با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
The development of complex and controversial innovations. Genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria eradication
توسعه نوآوری های پیچیده و بحث برانگیز. پشه های اصلاح شده ژنتیکی برای ریشه کن کردن مالاریا-2020
When there is significant uncertainty in an innovation project, research literature suggests that strictly sequencing actions and stages may not be an appropriate mode of project management. We use a longitudinal process approach and qualitative system dynamics modelling to study the development of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes for malaria eradication in an African country. Our data were collected in real time, from early scientific research to deployment of the first prototype mosquitoes in the field. The gene drive technology for modifying the mosquitoes is highly complex and controversial due to risks associated with its characteristics as a living, self-replicating technology. We show that in this case the innovation journey is linear and highly structured, but also embedded within a wider system of adoption that displays emergent behaviour. Although the need to control risks associated with the technology imposes a linearity to the NPD process, there are possibilities for deviation from a more structured sequence of stages. This arises from the effects of feedback loops in the wider system of evidence creation and learning at the population and governance levels, which cumulatively impact on acceptance of the innovation. The NPD and adoption processes are therefore closely intertwined, meaning that the endpoint for R&D and beginning of mainstream adoption and diffusion are unclear. A key challenge for those responsible for NPD and its regulation is to plan for the adoption of the technology while simultaneously conducting its scientific and technical development.
Keywords: New product development | Adoption | Genetically modified mosquitoes | Living technology | Gene drive | Malaria
Collection weeding: Innovative processes and tools to ease the burden
جمع آوری علفهای هرز : فرایندها و ابزارهای نوآورانه برای کاهش بار-2020
Evaluating collections and ultimately removing content poses a variety of difficult issues, including choosing appropriate deselection criteria, communicating with stakeholders, providing accountability, and managing the overall timetable to finish projects on time. The Science and Engineering librarians at Brigham Young University evaluated their entire print collection of over 350,000 items within one year, significantly reducing the number of items kept on the open shelves and the physical collection footprint. Keys to accomplishing this project were extensive preparation, tracking progress and accountability facilitated by Google Sheets and an interactive GIS stacks map, and stakeholder feedback facilitated by a novel web-based tool. This case study discusses guidelines to follow and pitfalls to avoid for any organization that is considering a large- or small-scale collection evaluation project.
Keywords: Weeding | Academic libraries | Collection management | Deselection of library materials | Collection evaluation
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of patent data in nanomedicine for bridging the gap between research activities and practical applications
تجزیه و تحلیل کمی و کمی از داده های ثبت اختراع در نانو پزشکی برای پر کردن شکاف بین فعالیت های تحقیقاتی و کاربردهای عملی-2020
Nanomedicines have made a great breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease, but there are still significant challenges to make a leap from the scientific discovery to the practical and clinical success. Herein, we contribute to establish effective strategies that can bridge the gaps by an integrated and balanced analysis of patent literatures on the nanomedicine. Since most of successful commercialization of technologies stems from patents, it is important to comprehensively analyze the patent information. Unfortunately, many previous studies of patent analyses for technological trends and strategies are dependent on only quantitative analyses using structured data such as keyword networks and indicators, thus, these studies are difficult to offer detailed technological key components and trends on scientific perspectives. To address these problems, the present study performs qualitative and quantitative analysis using both structured and unstructured patent data, and provides evolving detailed trends in nanomedicine fields from a scientific point of view. Furthermore, upcoming advances in strategies regarding clinical needs, commercial events and strategies of potential leading groups in nanomedicine could be catalogued. Our analytical method and the results of several meaningful patterns and trends were applied to forecast the future practical issue of nanomedicines.
Keywords: Patent analysis | Structured and unstructured data | Nanotechnology | Nanomedicine | Material science | Surface chemistry | Pharmaceutics | Medical science | Patent indicator
Drivers, barriers and social considerations for AI adoption in business and management: A tertiary study
رانندگان ، موانع و ملاحظات اجتماعی برای پذیرش هوش مصنوعی در مشاغل و مدیریت: یک مطالعه عالی-2020
The number of academic papers in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its applications across business and management domains has risen significantly in the last decade, and that rise has been followed by an increase in the number of systematic literature reviews. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of existing systematic reviews in this growing area of research and to synthesise their findings related to enablers, barriers and social implications of the AI adoption in business and management. The methodology used for this tertiary study is based on Kitchenham and Charter’s guidelines , resulting in a selection of 30 reviews published between 2005 and 2019 which are reporting results of 2,021 primary studies. These reviews cover the AI adoption across various business sectors (healthcare, information technology, energy, agriculture, apparel industry, engineering, smart cities, tourism and transport), management and business functions (HR, customer services, supply chain, health and safety, project management, decisionsupport, systems management and technology acceptance). While the drivers for the AI adoption in these areas are mainly economic, the barriers are related to the technical aspects (e.g. availability of data, reusability of models) as well as the social considerations such as, increased dependence on non-humans, job security, lack of knowledge, safety, trust and lack of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives. Very few reviews outside of the healthcare management domain consider human, organisational and wider societal factors and implications of the AI adoption. Most of the selected reviews are recommending an increased focus on social aspects of AI, in addition to more rigorous evaluation, use of hybrid approaches (AI and non-AI) and multidisciplinary approaches to AI design and evaluation. Furthermore, this study found that there is a lack of systematic reviews in some of the AI early adopter sectors such as financial industry and retail and that the existing systematic reviews are not focusing enough on human, organisational or societal implications of the AI adoption in their research objectives.
Keywords: artificial intelligence | business | machine learning | management | systematic literature review | tertiary study
An example of how catch uncertainty hinders effective stock management and rebuilding
نمونه ای از چگونگی عدم قطعیت گرفتن مانع از مدیریت مؤثر سهام و بازسازی آنها می شود-2020
The northern spawning contingent of Western Atlantic mackerel is currently at low biomass and catches are largely underestimated. Catch statistics for Canada are incomplete, and the amount of northern contingent fish caught in the US mackerel fishery is unclear. Our goal was to assess the impact of missing catch on quota management effectiveness and to provide advice for stock rebuilding in the face of large catch uncertainty. As part of a management strategy evaluation (MSE), we assessed how simple harvest control rules (HCRs) performed under different assumptions of catch uncertainty. Results showed that, at present low biomass levels, reducing missing catch was generally more important than the choice among certain HCRs. Canadian undeclared catch would need to be reduced markedly to achieve even short-term rebuilding objectives. To reach long-term rebuilding objectives, the proportion of northern contingent fish caught in the US fishery would also need to be accounted for. We demonstated how an MSE can help inform all involved parties of the trade-off between missing catch and quota magnitude and effectiveness, and provided directions for future developments in management and science.
Keywords: Management strategy evaluation | Atlantic mackerel | Catch bias | Implementation error | Transboundary stock
Designing with differences, cross-disciplinary collaboration in transport infrastructure planning and design
طراحی با تفاوت ها ، همکاری های متقابل انضباطی در برنامه ریزی و طراحی زیرساخت های حمل و نقل-2020
The study explores enablers and barriers of collaborative planning and design work in transport infrastructure planning projects, drawing upon five cases of projects in Sweden. The study apply a set of theoretical lenses complied of previous research focusing professional knowledge and co-production in planning and design practices, and research revolving around the concept of boundary objects in studies of collaborative work. The study provides insights into the mechanisms of practitioners learning across professional boundaries: what they learn fromeach other, howthey learn, and how the learning facilitates collaborative work. The results show that disciplinary barriers can be bridged through both individual efforts and project management strategies. This study shed light a set of enablers on individual level including; 1) a capacity to change focus between solving tasks within the remit of ones own discipline and jointly solving tasks together with professionals representing other disciplines; 2) curiosity and interest other professional perspectives; 3) willingness to learn from other professionals; and 4) motivation to engage in cross-disciplinary design processes. Project management is proposed to enable collaboration by; 1) opening up discussions about reasons and motives for collaborative work; 2) opening up discussions about strategies for collaborative processes; 3) promoting and facilitating learning processes among project participants, 4) coordinating meetings and activities for collaboration, and 5) facilitating deliberative dialogues at project meetings in which different types of knowledge can be put forth and interrelated.
Keywords: Transport infrastructure planning | Cross-disciplinary collaboration | Landscape architects | Engineers | Boundary objects | Professional knowledge
Special interest tourism is not so special after all: Big data evidence from the 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse
جهانگردی با علاقه ویژه از همه مهم تر نیست: شواهد داده های بزرگ از خورشید گرفتگی بزرگ آمریکایی 2017-2020
This study puts to empirical test a major typology in the tourism literature, mass versus special interest tourism (SIT), as the once-distinctive boundary between the two has become blurry in modern tourism scholarship. We utilize 41,747 geo-located Instagram photos pertaining to the 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse and Big Data analytics to distinguish tourists based on their choice of observational destinations and spatial movement patterns. Two types of tourists are identified: opportunists and hardcore. The motivational profile of those tourists is validated with the external data through hypothesis testing and compared with and contrasted against existing motivation-based tourist typologies. The main conclusion is that large share of tourists involved in what is traditionally understood as SIT activities exhibit behavior and profile characteristic of mass tourists seeking novelty but conscious about risks and comforts. Practical implications regarding the potential of rural and urban destinations for developing SIT tourism are also discussed.
Keywords: Big data | Instagram photos | Social media | Spatial analysis | Special interest tourism | Astro-tourism
Customer-centric prioritization of process improvement projects
اولویت بندی مشتری محور پروژه های بهبود فرآیند-2020
Today, customers can conveniently compare products and decide how to interact with companies. With customer centricity becoming an important success factor, companies must drive customer satisfaction not only through excellent products but also through customer-centric processes. As many companies face an abundance of action possibilities, fast-changing customer needs, and scarce resources, guidance regarding the customercentric prioritization of process improvement projects is in high need. As existing approaches predominantly focus on process efficiency, we propose a decision model that accounts for the effects of process improvement on customer centricity in line with justificatory knowledge on value-based process decision-making, project portfolio selection, and the measurement of customer satisfaction. When building the decision model, we adopted the design science paradigm and used multi-criteria decision analysis as well as normative analytical modeling as research methods. We evaluated the model by discussing it with practitioners, by building a software prototype, and by applying it at a German insurance company. Overall, our research extends the prescriptive knowledge on process prioritization and customer process management.
Keywords: Business process management | Business process improvement | Process decision-making | Customer centricity | Project portfolio selection | Kano model
Biomedical and Clinical Research Data Management
مدیریت داده های تحقیقات زیست پزشکی و بالینی-2020
Systems medicine describes an interdisciplinary approach in medicine with the aim of improving disease prevention, diagnosis, targeted treatment, and prognosis (Apweiler et al., 2018). Often, statistical, mathematical, and computational concepts of systems biology are translated to systems medicine for clinical use (Bauer et al., 2017). This approach typically requires large amounts of structured clinical and biomedical data covering the respective disease and patients (Gietzelt et al., 2016a). Thus, it is important to have efficient procedures and policies in place to prepare the data from different data sources. For research projects in systems medicine, some of the data are generated as part of the project, while others were generated beforehand, often for other purposes, e.g. in clinical routine and in different legal context. Therefore, one of the first steps of a project is to ensure the availability of the data needed. This task not only includes the process of assembling data files from various sources. After retrieval of the data, they typically have to be checked and filtered for their quality (Huebner et al., 2016), converted into an appropriate format, pre-processed, and harmonized into common formats that reflect standardized data definitions and ontologies (Krishnankutty et al., 2012). In addition, biomedical research often relies on patient-related data, requiring additional steps like checking the permission to use the data for the intended purpose or de-identifying the data—usually based on informed consent or special legislation. While these steps seem to be straightforward and common to most research projects, many projects re-implement customized solutions to build up their own infrastructure and cope with the data management challenges. Since projects usually focus on a biomedical research question, the effort of data preparation, harmonization, and management is often underestimated and scientists with a data or computer science background are often invited to the project only at a later stage.
Delineating urban hinterland boundaries in the Pearl River Delta: An approach integrating toponym co-occurrence with field strength model
ترسیم مرزهای مناطق شهری در دلتای رود مروارید: رویکرد ادغام همزمان وقایع توپومی با مدل مقاومت میدانی-2020
Urban development requires the support of its surrounding areas. Accurate identification of urban hinterlands can help to scientifically evaluate strength and potential of urban development. The field strength model is regarded as an effective way to identify hinterlands, but the revision of friction coefficient has still not reached a consensus. With the application of big data in urban planning, it is possible to improve the field strength model. Toponym co–occurrence data, as a timely data source directly obtained from the Internet, can be used to reflect the spatiotemporal changes in urban connections, and provide an approach to quantifying the friction coefficient for the division of urban hinterlands. In this study, a new approach was developed by integrating toponym co–occurrence and improved field strength model. We considered the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration as a case and identified the urban hinterland of each city. The results showed that the friction coefficient among cities fluctuated within a range of 1.25–2.50, the urban hinterlands were no longer confined to their own administrative divisions, and there was fierce competition with other cities. In particular, the urban hinterland of Guangzhou was 3699 km2 larger than its actual administrative area. In addition, the proposed approach was more reliable in urban hinterland identification compared with the traditional fixed friction coefficient method. This study provides an improved field strength model based on toponym co–occurrence, which can identify urban hinterlands more accurately and objectively as well as promote the application of big data in urban planning.
Keywords: Urban hinterland | Toponym co–occurrence | Improved field strength model | Pearl River Delta