاد ارتباط بین کیفیت زندگی، تخصصی سازی گردشگری و رشد اقتصادی در مقصدهای جزیره ای کوچک: مورد مالت-2018
This study assesses the relationship between quality of life (QOL), tourism specialization, and economic growth as applied to small island destinations. The study is grounded on a QOL model and translog production function and employs the limited information maximum likelihood estimator to investigate the nature of this relationship in Malta. Results indicate that the relationship between tourism specialization and both QOL and economic growth is only partial. Tourism specialization improves the residents QOL but, only on the short term. The study enhances the existing empirical evidence of the literature that examines the relationship between tourism specialization and residents QOL in the medium- and long-term in that it controls for endogeneity. The translog production function methodology is novel as it allows for examining tourism returns and the factors that shape tourism preferences. This permits supply and demand variables to be combined into a production and consumption system.
keywords: Tourism specialization|Quality of life (QOL)|Small island destinations|Malta|Translog production function|Economic growth