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Enhancing images of shale formations by a hybrid stochastic and deep learning algorithm
تقویت تصاویر سازندهای shale توسط یک الگوریتم یادگیری تصادفی ترکیبی و عمیق-2019
Accounting for the morphology of shale formations, which represent highly heterogeneous porous media, is a difficult problem. Although two- or three-dimensional images of such formations may be obtained and analyzed, they either do not capture the nanoscale features of the porous media, or they are too small to be an accurate representative of the media, or both. Increasing the resolution of such images is also costly. While high-resolution images may be used to train a deep-learning network in order to increase the quality of low-resolution images, an important obstacle is the lack of a large number of images for the training, as the accuracy of the network’s predictions depends on the extent of the training data. Generating a large number of high-resolution images by experimental means is, however, very time consuming and costly, hence limiting the application of deep-learning algorithms to such an important class of problems. To address the issue we propose a novel hybrid algorithm by which a stochastic reconstruction method is used to generate a large number of plausible images of a shale formation, using very few input images at very low cost, and then train a deep-learning convolutional network by the stochastic realizations. We refer to the method as hybrid stochastic deep-learning (HSDL) algorithm. The results indicate promising improvement in the quality of the images, the accuracy of which is confirmed by visual, as well as quantitative comparison between several of their statistical properties. The results are also compared with those obtained by the regular deep learning algorithm without using an enriched and large dataset for training, as well as with those generated by bicubic interpolation.
Keywords: Deep learning | Stochastic modeling | Shale formation | Imaging