Ecosystem accounting to support the Common Agricultural Policy
حسابداری اکوسیستم برای حمایت از سیاست های کشاورزی مشترک-2021
The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA) provides an integrated statistical framework which organizes spatially explicit data on environmental quality, natural capital and ecosystem services and links this information to economic activities such as agriculture. In this paper we assess how the SEEA EA can support the monitoring and evaluation of environmental objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We focus on the Netherlands, for which an elaborate set of SEEA EA accounts has been published, and the themes of nitrogen pollution and farmland biodiversity. We studied the completeness of in- dicators included in the accounts, their quality and analysed how the accounts could support agri-environmental reporting, agri-environmental measures effectiveness assessments, and results-based payments to farmers. As a reference we used the Driving forces – Pressures – State – Impacts - Responses (DPSIR) framework. The Dutch SEEA EA accounts only include half of the indicators which we considered essential to assess the effects of farming on natural capital and ecosystem services for the two studied environmental themes. However, most gaps in the accounts could be filled with other publicly available environmental monitoring data. Regarding N pollution, the availability and reliability of indicators at landscape and farm scales are not sufficient to support the assessment of agri-environmental measures effectiveness and results-based payments to decrease N pollution. The accounts have a higher potential to support the assessment of measures to conserve farmland biodiversity, in particular due to high resolution maps of ecosystem extent and ecosystem services flows. The potential of the SEEA EA accounts may be more limited in other countries where ecosystem accounting has only recently started. However, the SEEA EA is also implemented at the European Union scale, so that SEEA EA indicators will gradually become available for all European countries. To enhance the relevance of the SEEA EA in the agri- environmental policy area, we recommend to integrate information on farming emissions (externalities) recor- ded in the SEEA Central Framework with SEEA EA accounts and evaluate the applicability of SEEA EA accounts for case studies at landscape and farm scales. Our research shows that the Dutch SEEA EA accounts, com- plemented with other data sources, have potential to strongly enhance the CAP monitoring and evaluation framework but further steps need to be taken to fill data gaps.
keywords: اقدامات زیست محیطی | کلاه لبه دار | رادیو | پایتخت طبیعی | خدمات محیط زیستی | زمینه های کشاورزی | Agri-environment measures | CAP | SEEA EA | Natural capital | Ecosystem services | Farming externalities
Lessons learned from development of natural capital accounts in the United States and European Union
درس های آموخته شده از توسعه حساب های سرمایه طبیعی در ایالات متحده و اتحادیه اروپا-2021
The United States and European Union (EU) face common challenges in managing natural capital and balancing conservation and resource use with consumption of other forms of capital. This paper synthesizes findings from 11 individual application papers from a special issue of Ecosystem Services on natural capital accounting (NCA) and their application to the public and private sectors in the EU and U.S. NCA is inherently a data-integration centered exercise, aiming to draw new insights by realigning environmental and economic data into a consis- tent framework. Drawing primarily on papers from the special issue and other key NCA literature, we identify lessons learned and gaps remaining for NCA’s development and application to decision making. In doing so, we identify eight key similarities and three major differences in NCA development, status, and application between the U.S. and EU. NCA can be highly policy relevant: special issue papers address critical issues including agri- culture, water, conservation/land-use planning, climate, and corporate decision making. In both the U.S. and EU, further application is needed to drive demand for the accounts’ production. Based on these experiences, the U.S. and EU can be important leaders in cross-sector, international collaboration toward next-generation environ- mental economic accounts that advance global NCA practice.
keywords: حسابداری طبیعی سرمایه | حسابداری بخش خصوصی | سیستم حسابداری محیطی-اقتصادی- | ING (رادیو) | چارچوب مرکزی Seea | حسابداری اکوسیستم Seea | Natural capital accounting | Private-sector accounting | System of Environmental-Economic Account- | ing (SEEA) | SEEA Central Framework | SEEA Ecosystem Accounting