بازاریابی جاذبه ای دیجیتال: اندازه گیری عملکرد اقتصادی تجارت الکترونیکی خواروبار در اروپا و آمریکا
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 13 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 30
این تحقیق به بررسی رابطه هزینه-نتیجه اقدامات بازاریابی جاذبه ای مورد استفاده تجارت الکترونیکی خواروبار می پردازد. این تحلیل بر اساس به کارگیری مدل درفمن و استینر (1954) برای بودجه تبلیغات بهینه است که مولفین آن را با بازاریابی دیجیتال تطبیق می دهند و با تحلیل آماری تجاری تایید میکنند. با توجه به 29 شرکت عمده در شش کشور در افق زمانی شش سال، تحلیل ترکیبی تکنیک های بهینه سازی موتور جستجو و بازاریابی موتور جستجو هدف جذب کارکنان به صفحات وب شرکت ها را دنبال می کند. نتایج تایید می کند که تجارت الکترونیکی بازاریابی جاذبه ای دیجیتال را بهینه سازی می کند. تفاوت ها بسته به نوع فرمت و سطح کشور فرق دارند.
واژگان کلیدی: بازاریابی جاذبه ای | بازاریابی دیجیتال | تجارت الکترونیک | خرده فروشی | عملکرد اقتصادی | بهینه سازی سرمایه گذاری بازاریابی.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Financing paths, firms’ governance and corporate entrepreneurship : Accessing and applying operant and operand resources in biotechnology firms
مسیرهای تأمین مالی ، حاکمیت شرکت ها و کارآفرینی شرکتی : دسترسی و استفاده از منابع عملیاتی و عملگرایی در شرکتهای بیوتکنولوژی-2020
This study investigates the systemic relationship between financing paths used by early-stage biotechnology firms, the accessed resources, the subsequent reconfiguration of management and governance structures, and their effect on the level of corporate entrepreneurship. Adopting a qualitative methodology based on an inductive approach, in 2018 and 2019 we observed 12 UK biotechnology ventures that accessed private, corporate or crowdfunding equity investments. We collected primary data through open-ended and semi-structured interviews with CEOs and board members of these firms. Findings were interpreted applying a resource-based perspective, which unveiled the role and importance of operant and operand resources for organizational coordination and functioning. The way in which the controlled operant resources are used to improve the management and governance structures, and their functional interdependence, ultimately determines an optimal level of corporate entrepreneurship for effectively exploiting the accessed operand resources. The results provide useful insights regarding the systemic interdependence between financing paths, organizational resources, management team, governance bodies, and corporate entrepreneurship, that can enhance the understanding and performance of managers, shareholders and policy-makers involved in biotechnology business.
Keywords: Equity financing paths | Operand and operant resources | Governance and management structures | Corporate entrepreneurship | Systemic perspective
Recovery & identification of human Y-STR DNA from immatures of chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Simulation of sexual crime investigation involving victim corpse in state of decay
ترمیم و شناسایی DNA Y-STR انسانی از ناخالصی های کریسومیا آلبیسپس (Diptera: Calliphoridae). شبیه سازی تحقیقات مربوط به جرم و جنایات مربوط به جسد قربانی در حالت پوسیدگی-2020
The number of sexual crimes in Brazil, as in several other countries, is very high. In many of these crimes the women raped are murdered and their bodies are found days later, in an advanced state of decomposition, with intense cadaverous fauna. Forensic Entomology studies insects and other arthropods that can be used in the expert analysis of various types of crimes. Diptera, the order of insects that comprises the two-winged or true flies, represents one of the largest known groups of insects and is the principal source of cadaveric entomofauna. Members of its Calliphoridae family are observed in cadavers in all phases of decomposition. The retrieval and identification of human Y-STR DNA from the gastrointestinal tract of Calliphoridae species Chrysomya albiceps maggots and pupae can provide a good tool for the gathering of evidence in sexual crime investigations involving rape and death, in which the abandoned victims body is found in a putrefied state. In this study, the animal model used was a female pig, Sus scrofa, which was sacrificed in a forested area with three shots from a 0.40 calibre Taurus pistol, and inoculated with semen to its anal and vaginal regions, simulating rape and homicide. During decomposition, 20–80 maggots were collected every 24 h and preserved in 70 % alcohol, totalling 289 maggots and 157 pupae (446 immatures) over a period of 14 days (336 h) of decomposition. Each maggot was then dissected for removal of the digestive tract, which was placed in extraction buffer. The molecular phase proceeded with extraction, quantification, amplification and capillary electrophoresis of samples, testing 16 STR loci of the Y chromosome. It was possible to establish a partial Y-STR DNA profile, with the amplification of up to eight sites, by considering a combination of the samples taken at hours 144 h, 168 h, 192 h, 216 h, 240 h, 288 h, 312 h and 336 h..
Keywords: Forensic entomology | Forensic genetics | Sex crimes | Rape | Murder | Criminal profiling
A new hybrid ensemble deep reinforcement learning model for wind speed short term forecasting
یک مدل یادگیری تقویتی عمیق گروه ترکیبی جدید برای پیش بینی کوتاه مدت سرعت باد-2020
Wind speed forecasting is a promising solution to improve the efficiency of energy utilization. In this study, a novel hybrid wind speed forecasting model is proposed. The whole modeling process of the proposed model consists of three steps. In stage I, the empirical wavelet transform method reduces the non-stationarity of the original wind speed data by decomposing the original data into several subseries. In stage II, three kinds of deep networks are utilized to build the forecasting model and calculate prediction results of all sub-series, respectively. In stage III, the reinforcement learning method is used to combine three kinds of deep networks. The forecasting results of each sub-series are combined to obtain the final forecasting results. By comparing all the results of the predictions over three different types of wind speed series, it can be concluded that: (a) the proposed reinforcement learning based ensemble method is effective in integrating three kinds of deep network and works better than traditional optimization based ensemble method; (b) the proposed ensemble deep reinforcement learning based wind speed prediction model can get accurate results in all cases and provide the best accuracy compared with sixteen alternative models and three state-of-the-art models.
Keywords: Wind speed forecasting | Ensemble deep reinforcement learning | Empirical wavelet transform | Hybrid wind speed forecasting model
Transferability of Australian diatoms to clothing: Assessment of several extraction methods on different fabric types under laboratory conditions
انتقال دیاتومهای استرالیا به لباس: ارزیابی چندین روش استخراج انواع پارچه های مختلف در شرایط آزمایشگاهی-2020
Crime scene investigation protocols and procedures are well established when concerning terrestrial environments, but are limited when associated with aquatic environments. In aquatic contexts, the soil, sediments and microscopic algae (e.g. diatoms) may all be used as sources of trace evidence for criminal investigations. Diatoms are one such source that can be used to support the diagnosis of death by drowning and can be used to verify contact between a suspect and a specific water body. For the latter, diatoms can be collected from clothing and shoes for forensic comparisons. Over the years, there have been several methods proposed for the extraction of diatoms from clothing, however, a best practice method is yet to be established and is still open to debate. The present research represents the first investigation that evaluates four different methods for the extraction of native and common Australian diatom species from four different types of fabrics. Diatoms of two different species and shape (pennate and centric) were cultivated in stimulated experimental waters – prepared using either monocultures or mixed cultures of the selected diatoms. Diatom concentrations were set to mimic the natural population (low to bloom events) as commonly found in the Swan River Estuary of Western Australia. Cotton, denim, blend, and acrylic fabric types were placed in experimental waters. Diatom extraction was attempted using methods already proposed in the literature, these include: rinsing with ethanol (RE); rinsing with ethanol together with the application of centrifugal force (RECF); digestion with hydrogen peroxide (H); and a new method of ashing that has never been tested before (dry ash, DA). Results of this research showed that a) the type and the concentration of the mono and mix diatom mixtures significantly affects the transfer and extraction from different types of fabric; b) a noticeable extraction difference is observed between the fabrics, establishing denim, acrylic and blend fabrics as possessing the better extraction rates; c) H treatment had the highest extraction rate of diatoms; d) the application of centrifugal force on the RE method significantly improved the extraction of diatoms; e) DA is a potential method for the extraction of pennate-shaped diatoms from all of the tested fabrics, however, does have a tendency to induce modifications of the morphological structure of the diatoms. Overall, the application of different extraction methods is suggested to maximise the extraction of diatoms that would closely reflect their natural assemblage in the water body under investigation.
Keywords: Diatoms | Fabrics | Transfer | Extraction | Australia
Projection of spatiotemporal variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf by the end of 21st century: GCM and CORDEX ensemble
پیش بینی تغییر پذیری مکانی و قدرت موج در خلیج فارس تا پایان قرن بیست و یکم: GCM و CORDEX-2020
This study investigates future variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (a) to evaluate spatiotemporal resolutions, downscaling techniques and global circulation model (GCM) selection impacts running multi-climate models, and (b) to project wave energy resources and its variability by the end of 21st century using RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 as two different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model forcing with near surface wind components was employed for wave simulation. The numerical wave model was calibrated and validated using wave measurements by two buoys prior to wave energy computations. The results of wave models obtained from different climate models showed a wide range of variety for different climatic resources associated with GCM selection, temporal and spatial resolutions and downscaling approach. Outputs of the wave model forcing with 3 hourly wind data of CMCC-CM and CORDEX-MPI (Max Plank Institute) with daily temporal resolution were recognized as the models with the best performance. Using a weighted average of these two models, the wave characteristics were obtained and wave energy were computed for the historical and future periods. Temporal distribution of energy shows highly intra-annual and seasonal variability when the mean wave power for the strongest month exceeds 1000Watt per meter that is 10 times higher than the mean wave power in the weakest month. Similarly, a strong spatial variability in wave power distributionwas revealed where the middle part of the Gulf has found to have the highest energy and the eastern and northwestern regions have the lowest energy. The projections illustrated a decreasing trend on future wave energy up to 40% in the Iranian coastlines and lower rate of changes in the southern stripe of the study area.
Keywords: Renewable energy | Climate change | CORDEX | Representative concentration pathways | Energy management
Uncertainty in information system development: Causes, effects, and coping mechanisms
عدم اطمینان در توسعه سیستم اطلاعات: علل ، اثرات و مکانیسم های مقابله-2020
Information system development (ISD) projects are an ever-growing field of project management (PM) with their unique features, and project failures in ISD are relatively common. In the broader context of PM, uncertainty is a studied, yet mercurial phenomenon. By contrast, uncertainty in ISD projects has received relatively little attention from scholars, and PM literature has not systematically focused on uncertainty in ISD from a viewpoint other than that of project managers. In order to understand uncertainties in ISD projects, we need to first understand the causes behind them, their effects on everyday ISD work, and share coping mechanisms utilized among industry professionals. In the context of ISD projects, we set out to explore what causes uncertainty, what are the effects of uncertainty, and how software industry professionals cope with uncertainty. We conducted eleven semi-structured interviews with a diverse range of ISD professionals, and analyzed the interviews using conventional content analysis. Our results extend and complement current knowledge on the causes, effects, and coping mechanisms of uncertainty, especially in the context of ISD. Additionally, we present practical considerations on how to implement our findings into ISD industry and education.
Keywords: Uncertainty | Risk | Information system development | Cause | Effect | Coping mechanism
Revealing deep semantic commercial patterns: Insights from urban landscape depiction
آشکار ساختن الگوهای تجاری معنایی عمیق: بینش از منظر شهری-2020
Commercial functions play a significant role in economic growth and sustainable development. Influenced by socioeconomic changes which were investigated based on commercial behaviours using big geo-data, urban environment shows polycentric structures and further leads to more complex commercial landscapes. Thus, research considered environmental consequences of urban growth to better understand the commercialization process. However, only general commercial areas or certain commercial retail locations were investigated with the effects of urban environmental landscapes in existing studies. The decomposition of the commercial patterns such as accommodation and catering functions remains undiscussed. To fill this gap, this paper proposes a framework to decompose commercial patterns based on insight from different urban landscapes. First, we depict urban landscapes using spatial metrics, including the density of points of interest (POIs), percentage of landscape of buildings, landscape shape index of buildings and density of roads. Then, we examine the spatial distribution of the decomposed commercial patterns by delineating potential deep semantic topics. Finally, a structural equation model is utilised to determine the relations among urban landscapes and commercial patterns. The results show that four types of urban landscapes exhibit different spatial patterns, revealing various perspectives of commercial characteristics. Meanwhile, the decomposed commercial patterns, including those for catering and accommodation functions, display a heterogeneous distribution. These commercial patterns are directly affected by various configurations of buildings, POIs and roads. On this basis, suggestions are offered to improve commercial pattern development, including integrating urban landscape construction, organising the commercial pattern distribution and enhancing the harmony between the urban environment and commercial land uses.
Keywords: Urban landscape | Urban function | Commercial pattern | Structural equation model
Case studies on illegal production of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine within Fujian China
مطالعات موردی در تولید غیرقانونی افدرین / شبه افریدین در فوجیان چین-2020
Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine (EPH) is the most common precursor for the manufacture of methamphetamine and is controlled within China via criminal law and government regulations. Therefore, it is of great significance to systematically study the cases of illicit production of EPH in order to aid timely investigation into the production of precursor drugs. According to the literature, there are no comprehensive case studies on the illicit production of EPH. To address this, 50 cases involving the illicit production of EPH from Fujian Province in China were comprehensively explored and the quantitative data of the 762 collected samples were directly compared. In terms of the timeframe these cases occurred in, the results show that the number of such cases in Fujian Province increased significantly from 2012 to 2013 (10 cases -15 cases), but the number of cases decreased rapidly in 2016 (4 cases). Across the region of interest, the illegal production of EPH was mainly observed in Longyan, accounting for 32 cases (64.0 % of the total cases). Forty-two cases (84.0 % of the total cases) were located in remote mountains, abandoned pig farms, chicken farms and factories. In terms of the synthetic methodology used, initially (up until 2013) only the extraction of EPH from the ephedra plant and from commercially available tablets was observed. The manufacture of EPH via a direct chemical synthesis was only observed in this region after 2013 at which point a significant drop in the extraction methodologies was identified. The quality of the samples and the appearance of semi-finished products was shown to vary significantly across the cases with sample color ranging from light yellow, brown, tan for both seized solids and liquids. This data set gives some insights into the local issues specifically around EPH production in Chinese provinces and goes some way to help inform policing strategies.
Keywords: Case studies | Illegal production | Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine | Seizure samples
Combining conventional and participatory approaches to identify and prioritise management and health-related constraints to smallholder pig production in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines
تلفیق رویکردهای مرسوم و مشارکتی برای شناسایی و اولویت بندی مدیریت و محدودیتهای مرتبط با سلامتی در تولید خوک های خرده فروش در سن سیمون ، پامبانگا ، فیلیپین-2020
Pork is the main meat produced and consumed in the Philippines. The majority of pigs are raised by smallholders who experience a range of constraints to their pig production. This study presents the findings of the first part of an overarching project that used an Ecohealth approach and aimed to improve the production and competitiveness of the smallholder pig system in an area of the Philippines. A participatory approach was embraced, combining conventional and participatory epidemiology methods followed by a stakeholder discussion. The first aim was to identify management and health-related constraints to pig production among smallholder famers in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines. The second aim was for the project team and stakeholders to jointly prioritise activities for the immediate future to address these constraints. Key management and health-related constraints identified included inadequate water supply to pigs, particularly lactating and gestating sows, and a range of feeding-related issues. Diarrhoea was recognised as the disease syndrome of highest priority and limited record keeping meant that farmers were unable to assess the productivity and profitability of their pig farming enterprises. Actions jointly prioritised by stakeholders and the project team were: the appointment of a project coordinator within each barangay; conduct two sets of seminars, the first covering water and nutrition and the second piglet management and diarrhoea, to be delivered by technical experts but with farmer “trusted sources” also sharing their experiences; development of easily understandable leaflets and posters covering key technical information; promotion of nipple drinkers attached to five-gallon water containers and creep boxes for piglets, and conduct of a record keeping workshop with a small group of innovative farmers to develop a useful and usable tool for record keeping. The use of multiple approaches to data-gathering enabled triangulation of study findings. Without any one of these components the understanding of the pig production system would have been less complete and it is possible that the proposed actions would not have been as well-tailored to the needs of the farmers. The participatory approach, in particular the stakeholder discussion, provided the opportunity to embrace the “deciding together” and “acting together” stances of participation rather than the lower “information giving” stance, thereby giving stakeholders greater ownership of the future activities of the overarching project and beyond.
Keywords: Philippines | Pig | Smallholder | Constraints | Participatory epidemiology | Ecohealth