Supporting entrepreneurs : A systematic review of literature and an agenda for research
حمایت از کارآفرینان: مرور سیستماتیک ادبیات و دستور کار تحقیقی-2020
Entrepreneurship has become a cornerstone of economic development. The public awareness of this phenomenon spurred great interest from the academic community and policy makers alongside the creation of a vast range of entrepreneurship support initiatives. We conduct a systematic review of 122 academic articles published during a thirty year period between 1985–2015 that help to identify a series of theoretical, empirical, and practical gaps that form the basis of a research agenda. For instance, there is a shortage of conceptual articles and few empirical studies generating theoretical contributions; samples are small and idiosyncratic; context is rarely considered; and that mechanisms of ES are largely unknown. We propose that ES should develop along four main themes that ameliorate these exposed gaps: acknowledge and understand the heterogeneity of entrepreneurs and new ventures; apply existing theories to ES; improve methods and research design; and integrate ES into the ecosystem of support.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Support | Technology entrepreneurship | Systematic Literature Review | Entrepreneurship
Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
Digital Academic Entrepreneurship: A structured literature review and avenue for a research agenda
کارآفرینی آکادمیک دیجیتال: یک بررسی ادبیات ساختار یافته و راهی برای یک دستور کار تحقیقاتی-2020
This paper reviews the Academic Entrepreneurship literature according to the emergence of powerful Digital technologies, providing an overview of the state of research and outlining a future research agenda about Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. One hundred and sixty-five journal papers were initially extracted from Scopus and their content was analysed for the paper selection process by two researchers in parallel, plus a third one in case of uncertainty. Finally, fifty-nine papers dealing with digital academic entrepreneurship and published in a variety of academic journals have been analyzed through a content and a bibliometric analysis. Findings show that literature on Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is really scant and dominated by unrelated research. Content analysis provides the emergence of four major research streams: 1) Digital Technologies for Entrepreneurship Education; 2) The “maker space movement” for Academic Entrepreneurship; 3) Digital tech- nologies for discovering entrepreneurial opportunities; 4) Creating entrepreneurial competences in the Digital “University-based” Entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper presents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive structured literature review of the disruptive role of digital transformation for the Academic Entrepreneurship. Despite the growing literature on Digital Entrepreneurship, this research area is still fragmented and under- theorized. More systematic and holistic studies, considering both the technological, economic and the social aspects of Academic Entrepreneurship are required.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Digital technologies | Digital academic entrepreneurship | Digital transformation | Literature review | Software R | VOSviewer
Management of project portfolios: Relationships of project portfolios with their contexts
مدیریت پرتفوی پروژه: روابط پرتفوی پروژه با زمینه های آنها-2020
Firms create and manage project portfolios to implement and renew their strategies. With the dominant contin- gency theory view, studies have primarily focused on project portfolios and their internal management whilst acknowledging that different practices are needed in different contexts. A strategic view of managing project portfolios, however, requires adopting a stronger external orientation, both within and outside of the firm. In this paper, we call for research on the management of project portfolios. We investigate the relationship be- tween project portfolios and their context based on four theoretical alternatives: institutional theory, stakeholder theory, resource dependence theory, and sensemaking theory. The results offer explanations to the mechanisms connecting project portfolios with their context, call for a reformulation of portfolio success, and propose a new research agenda to revitalize the study of managing project portfolios in their contexts
Keywords: Project portfolio | Project portfolio management | Strategy | External context | Theory
Agile Business Model Innovation in Digital Entrepreneurship: Lean Startup Approaches
نوآوری مدل کسب و کار چابک در کارآفرینی دیجیتال: رویکردهای راه اندازی ناب-2020
Digital startups in the early stages of their development frequently undergo innovation to their value ar- chitecture and Business Model. A set of pragmatic methods drawing on lean and agile principles has recently been proposed to support digital entrepreneurs facing Business Model Innovation (BMI), known as Lean Startup Approaches (LSAs). However, the theoretical and practical relationship between BMI and LSAs in dynamic di- gital environments has seldom been investigated. To ﬁll this gap, our study draws on an exploratory multiple- case study based on three digital multisided platform startups to craft a uniﬁed framework that can disclose the relationship between BMI, LSAs and Agile Development (AD), within the context of Strategic Agility. Our ﬁn- dings, which emerge from the uniﬁed framework, show that LSAs can be employed as agile methods to enable Business Model Innovation in Digital Entrepreneurship. These ﬁndings are then organized around a set of propositions, with the aim of developing a research agenda directed towards integrating BMI, LSAs and AD processes and methods.
Keywords: Business Model Innovation | Lean Startup Approaches | Agile development | Customer development | Digital startups | Multisided platform | Strategic agility
Networks, ecosystems, fields, market systems? Making sense of the business environment
شبکه ها ، اکوسیستم ها ، زمینه ها ، سیستم های بازار؟ منطق بخشیدن به فضای کسب و کار-2020
This positioning paper is informed by our judgment that the mainstream research on business marketing and mar- keting in general is losing its relevance and vigor because it views business environments as narrow “markets” and focuses primarily on dyadic business relationships and their management. Sticking to this limited, economics-driven market view has detached the discipline from major real-world phenomena, leaving it with scant understanding of the contemporary environmental context of marketing and business strategy. Based on a focused reading of literature on business fields, business networks, business ecosystems, and market systems, we venture our own comprehensive theoretical framing of complex business environments summarized in two frameworks. In the pursuit of relevance our integration is avowedly simplifying as we strive for parsimony. Key points explicate the nested, multi-layered, multimodal, transitional and conditioned character of the business environment, and the dynamics, phases and processes of the evolution of that nested environment. We use the frameworks constructed, which form an initial theory of complex business environments, to supply a research agenda for business marketing and offer brief managerial conclusions.
Keywords: Business environment | Business strategy | Business ecosystems | Business fields | Market systems | Business networks
Immigrant entrepreneurship_ A review and research agenda
کارآفرینی مهاجرتی: یک دستور کار بررسی و تحقیق-2020
Immigrant entrepreneurship has become a phenomenon of global interest. This paper reviews existing im- migrant entrepreneurship literature in order to map out the major streams of research and identify widely used theories, methods, and contexts. To do this, the authors have reviewed 514 articles from academic journals. This paper highlights the need for interdisciplinary approaches that transcend boundaries. The development and adoption of diﬀerent theoretical frameworks, the use of multi-level methods, and the consideration of un- explored country contexts are among the authors’ recommendations for future research.
Keywords: Immigrant | Entrepreneurship | Migration | Ethnic minority | Multiple correspondence analysis
Social entrepreneurship research: A review and future research agenda
تحقیقات کارآفرینی اجتماعی: یک مرور و برنامه تحقیقاتی آینده-2020
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) is a popular area of research and practice. An analysis of the existing literature reviews on SE reveals a dearth of studies classifying the existing SE literature into multiple research themes and further presenting popular and less popular research themes. With the aim of bridging this gap, this study presents a systematic review of 188 peer reviewed SSCI journal articles published in last decade. It presents an overview of recent SE research, classifying it in five main themes while identifying the thrust areas of research in each. Based on identified research gaps, we provide future research directions, contexts and methodology.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Social enterprises | Entrepreneurship | Systematic review
Frontline encounters of the AI kind: An evolved service encounter framework
برخوردهای خط مقدم از نوع هوش مصنوعی : یک چارچوب مواجهه با خدمات تکامل یافته-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is radically transforming frontline service encounters, with AI increasingly playing the role of employee or customer. Programmed to speak or write like a human, AI is poised to usher in a frontline service revolution. No longer will frontline encounters between customer and employee be simply human-tohuman; rather, researchers must consider an evolved paradigm where each actor could be either human or AI. Further complicating this 2×2 framework is whether the human, either customer or employee, recognizes when they are interacting with a non-human exchange partner. Accordingly, we develop an evolved service encounter framework and, in doing so, introduce the concept of counterfeit service, interspecific service (AI-tohuman), interAI service (AI-to-AI), and offer a research agenda focused on the implementation of AI in dyadic service exchanges.
Keywords: Service encounter | Artificial intelligence (AI) | Technology | Customer experience | Frontline employee | Counterfeit
Machine learning and AI in marketing – Connecting computing power to human insights
یادگیری ماشین و هوش مصنوعی در بازاریابی - اتصال قدرت محاسبات به بینش انسان-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) agents driven by machine learning algorithms are rapidly transforming the business world, generating heightened interest from researchers. In this paper, we review and call for marketing research to leverage machine learning methods. We provide an overview of common machine learning tasks and methods, and compare them with statistical and econometric methods that marketing researchers traditionally use. We argue that machine learning methods can process large-scale and unstructured data, and have flexible model structures that yield strong predictive performance. Meanwhile, such methods may lack model transparency and interpretability. We discuss salient AI-driven industry trends and practices, and review the still nascent academic marketing literature which uses machine learning methods. More importantly, we present a unified conceptual framework and a multi-faceted research agenda. From five key aspects of empirical marketing research: method, data, usage, issue, and theory, we propose a number of research priorities, including extending machine learning methods and using them as core components in marketing research, using the methods to extract insights from large-scale unstructured, tracking, and network data, using them in transparent fashions for descriptive, causal, and prescriptive analyses, using them to map out customer purchase journeys and develop decision-support capabilities, and connecting the methods to human insights and marketing theories. Opportunities abound for machine learning methods in marketing, and we hope our multi-faceted research agenda will inspire more work in this exciting area.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI) | Machine learning | Digital marketing | Big data | Unstructured data | Tracking data | Network | Prediction | Interpretation | Marketing theory